Electronics Manufacturing Technical Articles

Electronics Manufacturing Technical Articles

Papers and articles related to SMT, PCB & EMS industry.


  • Europlacer SMT Pick & Place Machines
  • Reflow Ovens
  • Precision, fluid dispensing systems for low volume, high mix, R&D, and high volume 24x7 production
  • Inline SMT Stencil Printers
  • Electronics manufacturing training materials - IPC, solder
  • PCB X-Ray Inspection
  • PCB Rework Tools
773 SMT / PCB Technical Articles

IPC-CC-830B Versus the 'Real World'

Sep 22, 2016 | Carolyn Taylor, Phil Kinner

Conformal Coatings are often used to increase the reliability of electronic assemblies operating in harsh or corrosive environments where the product would otherwise fail prematurely. Conformal coatings are often qualified to international standards, intended to enable users to better differentiate between suitable conformal coating chemistries, but always on a flat test coupon, which is not representative of real world use conditions.

In order to better correlate international standards with real world-use conditions, three-dimensional Surface Insulation Resistance (SIR) test boards have been manufactured with dummy components representative of those commonly used on printed circuit assemblies......

Publisher: Electrolube

Electrolube

Global specialists in all aspects of formulated chemical products for the electronics industry.

Leicestershire, United Kingdom

Manufacturer of Assembly Material

Making Ovens Smarter

Sep 19, 2016 | Bjorn Dahle

This white paper seeks to set out the value of a ‘smarter’ approach to the reflow process and how a more intelligent oven can offer real added value and performance to the entire line. It also lays out some of the criteria that is important when selecting smart equipment for a smart process, that conforms to, and is ready for, IoM or Industry 4.0...

Publisher: KIC

KIC

KIC's provides products and services designed to improve a variety of thermal monitoring, profiling and process control applications.

San Diego, California, USA

Software Manufacturer

Long Term Thermal Reliability of Printed Circuit Board Materials

Sep 15, 2016 | Eva McDermott, Ph.D., Bob McGrath, and Christine Harrington

This paper describes the purpose, methodology, and results to date of thermal endurance testing performed at the company. The intent of this thermal aging testing is to establish long term reliability data for printed wiring board (PWB) materials for use in applications that require 20+ years (100,000+ hours) of operational life under different thermal conditions. Underwriters Laboratory (UL) testing only addresses unclad laminate (resin and glass) and not a fabricated PWB that undergoes many processing steps, includes copper and plated through holes, and has a complex mechanical structure. UL testing is based on a 5000 hour expected operation life of the electronic product. Therefore, there is a need to determine the dielectric breakdown / degradation of the composite printed circuit board material and mechanical structure over time and temperature for mission critical applications....

Publisher: Amphenol Printed Circuit Board Technology

Amphenol Printed Circuit Board Technology

AAPC is a world leader in the printed circuit industry, building PCB's, Backplanes, Flex and Rigid Flex products to meet our customers demanding needs.

Nashua, New Hampshire, USA

Contract Manufacturer, Manufacturer of Assembled PCBs, Service Provider

Making the Move from Machine Monitoring to SMART Manufacturing and the Implications on Profiling Systems

Sep 12, 2016 | Mark Stansfield

It is hard to open an Industry newsletter or visit an equipment manufacturer’s website without coming across a mention of the Internet of Things (IoT), Industry 4.0, SMART Manufacturing or ‘big data’. The accessibility to obtain data will only increase and this information and its real-time processing will become one of the most important resources for companies in the future. Production machinery will no longer simply processes the product, but the product will communicate with the machinery to tell it exactly what to do. Industry 4.0 has the vision to connects embedded system technologies and SMART production processes to drastically transform industry and production giving way to the SMART factory development. Future development in oven technology will allow machines to be controlled more intelligently and remotely resulting in the lowest cost model for manufacturing flow....

Publisher: Solderstar

Solderstar

SolderStar is one of the world's leaders in thermal management systems, with over a decade of specializing in the design, development and manufacture of thermal profiling equipment for the lead-free electronics industry.

Rochdale, Lancashire, United Kingdom

OEM, Software Manufacturer, Soldering, Test Services

How Clean is Clean Enough – At What Level Does Each of The Individual Contaminates Cause Leakage and Corrosion Failures in SIR?

Sep 08, 2016 | Terry Munson, Paco Solis, Nick Munson, Steve Ring, Evan Briscoe.

In this investigation a test matrix was completed utilizing 900 electrodes (small circuit board with parallel copper traces on FR-4 with LPI soldermask at 6, 10 and 50 mil spacing): 12 ionic contaminants were applied in five concentrations to three different spaced electrodes with five replicas each (three different bare copper trace spacing / five replications of each with five levels of ionic concentration). The investigation was to assess the electrical response under controlled heat and humidity conditions of the known applied contamination to electrodes, using the IPC SIR (surface insulation resistance) J-STD 001 limits and determine at what level of contamination and spacing the ionic / organic residue has a failing effect on SIR....

Publisher: Foresite Inc.

Foresite Inc.

Foresite is a process consulting house and analytial laboratory dedicated to solving product reliability challenges for electronics manufacturers.

Kokomo, Indiana, USA

Cleaning, Publication or Online Resource, Service Provider, Test Services, Training / Education

PCB-Conformal-Coatings-Guide-I

Sep 06, 2016 | Sierra Assembly

Printed circuit boards are the base of electronic products in a variety of consumer and industrial applications. New PCBs always perform well. However, their performance will deteriorate with time due to exposure to different environmental conditions like condensation, moisture, contamination of the iconic material on the surface, dust and dirt, mildew, alpha particles, etc. To avoid these problems, PCBs are protected with conformal coatings. Let’s see how this is done, and how they protect PCB components....

Publisher: Sierra Assembly Technology Inc.

Sierra Assembly Technology Inc.

Sierra Assembly Technology Inc. is a leading PCB assembly, PCB design, PCB prototyping, quick turn assembly, box build assembly, cable/ wire harness providing company based in Fontana, CA.

