Technical Library | 2020-11-04 17:49:45.0
OEMs and CMs designing and building electronic assemblies for high reliability applications are typically faced with a decision to clean or not to clean the assembly. If ionic residues remain on the substrate surface, potential failure mechanisms, including dendritic growth by electrochemical migration reaction and leakage current, may result. These failures have been well documented. If a decision to clean substrates is made, there are numerous cleaning process options available. For defluxing applications, the most common systems are spray-in-air, employing either batch or inline cleaning equipment and an engineered aqueous based cleaning agent. Regardless of the type of cleaning process adopted, effective cleaning of post solder residue requires chemical, thermal and mechanical energies. The chemical energy is derived from the engineered cleaning agent; the thermal energy from the increased temperature of the cleaning agent, and the mechanical energy from the pump system employed within the cleaning equipment. The pump system, which includes spray pressure, spray bar configuration and nozzle selection, is optimized for the specific process to create an efficient cleaning system. As board density has increased and component standoff heights have decreased, cleaning processes are steadily challenged. Over time, cleaning agent formulations have advanced to match new solder paste developments, spray system configurations have improved, and wash temperatures (thermal energy) have been limited to a maximum of 160ºF. In most cases, this is due to thermal limitations of the materials used to build the polymer-based cleaning equipment. Building equipment out of stainless steel is an option, but one that may be cost prohibitive. Given the maximum allowable wash temperature, difficult cleaning applications are met by increasing the wash exposure time; including reducing the conveyor speed of inline cleaners or extending wash time in batch cleaners. Although this yields effective cleaning results, process productivity may be compromised. However, high temperature resistant polymer materials, capable of withstanding a 180°F wash temperature, are now available and can be used in cleaning equipment builds. For this study, the authors explored the potential for increasing cleaning process efficiency as a result of an increase in thermal energy due to the use of higher wash temperature. The cleaning equipment selected was an inline cleaner built with high temperature resistant polymer material. For the analysis, standard substrates were used. These were populated with numerous low standoff chip cap components and soldered with both no-clean tin-lead and lead-free solder pastes. Two aqueous based cleaning agents were selected, and multiple wash temperatures and wash exposure times were evaluated. Cleanliness assessments were made through visual analysis of under-component inspection, as well as localized extraction and Ion Chromatography in accordance with current IPC standards.
Technical Library | 2012-12-17 22:05:22.0
Package on Package (PoP) has become a relatively common component being used in mobile electronics as it allows for saving space in the board layout due to the 3D package layout. To insure device reliability through drop tests and thermal cycling as well as for protecting proprietary programming of the device either one or both interconnect layers are typically underfilled. When underfill is applied to a PoP, or any component for that matter, there is a requirement that the board layout is such that there is room for an underfill reservoir so that the underfill material does not come in contact with surrounding components. The preferred method to dispensing the underfill material is through a jetting process that minimizes the wet out area of the fluid reservoir compared to traditional needle dispensing. To further minimize the wet out area multiple passes are used so that the material required to underfill the component is not dispensed at once requiring a greater wet out area. Dispensing the underfill material in multiple passes is an effective way to reduce the wet out area and decrease the distance that surrounding components can be placed, however, this comes with a process compromise of additional processing time in the underfill dispenser. The purpose of this paper is to provide insight to the inverse relationship that exists between the wet out area of the underfill reservoir and the production time for the underfill process.
Technical Library | 2009-09-18 14:42:37.0
In recent years, various studies have been issued on cleaning under low standoff components; most however, with incomplete information. It is essential to revisit and describe the latest challenges in the market, identifying obvious gaps in available information. Such information is crucial for potential and existing users to fully address the cleanliness levels under their respective components. With the emergence of lead-free soldering and even smaller components, new challenges have arisen including cleaning in gaps of less than 1-mil.
