Technical Library | 2007-03-08 19:31:10.0
Reflow profile has significant impact on solder joint performance because it influences wetting and microstructure of the solder joint. The degree of wetting, the microstructure (in particular the intermetallic layer), and the inherent strength of the solder all factor into the reliability of the solder joint. This paper presents experimental results on the effect of reflow profile on both 63%Sn 37%Pb (SnPb) and 96.5%Sn 3.0%Ag 0.5%Cu (SAC 305) solder joint shear force.
Technical Library | 2020-11-15 21:22:11.0
The latest highest reliability requirements demand a high performance electroless nickel and immersion gold (HP ENIG). The new IPC specification 4552A has refocused the industry with reference to nickel corrosion. The interpretation of the existing specification, that judges corrosion on 3 levels, is complex and if misinterpreted can lead to phantom failures. An obvious way to avoid any potential misinterpretation is to eradicate any evidence of corrosion completely.
Technical Library | 2020-07-22 19:24:33.0
Recent advancements in electronic packaging and image processing techniques have opened the possibility for optics-based portable eye tracking approaches, but technical and safety hurdles limit safe implementation toward wearable applications. Here, we introduce a fully wearable, wireless soft electronic system that offers a portable, highly sensitive tracking of eye movements (vergence) via the combination of skin-conformal sensors and a virtual reality system. Advancement of material processing and printing technologies based on aerosol jet printing enables reliable manufacturing of skin-like sensors, while the flexible hybrid circuit based on elastomer and chip integration allows comfortable integration with a user's head. Analytical and computational study of a data classification algorithm provides a highly accurate tool for real-time detection and classification of ocular motions. In vivo demonstration with 14 human subjects captures the potential of the wearable electronics as a portable therapy system, whose minimized form factor facilitates seamless interplay with traditional wearable hardware.
Technical Library | 2014-07-02 16:46:09.0
Growth behaviors of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) and Kirkendall voids in Cu/Sn/Cu microbump were systematically investigated by an in-situ scanning electron microscope observation. Cu–Sn IMC total thickness increased linearly with the square root of the annealing time for 600 h at 150°C, which could be separated as first and second IMC growth steps. Our results showed that the growth behavior of the first void matched the growth behavior of second Cu6Sn5, and that the growth behavior of the second void matched that of the second Cu3Sn. It could be confirmed that double-layer Kirkendall voids growth kinetics were closely related to the Cu–Sn IMC growth mechanism in the Cu/Sn/Cu microbump, which could seriously deteriorate the mechanical and electrical reliabilities of the fine-pitch microbump systems
Technical Library | 2010-04-29 21:40:37.0
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of reflow time, reflow peak temperature, thermal shock and thermal aging on the intermetallic compound (IMC) thickness for Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu (SAC305) soldered joints.
Technical Library | 2015-11-19 18:15:07.0
The move to lead free (Pb-free) electronics by the commercial industry has resulted in an increasing number of ball grid array components (BGAs) which are only available with Pb-free solder balls. The reliability of these devices is not well established when assembled using a standard tin-lead (SnPb) solder paste and reflow profile, known as a backward compatible process. Previous studies in processing mixed alloy solder joints have demonstrated the importance of using a reflow temperature high enough to achieve complete mixing of the SnPb solder paste with the Pb-free solder ball. Research has indicated that complete mixing can occur below the melting point of the Pb-free alloy and is dependent on a number of factors including solder ball composition, solder ball to solder paste ratio, and peak reflow times and temperatures. Increasing the lead content in the system enables full mixing of the solder joint with a reduced peak reflow temperature, however, previous research is conflicting regarding the effect that lead percentage has on solder joint reliability in this mixed alloy solder joint.