Fontana, California, USA

Assembly, Design, Manufacturer of Assembled PCBs, Manufacturer of Bare PCBs, Turnkey

Reliability Study of Low Silver Alloy Solder Pastes

Sep 01, 2016 | Jennifer Nguyen, David Geiger and Murad Kurwa

Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu (SAC305) is currently the most popular near eutectic lead-free alloy used in the manufacturing processes. Over the last several years, the price of silver has dramatically increased driving a desire for lower silver alloy alternatives. As a result, there is a significant increase in the number of alternative low/no silver lead-free solder alloys available in the industry recently. Our previous study showed that many alternative low silver solder paste materials had good printing and wetting performance as compared to SAC305 solder pastes. However, there is lack of information on the reliability of alternative alloy solder joints assembled using alternative low silver alloy solder pastes.

In this paper, we will present the reliability study of lead-free solder joints reflowed using various lead-free alloy solder pastes after thermal cycling test (3000 cycles, 0°C to 100°C). Six different lead-free pastes were investigated. SAC305 solder joints were used as the control. Low and no silver solder pastes and a low temperature SnBiAg solder pastes were also included....

Publisher: Flex (Flextronics International)

Flex (Flextronics International)

Flextronics is a global full-service supplier of a full spectrum of value-added Electronic Manufacturing Services.

Singapore, Singapore

Design, Service Provider

Sustainable Product Design and Supplier Material Disclosure

Aug 25, 2016 | Tedie West, Kerri Doyle

Sustainable product design and the task of bringing new, earth friendly products to market is a top priority for corporate leaders in the manufacturing industry. By not reaching their compliance and sustainability goals, manufacturers risk loss of market share, fines for non-compliance against regulatory directives and possible damage to their brand. Managing material disclosure information from the supply chain is one of their biggest challenges....

Publisher: Siemens PLM Software

Siemens PLM Software

A leading global provider of product lifecycle management (PLM) and manufacturing operations management (MOM) software. Our Smart Innovation Portfolio helps manufacturers optimize their Digital Enterprise and realize innovation.

Plano, Texas, USA

Software Manufacturer

Mechanical stress test for component solder joints and bonding wires

Aug 24, 2016 | MINIMOTOR Benelux

From consumer electronics to systems control, automotive technology to aviation and aerospace – today, electronics are absolutely essential in many sectors. They increasingly replace mechanical components, eliminating wear and tear and thereby extending the service life. What is easily forgotten in this regard is that electronics are also subject to the laws of mechanics. Mechanical test equipment is crucial to test components for the secure hold of welded, soldered or adhesive bonds. A new, mechanically intricate test probe with universal clamping jaws, that can even grasp the individual bonding wires, is in line with the trend toward ever smaller components. Serving as an actuator for these is a micro drive that can be precisely controlled using a miniaturised motion controller to relieve the control unit in the test device....

Publisher: XYZTEC bv

XYZTEC bv

XYZTEC is the market and technology leader in bond testing worldwide. The Condor Sigma is the most advanced bond tester, providing leading customers with fully automated shear, push and pull testing.

Panningen, Netherlands

Inspection, Test Services

Bond Test Measurement Accuracy

Aug 23, 2016 | Bob Sykes

While many things can affect the force measurement accuracy of a bond test, its ultimate limitation is that of the force sensor. With advances in technology, accuracy can be dramatically improved with no cost penalty and no need to select force measurement ranges. How is this accomplished? ...

Publisher: XYZTEC bv

XYZTEC bv

XYZTEC is the market and technology leader in bond testing worldwide. The Condor Sigma is the most advanced bond tester, providing leading customers with fully automated shear, push and pull testing.

Panningen, Netherlands

Inspection, Test Services

Selective Reflow Rework Process

Aug 18, 2016 | Omar García, Enrique Avelar, C. Sanchez, M. Carrillo, O. Mendoza, J. Medina, Zhen (Jane) Feng,Ph.D., Murad Kurwa

The Selective Reflow Rework Process is an approach to improving the high volume rework process, increasing process capabilities and process repeatability by using a standard reflow oven of 12 zones, pick and place machinery, semi-automated printing gear and Solder Paste Inspection (SPI) implementations. This approach was able to reduce the amount of rework equipment by more than half. Our human resource requirements (indirect and direct labor) were cut by more than 50% and our rolled throughput yield increased from 68.9% to 84.14%. The Selective Reflow Rework Process is less reliant upon operators and has become a repeatable, stable rework process....

Publisher: Flex (Flextronics International)

Flex (Flextronics International)

Flextronics is a global full-service supplier of a full spectrum of value-added Electronic Manufacturing Services.

Singapore, Singapore

Design, Service Provider

Innovation ploughing into the automotive industry with the help of PCB’s

Aug 17, 2016 | Technotronix

To stake a claim in upcoming new technologies and increasing improved customer experience, it is now becoming a central point of consideration to bring out the new classy vehicle design, car manufacturing techniques, testing system in the global market. The current vehicle manufacturer’s also aim to maintain equilibrium between deep capital investment and long product cycle to make the car model a success story. With this, the type of printed circuit board to be used in the vehicle is decided with focusing more on the type of material used in the vehicle and the level of electronic manufacturing and design solution needed in the vehicle production. To go into the roots of the automotive industry, it is equally important to get insights into the PCB used in vehicles and the new innovations brought forward by researchers to create a dream vehicle of the series. The below paragraph drives you to the types of PCB used in the automotive sector....

Publisher: Technotronix

Technotronix

TechnoTronix provide PCB Assembly service, PCB Design, PCB Layout, Printed Circuit Board Design Services, PCB Design Solutions, PCB Manufacturing, PCB Assembly and Fabrication.

Anaheim, California, USA

Contract Manufacturer, Manufacturer of Assembled PCBs, Repair/Rework, Test Services, Turnkey

New Approaches to Develop a Scalable 3D IC Assembly Method

Aug 11, 2016 | Charles G. Woychik Ph.D. Sangil Lee, Ph.D., Scott McGrath, Eric Tosaya and Sitaram Arkalgud Ph.D.

The challenge for 3D IC assembly is how to manage warpage and thin wafer handling in order to achieve a high assembly yield and to ensure that the final structure can pass the specified reliability requirements. Our test vehicles have micro-bumped die having pitches ranging from 60um down to 30um. The high density of pads and the large die size, make it extremely challenging to ensure that all of the micro-bump interconnects are attached to a thin Si-interposer. In addition, the low standoff between the die and interposer make it difficult to underfill. A likely approach is to first attach the die to the interposer and then the die/interposer sub-assembly to the substrate. In this scenario, the die/interposer sub-assembly is comparable to a monolithic silicon die that can be flip chip attached to the substrate.

