Technical Library | 2020-06-12 00:12:13.0
Responding to the immediate challenge While COVID-19 may be the catalyst for companies to revisit their global supply chain strategy and accelerate the adoption of Digital Supply Network models and capabilities, short-term actions need to be made to respond to the immediate challenge.
Technical Library | 2018-05-30 15:31:21.0
The aim of this research is to examine the relationship between green logistics operations and energy demand, economic growth and environmental sustainability need to make factors for relationship clearer in a panel data of 43 different countries around the globe. The study employed panel Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) estimates for robust inferences. The results have revealed that logistics operations consume energy and fossil fuel, while the amount of fossil fuel and non-green energy sources create significant harmful effect on the environmental sustainability and also have negative effect on economic growth. In addition, poor transport-related infrastructure and logistics service are a major contributor of CO2 and total greenhouse gas emissions. However, carbon emission damages fauna and flora, and reduces economic growth. The findings suggest that renewable energy sources and green practices can mitigate harmful effect of logistics operations on environmental sustainability and spur economic activities with greatly export opportunities in a region.
Technical Library | 2014-09-04 17:43:19.0
The counterfeiting of electronic components has become a major challenge in the 21st century. The electronic component supply chain has been greatly affected by widespread counterfeit incidents. A specialized service of testing, detection, and avoidance must be created to tackle the worldwide outbreak of counterfeit integrated circuits (ICs). So far, there are standards and programs in place for outlining the testing, documenting, and reporting procedures. However, there is not yet enough research addressing the detection and avoidance of such counterfeit parts. In this paper we will present, in detail, all types of counterfeits, the defects present in them, and their detection methods. We will then describe the challenges to implementing these test methods and to their effectiveness. We will present several anti-counterfeit measures to prevent this widespread counterfeiting, and we also consider the effectiveness and limitations of these anti-counterfeiting techniques.
Technical Library | 2016-09-29 17:23:51.0
The old tactic of outsourcing to a low cost geography simply to deliver lowest cost direct and indirect labor was never a panacea supply chain solution. In fact, when evaluating solutions for lower volume and higher mix products typically found in the medical, industrial and public safety segments of the OEM market, IL & DL costs are only one subset of the total cost to land the product and service the ultimate customer. In this paper, there will be examination of what actual cost components should be included in a landed cost analysis, the soft costs that an OEM should consider to deliver outstanding performance in quality, logistics and delivery management of the supply chain solution. A detailed comparison using a 'case study' will be presented to demonstrate a total landed cost option versus one that is focused on IL/DL cost.
Technical Library | 2013-03-14 17:19:28.0
Commercial-off-the-shelf ball/column grid array packaging (COTS BGA/CGA) technologies in high reliability versions are now being considered for use in a number of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) electronic systems. Understanding the process and quality assurance (QA) indicators for reliability are important for low-risk insertion of these advanced electronic packages. This talk briefly discusses an overview of packaging trends for area array packages from wire bond to flip-chip ball grid array (FCBGA) as well as column grid array (CGA). It then presents test data including manufacturing and assembly board-level reliability for FCBGA packages with 1704 I/Os and 1-mm pitch, fine pitch BGA (FPBGA) with 432 I/Os and 0.4-mm pitch, and PBGA with 676 I/Os and 1.0-mm pitch packages. First published in the 2012 IPC APEX EXPO technical conference proceedings.
Technical Library | 2007-05-31 19:05:55.0
This paper discusses solder paste printing and flux dipping assembly processes for 0.4 and 0.5mm pitch lead-free WLCSPs and the corresponding assembly results and thermal cyclic reliability obtained. Variables evaluated include reflow ambient, paste type, and stencil design. Reliability is also compared to results for the same components assembled under identical conditions using SnPb solder.
Technical Library | 2015-01-08 17:26:59.0
Regardless of the accelerating trend for design and conversion to Pb-free manufacturing, many high reliability electronic equipment producers continue to manufacture and support tin-lead (SnPb) electronic products. Certain high reliability electronic products from the telecommunication, military, and medical sectors manufacture using SnPb solder assembly and remain in compliance with the RoHS Directive (restriction on certain hazardous substances) by invoking the European Union Pb-in-solder exemption. Sustaining SnPb manufacturing has become more challenging because the global component supply chain is converting rapidly to Pb-free offerings and has a decreasing motivation to continue producing SnPb product for the low-volume, high reliability end users. Availability of critical, larger SnPb BGA components is a growing concern
Technical Library | 2013-05-23 17:41:21.0
Printed Electronics is considered by many international technologists to be a platform for manufacturing innovation. Its rich portfolio of advanced multi-functional nano-designed materials, scalable ambient processes, and high volume manufacturing technologies lends itself to offer an opportunity for sustained manufacturing innovation. The success of introducing a new manufacturing technology is strongly dependent on the ability to achieve high final product yields at current or reduced cost. In the past, standards have been the critical vehicles to enable manufacturing success... First published in the 2012 IPC APEX EXPO technical conference proceedings.
Technical Library | 2014-05-29 13:48:14.0
Electronics packaging based on stress-engineered spring interconnects has the potential to enable integrated IC testing, fine pitch, and compliance not readily available with other technologies. We describe new spring contacts which simultaneously achieve low resistance ( 30 μm) in dense 2-D arrays (180 ~ 180-µm pitch). Mechanical characterization shows that individual springs operate at approximately 150-µN force. Electrical measurements and simulations imply that the interface contact resistance contribution to a single contact resistance is This paper suggests that integrated testing and packaging can be performed with the springs, enabling new capabilities for markets such as multichip modules.
Technical Library | 2014-01-02 15:56:55.0
With ROHS compliance the transition to lead-free is inevitable. Several lead-free alloys are available in the market and its reliability has been the main concern. The results from this experimental research aims at making a comparison of different lead-free alloy combinations. Thermal shock and drop tests are a part of this experimental study.