Technical Library | 2018-05-30 15:31:21.0
The aim of this research is to examine the relationship between green logistics operations and energy demand, economic growth and environmental sustainability need to make factors for relationship clearer in a panel data of 43 different countries around the globe. The study employed panel Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) estimates for robust inferences. The results have revealed that logistics operations consume energy and fossil fuel, while the amount of fossil fuel and non-green energy sources create significant harmful effect on the environmental sustainability and also have negative effect on economic growth. In addition, poor transport-related infrastructure and logistics service are a major contributor of CO2 and total greenhouse gas emissions. However, carbon emission damages fauna and flora, and reduces economic growth. The findings suggest that renewable energy sources and green practices can mitigate harmful effect of logistics operations on environmental sustainability and spur economic activities with greatly export opportunities in a region.
Technical Library | 2020-10-14 14:49:14.0
In this study, the modification of an epoxy matrix with different amounts of cube-like and rod-like CaCO3 nanoparticles was investigated. The effects of variations in the morphology of CaCO3 on the mechanical properties and thermal stability of the CaCO3/epoxy composites were studied. The rod-like CaCO3/epoxy composites (EP-rod) showed a higher degradation temperature (4.5 _C) than neat epoxy. The results showed that the mechanical properties, such as the flexural strength, flexural modulus, and fracture toughness of the epoxy composites with CaCO3 were enhanced by the addition of cube-like and rod-like CaCO3 nanoparticles. Moreover, the mechanical properties of the composites were enhanced by increasing the amount of CaCO3 added but decreased when the filler content reached 2%. The fracture toughness Kic and fracture energy release rate Gic of cube-like and rod-like CaCO3/epoxy composites (0.85/0.74 MPa m1/2 and 318.7/229.5 J m
Technical Library | 2007-09-06 11:03:33.0
EFD Inc. and Leister USA have collaborated to bust the myth that you cannot perform laser reflow with solder paste. Using Leister diode lasers, EFD has formulated solder pastes that survive the rapid reflow cycle typical of laser heating. These solder pastes reflow and wet well, without spatter, even when heating is accomplished in less than half a second. The flux core in wire solders cannot boast such flux spatter resistance in such an aggressive heating environment.
Technical Library | 2019-09-11 23:33:04.0
There are numerous techniques to singulate printed circuit boards after assembly including break-out, routing, wheel cutting and now laser cutting. Lasers have several desirable advantages such as very narrow kerf widths as well as virtually no dust, no mechanical stress, visual pattern recognition and fast set-up changes. The very narrow kerf width resulting from laser ablation and the very tight tolerance of the cutting path placement allows for more usable space on the panel. However, the energy used in the laser cutting process can also create unwanted products on the cut walls as a result of the direct laser ablation. The question raised often is: What are these products, and how far can the creation of such products be mitigated through variation of the laser cutting process, laser parameters and material handling? This paper discusses the type and quantity of the products found on sidewalls of laser depaneled circuit boards and it quantifies the results through measurements of breakdown voltage, as well as electrical impedance. Further this paper discusses mitigation strategies to prevent or limit the amount of change in surface quality as a result of the laser cutting process. Depending on the final application of the circuit board it may prompt a need for proper specification of the expected results in terms of cut surface quality. This in turn will impact the placement of runs and components during layout. It will assist designers and engineers in defining these parameters sufficiently in order to have a predictable quality of the circuit boards after depaneling.
Technical Library | 2020-02-14 14:43:21.0
To meet the steady increase in technical requirements for electronic components, potting media properties must be extremely precise. Rheology, viscosity, filler content and curing behavior are only a few of the factors that play a role in their practical use. However, the growing complexity of materials often negatively impacts the ability to process or dispense them. In this case, material preparation and feeding systems specially designed for this purpose are required. These systems optimally prepare the material for the actual application and ensure homogeneous feeding to the dispensing system.
Technical Library | 2018-11-29 13:43:54.0
Ionic contamination testing as a process control tool a newly developed testing protocol based on IPC-TM 650 2.3.25, was established to enable monitoring of ionic contamination within series production. The testing procedure was successfully implemented within the production of high reliability, safety critical electronic circuits, involving multiple production sites around the world. I will be shown in this paper that the test protocol is capable for meeting Six-Sigma-Criteria.
Technical Library | 2018-11-07 20:48:01.0
Glass offers a number of advantages as a dielectric material, such as a low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), high dimensional stability, high thermal conductivity and suitable dielectric constant. These properties make glass an ideal candidate for, among other things, package substrate and high-frequency PCB applications. We report here a novel process for the production of printed circuit boards and integrated circuit packaging using glass as both a dielectric medium and a platform for wiring simultaneously.
Technical Library | 2007-05-09 18:26:16.0
High Density Interconnect (HDI) technology is fast becoming the enabling technology for the next generation of small portable electronic communication devices. These methods employ many different dielectrics and via fabrication technologies. In this research, the effect of the proximity of microvias to Plated Through Holes (PTHs) and its effect on the reliability of the microvias was extensively evaluated. The reliability of microvia interconnect structures was evaluated using Liquid-To-Liquid Thermal Shock (LLTS) testing (-55oC to +125oC). Comprehensive failure analysis was performed on microvias fabricated using different via fabrication technologies.
Technical Library | 2017-09-13 00:20:21.0
The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between energy-resource depletion, climate change, health resources and the Environmental Kuznets Curve(EKC) under the financial constraint environment in the panel of selected developed countries, over the period of 2000–2013.