In this paper, we will discuss various assembly options and the challenges posed by each. In this investigation, we will propose the best method to do 2.5D assembly in an OSAT(Outsourced Assembly and Test) facility....

Publisher: Invensas Corporation

Invensas Corporation

Invensas is focused on the development of cutting-edge enabling technologies in advanced semiconductor packaging for advanced mobility and storage products.

San Jose, California, USA

OEM

PCB Molding An Upward Curve Of Innovation In Building Protection Systems

Aug 11, 2016 | Technotronix

Be it a residential building, hospital, shopping mall, hotel, school, educational institution or any kind of a building, the security of the building is a prime facet to get a complete building solution. This also includes protecting the building, its assent and the human life from the airborne toxic industrial chemical, radiological and biological attacks or any accidental release apart from fire, water, earthquake and other security concerns. For these high value security solutions, the upgraded technology for the building safety system is now a top priority, especially in the commercial building sector and residential constructions. To introduce a completely new concept and a unique solution, it is necessary to focus on the dynamic electronic design and manufacturing solution in consultation with the custom PCB experts....

Publisher: Technotronix

Technotronix

TechnoTronix provide PCB Assembly service, PCB Design, PCB Layout, Printed Circuit Board Design Services, PCB Design Solutions, PCB Manufacturing, PCB Assembly and Fabrication.

Anaheim, California, USA

Contract Manufacturer, Manufacturer of Assembled PCBs, Repair/Rework, Test Services, Turnkey

Evaluation of Under-Stencil Cleaning Papers

Aug 04, 2016 | Lars Bruno

Solder paste screen printing is known to be one of the most difficult processes to quality assure in Printed Board Assembly (PBA) manufacturing. An important process step in solder paste screen printing is the under stencil cleaning process and one of the key materials in this process is the cleaning paper1. This, often neglected, material affects the cleaning process and thereby also the print quality. It is therefore important to perform tests of different cleaning papers before one could be chosen.

This article describes how cleaning papers can be tested and it also tells how big differences it can be between different materials....

Publisher: Ericsson AB

Ericsson AB

Ericsson AB manufactures and markets radio and television communication equipment. The company was formerly known as Ericsson Radio Systems AB. Ericsson AB (Sweden) operates as a subsidiary of Ericsson.

Stockholm, Sweden

Other

Success Story of PCB Assembly Trend

Aug 04, 2016 | 4pcb assembly

With the onset of 1900’s, the novelty of printed circuits boards got started with a profound concept of constructing an electrical path on an isolated surface of a board. The initial trend of printed circuit board got into a vain to develop and upgrade the radios and gramophones. Gradually the notion of ‘Through Hole Technique’ came into picture to produce a double sided PCB. In mid 1990’s the idea of auto assembly process was introduced by PCB Manufacturer USA. This was a point of modern touch to enhance the fabrication process with automated soldering technique. The research and development picked up a pace for end to end electronic solutions for defense and US army....

Publisher: 4PCB Assembly

4PCB Assembly

Are you Looking Printed Circuit Board Manufacturer in USA? Then PCB Assembly is right place for manufacturing, design, fabrication and assembly of PCBS.

Anaheim, California, USA

Assembly, Contract Manufacturer, Design, Manufacturer of Assembled PCBs, Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment

Printed Circuit Board Becoming A Vital Arena for Bringing Creativity In Audio Devices

Aug 02, 2016 | Technotronix

The audio device industry is set to grow in parallel with the technology triggering across the globe. Also the entertainment and hospitality industry has created an increased demand of audio devices at large. With the enhancement coming up in consumer applications every other day, the recent trend of implementing wireless technology in audio devices has captivated the attention in the market with its growing popularities all over the electronics industry. The recent audio discoveries have marked cosmic developments in the new product launch, business partnership and acquisition globally. With this, the audio device makers are now in race to present a multi featured compact device with giving an appealing dimension experience to the end users in order to survive in the electronic market. ...

Publisher: Technotronix

Technotronix

TechnoTronix provide PCB Assembly service, PCB Design, PCB Layout, Printed Circuit Board Design Services, PCB Design Solutions, PCB Manufacturing, PCB Assembly and Fabrication.

Anaheim, California, USA

Contract Manufacturer, Manufacturer of Assembled PCBs, Repair/Rework, Test Services, Turnkey

The PCB Used In Marine Industry Paving Way For Innovations

Aug 02, 2016 | Technotronix

As the technology has become a universal key to major developments, the marine and boat industry has shown elevated growth in recent time. The marine market circumscribes on the electronic and design solutions for every single innovation. All the developments in Marine sector has and are heading towards a notion of modernization and among these, printed circuit board is grounding the research and developments. How to increase the efficiency of the device? How to gain optimum fuel efficiency? Does the dual fuel concept become a buzz word for major innovations? These are the basic questions which are considered to bring new novelties in the market....

Publisher: Technotronix

Technotronix

TechnoTronix provide PCB Assembly service, PCB Design, PCB Layout, Printed Circuit Board Design Services, PCB Design Solutions, PCB Manufacturing, PCB Assembly and Fabrication.

Anaheim, California, USA

Contract Manufacturer, Manufacturer of Assembled PCBs, Repair/Rework, Test Services, Turnkey

Printed Circuit Board For Industrial Application Drives a wave of Innovation

Aug 02, 2016 | Technotronix

The next generation FUNDAS rest on one and only one motto (i.e.) technology up-gradation. For innovations in any corner of the world, a completely unique electronic solution is derived that accounts for fast trending modernization in the lifestyle of humans. With electronic design or manufacturing solution, the printed circuit boards are the groundwork for every electronic project. As the electronic control system and instruments are now applied in every predominant market across the globe, the use of PCB is predicted to have universal application in the global society. This article details you on the type of PCB’s used in the industrial sector, the application of PCB and innovations marked in the industrial sector with current steps taken by PCB manufacturers to provide unique solutions to the industrial sharks. See more: http://www.technotronix.us/pcbblog/printed-circuit-board-for-industrial-application-drives-a-wave-of-innovation/...

