Technical Library | 1999-08-27 09:29:49.0
Contract packaging houses have to contend with a large mix of die types and products. Flexibility and quick turnaround of package types is a must in this industry. Traditional methods of die encapsulation, (i.e., use of transfer-molding techniques), are only cost effective when producing a large number of components. Liquid encapsulants now provide similar levels of reliability1, and are cost effective...
Technical Library | 2021-01-03 19:24:52.0
Reflow soldering is the primary method for interconnecting surface mount technology (SMT) applications. Successful implementation of this process depends on whether a low defect rate can be achieved. In general, defects often can be attributed to causes rooted in all three aspects, including materials, processes, and designs. Troubleshooting of reflow soldering requires identification and elimination of root causes. Where correcting these causes may be beyond the reach of manufacturers, further optimizing the other relevant factors becomes the next best option in order to minimize the defect rate.
Technical Library | 2019-01-02 21:51:49.0
Failed solder joints remain a constant source of printed circuit board failure. Soldering is the bonding of metallic surfaces via an intermetallic compound (IMC). The interaction between thermal energy delivery, flux chemistry, and solder chemistry creates the solder bond or joint. Today, reliability relies on visual inspection; operator experience and skill, control of influencers e.g. tip geometry, tip temperature, and collection and analysis of process data. Each factor involved with the formation of the solder joint is an element of risk and can affect either throughput or repeatability. Mitigating this risk in hand soldering requires the identification of these factors and a means to address them.
Technical Library | 2019-05-21 17:31:39.0
In the field of electronics manufacturing, the end use of the product will always dictate the processes, procedures, and methods, not only for building the product, but also for testing, cleaning, and protecting the assembly in order to assure the level of quality required for proper operation. The need to protect an electronic assembly from its end use environment may stem from anyone of a number of hazardous (or potentially hazardous) conditions. Choosing the type of protective material is dependent upon matching that material’s characteristics with the conditions to be overcome. Naturally, the use of a protective (conformal) coating will require some method of verification to ensure the desired level and type of protection is achieved.
Technical Library | 2016-10-06 15:13:02.0
One of the methods gaining in popularity for singulating rigid/flex, rigid and flex circuit boards post assembly is through the use of laser routing. This method has the advantage of speed, positional accuracy, no tooling wear and lastly no induced mechanical stresses on components during the singulating process.
Technical Library | 2010-11-24 20:47:38.0
As the electronics manufacturing and assembly industry in the US recovers to some degree from the economic crisis which began in 2008, the challenge of component shortages has risen to the top as one of the stumbling blocks for contract assemblers and cap
Technical Library | 2013-10-10 16:28:21.0
In the past 15 years, stretchable electronic circuits have emerged as a new technology in the domain of assembly, interconnections, and sensor circuit technologies. In the meantime, a wide variety of processes using many different materials have been explored in this new field. In the current contribution, we present an approach inspired by conventional rigid and flexible printed circuit board (PCB) technology.
Technical Library | 2019-05-01 23:18:27.0
Moisture can accelerate various failure mechanisms in printed circuit board assemblies. Moisture can be initially present in the epoxy glass prepreg, absorbed during the wet processes in printed circuit board manufacturing, or diffuse into the printed circuit board during storage. Moisture can reside in the resin, resin/glass interfaces, and micro-cracks or voids due to defects. Higher reflow temperatures associated with lead-free processing increase the vapor pressure, which can lead to higher amounts of moisture uptake compared to eutectic tin-lead reflow processes. In addition to cohesive or adhesive failures within the printed circuit board that lead to cracking and delamination, moisture can also lead to the creation of low impedance paths due to metal migration, interfacial degradation resulting in conductive filament formation, and changes in dimensional stability. Studies have shown that moisture can also reduce the glass-transition temperature and increase the dielectric constant, leading to a reduction in circuit switching speeds and an increase in propagation delay times. This paper provides an overview of printed circuit board fabrication, followed by a brief discussion of moisture diffusion processes, governing models, and dependent variables. We then present guidelines for printed circuit board handling and storage during various stages of production and fabrication so as to mitigate moisture-induced failures.
Technical Library | 2009-04-30 18:06:24.0
This presentation surveys the most significant via and via-related laminate failure mechanisms from past to present using data from current induced thermal cycling (CITC) testing, failure analysis, and other sources. The relative life and failure modes of thru vias, buried vias, and microvias (stacked vs. non-stacked) are compared, along with the affect of structure, materials, and peak temperatures on the above. The origin of via-induced laminate failures such as "eyebrow cracks" and Pb free related internal delamination is also explored.
Technical Library | 2017-06-22 17:11:53.0
C-mode scanning acoustic microscopy (C-SAM) is a non-destructive inspection technique showing the internal features of a specimen by ultrasound. The C-SAM is the preferred method for finding “air gaps” such as delamination, cracks, voids, and porosity. This paper presents evaluations performed on various advanced packages/assemblies especially flip-chip die version of ball grid array/column grid array (BGA/CGA) using C-SAM equipment. For comparison, representative x-ray images of the assemblies were also gathered to show key defect detection features of the two non-destructive techniques.