Technical Library | 2020-12-02 20:36:54.0
Industry 4.0 is a topic of much discussion within the electronics manufacturing industry. Manufacturers and vendors are trying to come to terms with what that means. In the most simplistic of terms, Industry 4.0 is a trend toward automation and data exchange within the manufacturing process. This basically requires connectivity and communication from machine to machine within the manufacturing line. The challenge is to collect data from each of the systems within the line and make that data available to the rest of the machines. Without test and inspection, there is no Industry 4.0. The whole purpose of test and inspection is to collect actionable data that may be used to reduce defects and maximize efficiency within the manufacturing line. The goal is to minimize scrap and get a really good handle on those process parameters that need to be put in place to manufacture products the right way the first time. For maximum efficiency, three inspection systems are required within the production line. These are solder paste inspection (SPI) post-solder deposition, automated optical inspection (AOI) post-placement, and AOI post-reflow. This requires a substantial investment; however, the combination of all three inspection machines is really the only true way to provide feedback for each stage of the manufacturing process.
Technical Library | 1999-08-27 09:27:10.0
Conformal coating is a material that is applied to electronic products or assemblies to protect them from solvents, moisture, dust or other contaminants that may cause harm. Coating also prevents dendrite growth, which may result in product failure. This paper will discuss the variables that affect the application of conformal coatings, and review in detail those variables that impact the process of selective coating of printed circuit boards.
Technical Library | 2021-01-03 19:24:52.0
Reflow soldering is the primary method for interconnecting surface mount technology (SMT) applications. Successful implementation of this process depends on whether a low defect rate can be achieved. In general, defects often can be attributed to causes rooted in all three aspects, including materials, processes, and designs. Troubleshooting of reflow soldering requires identification and elimination of root causes. Where correcting these causes may be beyond the reach of manufacturers, further optimizing the other relevant factors becomes the next best option in order to minimize the defect rate.
Technical Library | 2019-05-29 10:38:59.0
Decapsulation, or de-cap, is a failure analysis technique which involves the removal of material packaging from an integrated circuit (IC). After de-cap, visual inspection by optical microscopy of the internal circuitry may reveal areas where damage is most likely to have occurred. In addition, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) can identify the composition of any anomalies present after de-cap under higher magnification. The removal process of package material can be done either mechanically or chemically depending on the design of the integrated circuit. With ceramic packaging, de-cap is usually done mechanically by chiseling off the top with a fine razor and small hammer. For plastic packaging, de-cap requires chemical etching by strong acids. In this Tech Tips article, de-cap by chemical etching will be outlined step by step.
Technical Library | 2020-09-02 14:34:23.0
Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a process of creating coatings on a molecular layer by layer basis. Using an iterated sequence of self-saturating deposition cycles that are self-terminating, a single layer can be deposited at a time, allowing for highly uniform films with complete conformality. The composition of the film typically used for coating printed wiring boards (PWBs) is a high alumina (Al2O3) sequential deposition of alumina and titania capped with a corrosion protective titanium aluminate layer, most notably ALD-Cap from Sundew Technologies, LLC. Rework is a process of restoring an electronics assembly to full functionality to prolong equipment life and reduce the amount of scrap. The process typically involves:
Technical Library | 2019-12-05 13:30:46.0
Conformal coatings are regularly employed to protect the surface of a soldered printed circuit board assembly from moisture, chemicals in the PCBA's service environment, and foreign objects or debris. Conformal coatings are nonconductive and therefore cannot be placed on any location where electrical contact will be required, such as connector pins, test points, and sockets. Conformal coatings are also not permitted on any mechanical interface location, such as mounting holes or brackets, to assure the proper fit between items in the final assembly. In order to apply conformal coatings to an assembly and comply with the restrictions on keep-out areas, masking is employed to protect those surfaces.
Technical Library | ACI Technologies, Inc.
One of the two basic risks of employing the commercially accepted, Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) compliant, lead-free (Pb-free) electronics is the threat to the electronics reliability from the growth of tin whiskers. The other basic risk deals with Pb-free solder joint reliability.