Publisher: Technotronix

Technotronix

TechnoTronix provide PCB Assembly service, PCB Design, PCB Layout, Printed Circuit Board Design Services, PCB Design Solutions, PCB Manufacturing, PCB Assembly and Fabrication.

Anaheim, California, USA

Contract Manufacturer, Manufacturer of Assembled PCBs, Repair/Rework, Test Services, Turnkey

Improving Quoting Means Improving Your Whole Business

Jul 29, 2016 | Chintan Sutaria

The RFQ process has been treated as a tedious and necessary evil by most EMS companies. However, a mature quoting process can improve your company's ability to win new business, keep existing customers and improve margins....

Publisher: CalcuQuote

CalcuQuote

CalcuQuote improves the speed and accuracy of your Printed Circuit Board Assembly (PCBA) quote.

Dallas, Texas, USA

Consultant, Other, Service Provider, Software Manufacturer

Duo-Solvent Cleaning Process Development for Removing Flux Residue from Class 3 Hardware

Jul 28, 2016 | Mike Bixenman, DBA - Kyzen Corporation | Ryan Hulse, PHD - Honeywell International | Joe McChesney - CSD Automation

Packaging trends enable disruptive technologies. The miniaturization of components reduces the distance between conductive paths. Cleanliness of electronic hardware based on the service exposure of electrical equipment and controls can improve the reliability and cost effectiveness of the entire system. Problems resulting from leakage currents and electrochemical migration lead to unintended power disruption and intermittent performance problems due to corrosion issues.

Solvent cleaning has a long history of use for cleaning electronic hardware. Limitations with solvent based cleaning agents due to environmental effects and the ability to clean new flux designs commonly used to join miniaturized components has limited the use of solvent cleaning processes for cleaning electronic hardware. To address these limitations, new solvent cleaning agents and processes have been designed to clean highly dense electronic hardware.

The research study will evaluate the cleaning and electrical performance using the IPC B-52 Test Vehicle. Lead Free noclean solder paste will be used to join the components to the test vehicle. Ion Chromatography and SIR values will be reported....

Publisher: Kyzen Corporation

Kyzen Corporation

A leading supplier of precision cleaning chemistries to the worldwide electronics, metal finishing, medical, semiconductor, and optical industries.

Nashville, Tennessee, USA

Cleaning

The Effects of PCB Fabrication on High-Frequency Electrical Performance

Jul 21, 2016 | John Coonrod

Achieving optimum high-frequency printed-circuit-board (PCB) performance is not simply a matter of specifying the best possible PCB material, but can be significantly impacted by PCB fabrication practices. In addition to appropriate circuit materials and circuit design configurations to meet target performance goals, a number of PCB material-related issues can affect final performance, including the use of soldermask, the PCB copper plating thickness, the conductor trapezoidal effect, and plating finish; understanding the effects of these material issues can help when fabricating high-frequency circuits for the best possible electrical performance....

Publisher: Rogers Corporation, Advanced Circuit Materials Division

Rogers Corporation, Advanced Circuit Materials Division

A global technology leader in the development of high performance printed circuit materials for use in markets, including portable communications, communications infrastructure, aerospace and defense.

Chandler, Arizona, USA

Laminates, Manufacturer of Assembly Material

Where PCBs and Printed Electronics Meet

Jul 14, 2016 | Chris Hunrath

Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) and Printed Electronics (PE) both describe conductor/substrate combinations that make connections. Both PCB and PE technologies have been in use for a long time in one form or another with PCBs currently the standard for complex, high speed electronics and PE for user interface, complex form factor or other film based applications.

New and innovative applications create the opportunity for promising structures. Taking advantage of the PCB shop's capability as well as the material set can help create these structures and indeed PE materials can find use in more traditional PCBs. New materials and new uses of existing materials open up many possibilities in electronic interconnecting structures.

PCB manufacturers have a complex manufacturing infrastructure, well suited for both additive and subtractive conductor processing. While built around rigid material processing (flex PCB being the exception), there are opportunities for PE substrate processing. As electronics devices are applied to more and more parts of our lives, we need to continually push for better solutions. Fit, function, manufacturability, and cost are all important considerations. Crossing the PCB/PE boundary is a way to meet the challenge....

Publisher: INSULECTRO

INSULECTRO

A leading supplier of PCB materials used to manufacture circuit boards. Insulectro serves a broad customer base manufacturing rigid, rigid/flex and flexible circuit boards.

Lake Forest, California, USA

Laminates, Manufacturer of Assembly Material

Dissolution of Metal Foils in Common Beverages

Jul 07, 2016 | Bev Christian, Nancy Wang, Mark Pritzker, Daniella Gillanders, Gyubok Baik, Weiyi Zhang, Joanna Litingtun, Brian Kim; Blackberry, University of Waterloo

How susceptible are the metals used in modern electronics manufacturing to corrosion by common beverages? This is a question of interest, especially to manufacturers, retailers and to a certain extent end customers.

In this study the dissolution of aluminum, copper, gold, iron, lead, nickel, SAC305 solder, silver, tin and zinc was examined. Individual foils of these materials were fully immersed in one of sixteen chosen beverages and heated for 3 days at 40°C. The resulting solutions were analyzed using ICP-OES. The data were examined in light of the known pH, conductivity and ionic contents of the beverages, determined in previous work. Conclusions about the relative susceptibility to corrosion of the various metals and the corrosive power of the different beverages are made....

Publisher: BlackBerry Limited

BlackBerry Limited

A global leader in mobile communications.

Waterloo, Ontario, Canada

Other

Analog FastSPICE Platform Full-Circuit PLL Verification

Jun 30, 2016 | Mentor Graphics

When designing PLLs in nanometer CMOS, it is essential to validate the closed-loop PLL performance metrics with nanometer SPICE accuracy before going to silicon. Transistor-level, closed-loop PLL verification has been impractical due to traditional SPICE and RF simulator performance and capacity limitations. By using Analog FastSPICE, designers dont have to trade accuracy for performance.

Read this white paper to see how AFS:

  • Delivers closed-loop PLL transistor-level verification
  • Supports direct jitter measurements
  • Produces phase noise results correlating within 1-2dB of silicon

...