Technical Library | 2020-12-16 18:38:49.0
Fabrication of large structures using out-of-autoclave prepreg materials will lead to a great amount of savings in manufacturing costs. In the out-of-autoclave processing method, the presence of voids inside the laminate has been an issue due to the lack of high pressure during manufacturing. This study aims primarily to observe the moisture absorption response of composite samples containing different levels of void. By changing the vacuum level inside the bag during the manufacturing process, three different unidirectional laminates at three levels of void have been manufactured. After immersing the samples in warm water at 60°C for about one year, the moisture absorption level was monitored and then diffusion coefficients were calculated using Fick's law. Results show that the moisture absorption coefficient changes by %8 within the experimental range of void contents. The mechanical behaviour of these laminates has been studied at four different moisture levels by performing dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and short beam shear tests. Empirical results indicate that, in general, interlaminar shear strength and glass transition temperature decrease by moisture build-up inside the samples. DiBenedetto equation is proposed to make a correlation between the moisture content and glass transition temperature.
Technical Library | 2015-07-16 17:24:23.0
Qualification of electronic hardware from a corrosion resistance standpoint has traditionally relied on stressing the hardware in a variety of environments. Before the development of tests based on mixed flowing gas (MFG), hardware was typically exposed to temperature-humidity cycling. In the pre-1980s era, component feature sizes were relatively large. Corrosion, while it did occur, did not in general degrade reliability. There were rare instances of the data center environments releasing corrosive gases and corroding hardware. One that got a lot of publicity was the corrosion by sulfur-bearing gases given off by data center carpeting. More often, corrosion was due to corrosive flux residues left on as-manufactured printed circuit boards (PCBs) that led to ion migration induced electrical shorting. Ion migration induced failures also occurred inside the PCBs due to poor laminate quality and moisture trapped in the laminate layers.
Technical Library | 2020-10-27 02:07:31.0
For companies that choose to take the Pb-free exemption under the European Union's RoHS Directive and continue to manufacture tin-lead (Sn-Pb) electronic products, there is a growing concern about the lack of Sn-Pb ball grid array (BGA) components. Many companies are compelled to use the Pb-free Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) BGA components in a Sn-Pb process, for which the assembly process and solder joint reliability have not yet been fully characterized. A careful experimental investigation was undertaken to evaluate the reliability of solder joints of SAC BGA components formed using Sn-Pb solder paste. This evaluation specifically looked at the impact of package size, solder ball volume, printed circuit board (PCB) surface finish, time above liquidus and peak temperature on reliability. Four different BGA package sizes (ranging from 8 to 45 mm2) were selected with ball-to-ball pitch size ranging from 0.5mm to 1.27mm. Two different PCB finishes were used: electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG) and organic solderability preservative (OSP) on copper. Four different profiles were developed with the maximum peak temperatures of 210oC and 215oC and time above liquidus ranging from 60 to 120 seconds using Sn-Pb paste. One profile was generated for a lead-free control. A total of 60 boards were assembled. Some of the boards were subjected to an as assembled analysis while others were subjected to an accelerated thermal cycling (ATC) test in the temperature range of -40oC to 125oC for a maximum of 3500 cycles in accordance with IPC 9701A standard. Weibull plots were created and failure analysis performed. Analysis of as-assembled solder joints revealed that for a time above liquidus of 120 seconds and below, the degree of mixing between the BGA SAC ball alloy and the Sn-Pb solder paste was less than 100 percent for packages with a ball pitch of 0.8mm or greater. Depending on package size, the peak reflow temperature was observed to have a significant impact on the solder joint microstructural homogeneity. The influence of reflow process parameters on solder joint reliability was clearly manifested in the Weibull plots. This paper provides a discussion of the impact of various profiles' characteristics on the extent of mixing between SAC and Sn-Pb solder alloys and the associated thermal cyclic fatigue performance.
Technical Library | 2010-12-22 13:59:14.0
This paper discusses polymer based nanogels, nanofluids and nanopastes for thermal interface material (TIM) applications. Nanopaste and nanogel formulated using controlled-sized particles to fill small bond lines is highlighted.