Publisher: Mentor Graphics

Mentor Graphics

A leader in software solutions for electroncs design, Mentor Graphics is the only EDA company with a total end-to-end solution for design though manufacturing.

Wilsonville, Oregon, USA

Design, Software Manufacturer

A Case Study on Evaluating Manual and Automated Heat Sink Assembly Using FEA and Testing

Jun 23, 2016 | Michael Sumalinog, Jesus Tan, Murad Kurwa; AEG, Flex.

Proper assembly of components is critical in the manufacturing industry as it affects functionality and reliability. In a heat sink assembly, a detailed manual process is often utilized. However, an automated fixture is used whenever applicable.

This paper will illustrate the use of strain gauge testing and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) as a simulation tool to evaluate and optimize the heat sink assembly process by manual and automated methods. Several PCBAs in the production line were subjected to the manual and automated assembly process. Strain gauge testing was performed and FEA models were built and run. Results were compared with the goal of improving the FEA model. The updated FEA model will be used in simulating different conditions in assembly. Proposed improvement solutions to some issues can also be verified through FEA....

Publisher: Flex (Flextronics International)

Flex (Flextronics International)

Flextronics is a global full-service supplier of a full spectrum of value-added Electronic Manufacturing Services.

Singapore, Singapore

Design, Service Provider

Today's Smaller Cables Require Automated Processing

Jun 21, 2016 | Pete Doyon - VP Product Management, Schleuniger, Inc.

The trends in mobile electronics today are smaller, thinner and lighter. Yet, mobile devices are more powerful than ever. Applications, like wireless internet connections, RFID and Bluetooth, that have become essential in today’s devices, require more complex transmission mechanisms. As a result, manufacturers find themselves faced with the challenge of working with ultra-miniature RF cable assemblies....

Publisher: Schleuniger, Inc.

Schleuniger, Inc.

Schleuniger, Inc. is a leading manufacturer of wire processing equipment. Our innovative automatic and semi-automatic machines are designed to cut, strip, crimp and mark all types of wire and cable.

Manchester, New Hampshire, USA

Other

Embedding Passive and Active Components: PCB Design and Fabrication Process Variations

Jun 16, 2016 | Vern Solberg

Embedding components within the PC board structure is not a new concept. Until recently, however, most embedded component PC board applications adapted only passive elements. The early component forming processes relied on resistive inks and films to enable embedding of resistor and capacitors elements. Although these forming methods remain viable, many companies are choosing to place very thin discrete passive components and semiconductor die elements within the PC board layering structure. In addition to improving the products performance, companies have found that by reducing the component population on the PC board's surface, board level assembly is less complex and the PC board can be made smaller, The smaller substrate, even when more complex, often results in lower cost. Although size and cost reductions are significant attributes, the closer coupling of key elements can also contribute to improving functional performance.

This paper focuses on six basic embedded component structure designs described in IPC-7092....

Publisher: Vern Solberg - Solberg Technical Consulting

Vern Solberg - Solberg Technical Consulting

Vern Solberg is an independent technical consultant based in Saratoga, California specializing in SMT and microelectronics design and manufacturing technology.

Saratoga, California, USA

Consultant

Cable and Harness Manufacturing: Productivity through Flexibility

Jun 06, 2016 | Margaret Bishop (CAMI Research)

Learn how to choose a cable & harness tester that remains relevant as product design changes in addition to providing fast, reliable, accurate results. See how it can improve productivity even beyond the production floor....

Publisher: CAMI Research Inc.

CAMI Research Inc.

CableEye® continuity and HiPot pass/fail & diagnostic Cable & Harness Test Systems w simple scripting, labeling, documentation, cataloging & relay control. Dynamically display continuity, Ω, diodes, IR, dielectric breakdown & more

Acton, Massachusetts, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Test Services

How to Select the Right Conformal Coating Spray for PCB

Jun 06, 2016 | Rana Kalitha

One of the most important steps in PCB assembly is the need for conformal coating for PCB. The process of choosing a conformal coating spray is a complex one as it involves a number of confusing decisions revolving around selections and compromises. ...

Publisher: Sumitron Exports Pvt. Ltd.

Sumitron Exports Pvt. Ltd.

Sumitron is a leading distributor of high quality Equipments, Tools and Materials for Electrical, Electronics, Automobile, Pharmaceutical and Telecom industry in India.

New Delhi, India

Distributor, Equipment Dealer / Broker

Materials Compatibility and Aging for Flux and Cleaner Combination

May 30, 2016 | Kim M. Archuleta, Rochelle Piatt

New engineered cleaning and defluxing agents promise great improvement in cleaning and reliability for electronic assemblies. As complexity grows and dimensions shrink in high reliability electronics, the need for materials compatibility and effectiveness in cleaning and rinsing is vital....

Publisher: Sandia National Laboratories

Sandia National Laboratories

For more than 60 years, Sandia has delivered essential science and technology to resolve the nation's most challenging security issues.

Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA

Other

Characterization of Solder Defects on Package on Packages with AXI Systems for Inspection Quality Improvement

May 30, 2016 | Zhen Feng, Ph. D., David Geiger, Weifeng Liu, Ph. D., Anwar Mohammed, Murad Kurwa, AEG, Flextronics, George Tint Ph. D., Saki America.

As a part of series of studies on X-Ray inspection technology to quantify solder defects in BGA balls, we have conducted inspection of 3 level POP package by using a new AXI that capable of 3D-CT imaging. The new results are compared with the results of earlier AXI measurements. It is found that 3D measurements offer better defect inspection quality, lower false call and escapes....

Publisher: Flex (Flextronics International)

Flex (Flextronics International)

Flextronics is a global full-service supplier of a full spectrum of value-added Electronic Manufacturing Services.

Singapore, Singapore

Design, Service Provider

Influence of Salt Residues on BGA Head on Pillow (Hip)

May 26, 2016 | J. Servin, P. Gomez, M. Dominguez, A. Aragon

The oxide layers are known as wetting inhibitors in component and PCB metallizations. The oxide acts as barrier that prevent the tin diffusion from happening. Besides, in corrosion studies, the role of salt residues -with Cl ion- on some metals is known as being promoters of oxidation or corrosion. On the other hand, most of corrosion studies with tin metallization are focused mainly on the corrosion resistance of tin alloys, but little has been done respecting to the influence of salts on tin metallization wetting.

In this paper, a series of experiments was carried over to know the influence of specifically NaCl on BGA wetting given Head in Pillow (HiP) as result....

Publisher: Continental Corporation

Continental Corporation

Since 1871, Continental develops intelligent technologies for transporting people and their goods.

Hannover, Germany

Other

Ultrathin Fluoropolymer Coatings to Mitigate Damage of Printed Circuit Boards Due to Environmental Exposure

May 19, 2016 | Erik Olson, Molly Smith, Greg Marszalek, Karl Manske

As consumers become more reliant on their handheld electronic devices and take them into new environments, devices are increasingly exposed to situations that can cause failure. In response, the electronics industry is making these devices more resistant to environmental exposures. Printed circuit board assemblies, handheld devices and wearables can benefit from a protective conformal coating to minimize device failures by providing a barrier to environmental exposure and contamination.

Traditional conformal coatings can be applied very thick and often require thermal or UV curing steps that add extra cost and processing time compared to alternative technologies. These coatings, due to their thickness, commonly require time and effort to mask connectors in order to permit electrical conductivity. Ultra-thin fluorochemical coatings, however, can provide excellent protection, are thin enough to not necessarily require component masking and do not necessarily require curing.

In this work, ultra-thin fluoropolymer coatings were tested by internal and industry approved test methods, such as IEC (ingress protection), IPC (conformal coating qualification), and ASTM (flowers-of-sulfur exposure), to determine whether this level of protection and process ease was possible....

Publisher: 3M Company

3M Company

3M's Electronics and Energy segment serves customers in electronics and energy markets, including solutions for dependable, cost-effective, high-performance electronic devices.

St. Paul, Minnesota, USA

Adhesives/Dispensing, Manufacturer of Assembly Material

New Era in Testing DUT over Temperature

May 13, 2016 | Lior Yosef

The process of manufacturing and qualifying IC's consists of many steps while Temperature forcing systems play a crucial role in the final testing process. These environmental tests assure quality and reliability by stressing the device on one hand as well as helping to characterize and validate it on the other hand (making sure manufacturing outcome meets the design requirements). At later stages the temperature testing can support failure analysis effort and root cause analysis. AS common practice we are dealing with few different kinds of temperature forcing systems: Chambers, Thermal Stream systems and Direct Thermal Head systems. In this article I would like to focus on the practical aspects of utilizing Thermal Stream systems and Direct Thermal Head systems....

Publisher: Mechanical Devices

Mechanical Devices

We develop produce and supply innovative cost effective thermal control units to major Semiconductor Devices Manufacturers to test IC devices -LOW & HIGH Power devices for temp range -65°C to +200°C.

Haifa, Israel

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Test Services

Influence of Plating Quality on Reliability of Microvias

May 12, 2016 | Yan Ning, Michael H. Azarian, Michael Pecht

Advances in miniaturized electronic devices have led to the evolution of microvias in high density interconnect (HDI) circuit boards from single-level to stacked structures that intersect multiple HDI layers. Stacked microvias are usually filled with electroplated copper. Challenges for fabricating reliable microvias include creating strong interface between the base of the microvia and the target pad, and generating no voids in the electrodeposited copper structures. Interface delamination is the most common microvia failure due to inferior quality of electroless copper, while microvia fatigue life can be reduced by over 90% as a result of large voids, according to the authors’ finite element analysis and fatigue life prediction. This paper addresses the influence of voids on reliability of microvias, as well as the interface delamination issue. ...

Publisher: CALCE Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering

CALCE Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering

The largest electronic products research center focused on electronics reliability, is dedicated to providing a knowledge and resource base to support the development of competitive electronic components, products and systems.

College Park, Maryland, USA

Service Provider, Training / Education

How Reshoring Drives Profitability

May 05, 2016 | Michael Ford.

For many years, manufacturing has sought to increase competitiveness by moving off-shore to countries with lower labour costs. Electronic manufacturing services (EMS) companies provided an essential element to make off-shore transfer happen more quickly, offering further cost reduction opportunities from load balancing. Fierce arguments were put forward to protect the loss of local jobs, although the result was, in almost all cases, inevitable. Today, however, the whole market of PCBbased electronics products has changed significantly. The "pros" of off-shoring are no longer what they once were, and the "cons" are becoming more significant because off-shore manufacturing can no longer satisfy the needs of the market.

In this paper, we expose the real costs of off-shore manufacturing, and put labour cost differentials into perspective. We demonstrate how practically, using existing technologies, re-shored manufacturing can yield better business return, either for an OEM, or through EMS providers.

...

Publisher: Mentor Graphics

Mentor Graphics

A leader in software solutions for electroncs design, Mentor Graphics is the only EDA company with a total end-to-end solution for design though manufacturing.

Wilsonville, Oregon, USA

Design, Software Manufacturer

Control of the Underfill of Surface Mount Assemblies by Non-Destructive Techniques

Apr 28, 2016 | Julien Perraud, Arnaud Grivon.

Underfilling is a long-standing process issued from the micro-electronics that can enhance the robustness and the reliability of first or second-level interconnects for a variety of electronic applications. Its usage is currently spreading across the industry fueled by the decreasing reliability margins induced by the miniaturization and interconnect pitch reduction. (...)

This paper will address the control of surface mount under filled assemblies, focusing on applicable inspection techniques and possible options to overcome their limitations....

Publisher: THALES

THALES

A French multinational company acting in areas such as defense, aerospace, airlines security and safety, information technology, and transportation.

Neuilly-sur-Seine, France

Other

3D Assembly Process a Look at Today and Tomorrow

Apr 21, 2016 | David Geiger, Georgie Thein; AEG, Flextronics International Inc.

The world of electronics continues to increase functional densities on products. One of the ways to increase density of a product is to utilize more of the 3 dimensional spaces available. Traditional printed circuit boards utilize the x/y plane and many miniaturization techniques apply to the x/y space savings, such as smaller components, finer pitches, and closer component to component distances.

This paper will explore the evolution of 3D assembly techniques, starting from flexible circuit technology, cavity assembly, embedded technology, 3 dimensional surface mount assembly, etc....

Publisher: Flex (Flextronics International)

Flex (Flextronics International)

Flextronics is a global full-service supplier of a full spectrum of value-added Electronic Manufacturing Services.

Singapore, Singapore

Design, Service Provider

Causes and Costs of No Fault Found Events

Apr 14, 2016 | Louis Y. Ungar

A system level test, usually built-in test (BIT), determines that one or more subsystems are faulty. These subsystems sent to the depot or factory repair facility, called units under test (UUTs) often pass that test, an event we call No-Fault-Found (NFF). With more-and more electronics monitored by BIT, it is more likely that an intermittent glitch will trigger a call for a maintenance action resulting in NFF. NFFs are often confused with false alarm (FA), cannot duplicate (CNDs)or retest OK (RTOK) events. NFFs at the depot are caused by FAs, CNDs, RTOKs as well as a number of other complications. Attempting to repair NFF scan waste precious resources, compromise confidence in the product, create customer dissatisfaction, and the repair quality remains a mystery. The problem is compounded by previous work showing that most failure indications calling for repair action at the system level are invalid. NFFs can be caused by real failures or may be a result of system level false alarms. Understanding the cause of the problem may help us distinguish between units under test (UUTs) that we can repair and those that we cannot. In calculating the true cost of repair we must account for wasted effort in attempting to repair unrepairable UUTs.

This paper will shed some light on this trade-off. Finally, we will explore approaches for dealing with the NFF issue in a cost effective manner....

Publisher: A.T.E. Solutions, Inc.

A.T.E. Solutions, Inc.

The leading Test, ATE and Testability consulting and educational firm, offering various test related courses. Maintains the BestTest Directory, a test community knowledge base. Publishes The BestTest eNewsletter.

Los Angeles, California, USA

Publication or Online Resource, Repair/Rework, Service Provider, Test Services, Training / Education

Streamlining PCB Assembly and Test NPI with Shared Component Libraries

Apr 08, 2016 | Julian Coates

PCB assembly designs become more complex year-on-year, yet early-stage form/fit compliance verification of all designed-in components to the intended manufacturing processes remains a challenge. So long as librarians at the design and manufacturing levels continue to maintain their own local standards for component representation, there is no common representation in the design-to-manufacturing phase of the product lifecycle that can provide the basis for transfer of manufacturing process rules to the design level. A comprehensive methodology must be implemented for all component types, not just the minority which happen to conform to formal packaging standards, to successfully left-shift assembly and test DFM analysis to the design level and thus compress NPI cycle times.(...)

This paper will demonstrate the technological components of the working solution: the logic for deriving repeatable and standardized package and pin classifications from a common source of component physical-model content, the method for associating DFA and DFT rules to those classifications, and the transfer of those rules to separate DFM and NPI analysis tools elsewhere in the design-through-manufacturing chain resulting in a consistent DFM process across multiple design and manufacturing organizations....

Publisher: Mentor Graphics

Mentor Graphics

A leader in software solutions for electroncs design, Mentor Graphics is the only EDA company with a total end-to-end solution for design though manufacturing.

Wilsonville, Oregon, USA

Design, Software Manufacturer

EMI-Caused EOS Sources in Automated Equipment

Mar 31, 2016 | Vladimir Kraz

Electrical overstress causes damage to sensitive components, including latent damage. A significant source of EOS is high-frequency noise in automated manufacturing equipment. This paper analyses sources of such noise, how it affects components and how to mitigate this problem....

Publisher: OnFILTER, Inc.

OnFILTER, Inc.

Reduce electrical overstress (EOS) with our EMI filters for soldering, power, ground and servo motors. EMI filters improve equipment up-time and reliability and reduce test problems.

Santa Cruz, California, USA

OEM, Other

Cable and Harness Manufacturing: Five Qs to ask when selecting a Cable and Harness Tester ...

Mar 25, 2016 | Margaret Bishop (CAMI Research)

Ready to purchase a new tester? Interested in improving productivity & quality? Ask these technical questions of your potential supplier....

Publisher: CAMI Research Inc.

CAMI Research Inc.

CableEye® continuity and HiPot pass/fail & diagnostic Cable & Harness Test Systems w simple scripting, labeling, documentation, cataloging & relay control. Dynamically display continuity, Ω, diodes, IR, dielectric breakdown & more

Acton, Massachusetts, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Test Services

High Frequency DK and DF Test Methods Comparison High Density Packaging User Group (HDP) Project

Mar 24, 2016 | Karl Sauter; Oracle Corporation, Joe Smetana; Alcatel-Lucent

Today's Electronic Industry is changing at a high pace. The root causes are manifold. So world population is growing up to eight billions and gives new challenges in terms of urbanization, mobility and connectivity. Consequently, there will raise up a lot of new business models for the electronic industry. Connectivity will take a large influence on our lives. Concepts like Industry 4.0, internet of things, M2M communication, smart homes or communication in or to cars are growing up. All these applications are based on the same demanding requirement – a high amount of data and increased data transfer rate. These arguments bring up large challenges to the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) design and manufacturing.

This paper investigates the impact of different PCB manufacturing technologies and their relation to their high frequency behavior. In the course of the paper a brief overview of PCB manufacturing capabilities is be presented. Moreover, signal losses in terms of frequency, design, manufacturing processes, and substrate materials are investigated. The aim of this paper is, to develop a concept to use materials in combination with optimized PCB manufacturing processes, which allows a significant reduction of losses and increased signal quality....

Publisher: Alcatel-Lucent

Alcatel-Lucent

Alcatel-Lucent- Enterprise Business Group is a world leader in the delivery of communications solutions for businesses, including contact center software, small/medium business telephony and IP addres

Calabasas, California, USA

Service Provider

Enabling High-Speed Printing Using Low-Cost Materials: Process Stability is Paramount

Mar 17, 2016 | Michael L. Cieslinski, Brent A. Fischthal

The rapid growth of electronic devices across the globe is driving manufacturers to enhance high-speed mass production techniques in the PCB assembly arena. As manufacturers drive to reduce costs while maximizing production by expanding facilities, updating automation equipment, or implementing lean six sigma techniques, the potential to build scrap product or rework printed circuit boards increases dramatically.

Manufacturers have two general paths to reduce the costs of high-speed printed circuit board assembly production. The first path is to reduce cost by focusing on high quality printing and mounting. The other, increasingly popular option is to utilize low-cost materials. In either case, the baseline must provide a consistent high-speed solder paste printing method, which considers the fill, snap-off, and cleaning processes.

Building on our expertise and testing, this paper will highlight the two trains of thought with specific focus on how low-cost materials affect print performance. It will also explore technologies, which can help provide stable, high-speed screen printing....

Publisher: Panasonic Factory Solutions Company of America (PFSA)

Panasonic Factory Solutions Company of America (PFSA)

PFSA develops and supports innovative manufacturing automation equipment, processes and solutions around the core of electronic assembly, microelectronic, software and circuit manufacturing

Rolling Meadows, Illinois, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, OEM, Pick and Place

Acceptance Testing Of Low-Ag Reflow Solder Alloys

Mar 10, 2016 | Kris Troxel, Aileen Allen, Elizabeth Elias Benedetto, Rahul Joshi

Since the implementation of the European Union RoHS directive in 2006, the electronics industry has seen an expansion of available low-silver lead (Pb)-free1 alloys for wave soldering, miniwave rework, BGA and CSP solder balls, and, more recently, solder pastes for mass reflow. The risks associated with the higher processing temperatures of these low-silver (Ag between 0-3 wt%) solder alloys, such as potential laminate or component damage, increased copper dissolution, and reduced thermal process windows may present manufacturing challenges and possible field reliability risks for original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). In order to take advantage of potential cost reduction opportunities afforded by these new alloys, while mitigating manufacturing and reliability risks, the company has defined test protocols [1-4] that can be used for assessing new Sn-Ag-Cu(SAC), Sn-Ag, and Sn-Cu alloys for general use in electronics.

This paper describes initial test results for low-silver alloys using these solder paste alloy assessment protocols for BGAs and leaded components, and the impact of the alloys on printed circuit assembly process windows....

Publisher: HP Inc.

HP Inc.

HP Inc. creates technology that makes life better for everyone, everywhere. Through our portfolio of printers, PCs, mobile devices, solutions, and services, we engineer experiences that amaze.

Palo Alto, California, USA

Other

Nanocopper Based Paste for Solid Copper Via Fill

Mar 03, 2016 | David Ciufo, Sujatha Ramanujan, Janet Heyen, Michael Carmody; Intrinsiq Materials, Sunny Patel; Candor Industries.

This paper discusses a nano copper based paste for use in via filling. The company manufactures nano copper and disperses the coated nano copper into a paste in combination with micron copper. The resultant paste is injected or fills a via. The via is subsequently sintered by means of photonic sintering, or by heat in a reducing environment. The process will be accomplished in under an hour and results in filled solid copper vias....

Publisher: Intrinsiq Materials Inc.

Intrinsiq Materials Inc.

Intrinsiq Materials manufactures a variety of electronic ink, including screen-printable, and inkjetable copper ink, a silicon ink jet, and a nickel ink jet.

Rochester, New York, USA

Components/Substrates, Manufacturer of Assembly Material

ph Neutral Cleaning Agents - Market Expectation & Field Performance

Feb 25, 2016 | Umut Tosun, Jigar Patel, Kalyan Nukula, Fernando Gazcon, ZESTRON America

With regard to precision cleaning applications within electronics manufacturing, pH neutral product development was a major breakthrough in recent years. The impetus for this development resulted from changes with regard to solder paste formulations and resulting assembly processes.

The greater use of lead-free solder paste and the required higher reflow profiles have resulted in even more difficult to remove burnt-in flux residues. Coupled with increases in component density, larger component packages, higher lead counts, finer lead spacing, and lower standoff distances, effective cleaning is greatly challenged. The aqueous alkaline based cleaning agents can effectively remove these flux residues, however, the process often requires an increase in wash temperature and exposure time, chemical concentration, and mechanical energy. Although an efficient and effective cleaning process can be developed, oftentimes, the required operating parameters present a new set of challenges with regard to material compatibility.

Since their introduction, the newly developed pH neutral formulations have proven to be capable not only of removing these difficult post reflow residues from complex board geometries, but do so without affecting material compatibility of sensitive components. Additionally, they perform at low concentration levels. This study reviews the performance of pH neutral cleaning agents as compared to alkaline cleaning agent alternatives and includes field data demonstrating their effectiveness with regard to material compatibility and cleaning performance....

Publisher: ZESTRON Corporation

ZESTRON Corporation

Manufacturer of high precision cleaning products and services for all required applications in the electronics manufacturing industry.

Manassas, Virginia, USA

Cleaning, Test Services

Sample Preparation For Mitigating Tin Whiskers In Alternative Lead-Free Alloys

Feb 18, 2016 | Mehran Maalekian, Karl Seelig, Timothy O'Neill

As lead-free alloys shift into high reliability electronics, the issue of tin whisker growth remains a primary concern among those in the industry. Current research shows that there is no perfect alloy for all cases of electronic usage. Industry leaders and researchers continue to study and search for a lead free alloy that is able to withstand harsh environments while maintaining high reliability....

Publisher: AIM Solder

AIM Solder

AIM is a leading global manufacturer of tin-lead and lead-free solder assembly materials for the electronics industry.

Montreal, Quebec, Canada

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Soldering

Effective Methods to Get Volatile Compounds Out of Reflow Process

Feb 11, 2016 | Gerjan Diepstraten

Although reflow ovens may not have been dramatically changed during the last decade the reflow process changes step by step. With the introduction of lead-free soldering not only operation temperatures increased, but also the chemistry of the solder paste was modified to meet the higher thermal requirements. Miniaturization is a second factor that impacts the reflow process. The density on the assembly is increasing where solder paste deposit volumes decreases due to smaller pad and component dimensions. Pick and place machines can handle more components and to meet this high through put some SMD lines are equipped with dual lane conveyors, doubling solder paste consumption. With the introduction of pin in paste to solder through hole components contamination of the oven increased due to dripping of the paste....

Publisher: Vitronics Soltec

Vitronics Soltec

Global manufacturer of XPM Reflow Ovens, ZEVA Selective Soldering and Delta Wave Soldering Equipment.

Camdenton, Missouri, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Soldering

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Reflow Oven

SMT Spare Parts and Feeders