Technical Library | 2019-05-24 09:22:59.0
There is a smaller process window and a much narrower margin of error when creating and using lead-free reflow profiles for surface mount parts on printed circuit boards (PCBs). Solder balls, dewetting, tombstones, voids, and head-on-pillow problems will occur much more frequently because lead-free alloys behave differently than eutectic pastes. Problems are compounded due to the extra heat necessary for some lead-free pastes to reach their melting points.
Technical Library | 2019-07-11 11:07:08.0
Affordability is not exactly the primary word which comes to mind when discussing the use of design of experiments (DOE) principles, but is generally accepted as a necessary part of the engineering activities required in the development of a product or process. However, a number of studies have indicated that the cost savings derived from a well deliberated experimental design can be substantial in the initial stages where the conditions or parameters of a process are determined. Some studies have shown a greater than 50% cost savings compared to the more conventional means of trial and error approaches to process development. At ACI Technologies (ACI), we have found the use of DOE techniques fundamental in eliminating extraneous costs otherwise spent on unnecessary testing.
Technical Library | 2008-10-29 18:45:53.0
Growing demand for compact, multi-function electronics products has accelerated component miniaturization and high-density placement, creating new challenges for the electronics manufacturing industry. It is no longer adequate to simply place parts accurately per a pre-defined CAD assembly program because solder paste alignment errors are increasing for numerous reasons. The solution to this problem is a system in which the placement machine can automatically detect and compensate for misalignment of the solder paste to produce high-quality boards regardless of the process errors beforehand.
Technical Library | 2009-12-14 20:24:19.0
In the lead-free era, thermal profiling has a critical role in the SMT assembly process. We discuss the profiling, tools, practical issues, and inspection methods of golden boards, and related tools. As the process window narrows, profiling equipment and/or thermocouple (TC) errors must be taken into consideration. In addition, the accuracy and attachment method of the thermocouple will significantly impact critical assemblies.
Technical Library | 2019-08-15 13:31:52.0
Cracks in ceramic chip capacitors can be introduced at any process step during surface mount assembly. Thermal shock has become a "pat" answer for all of these cracks, but about 75 to 80% originate from other sources. These sources include pick and place machine centering jaws, vacuum pick up bit, board depanelization, unwarping boards after soldering, test fixtures, connector insulation, final assembly, as well as defective components. Each source has a unique signature in the type of crack that it develops so that each can be identified as the source of error.
Technical Library | 2015-04-02 20:12:58.0
The demands on volume delivery and positioning accuracy for solder paste deposits are increasing as the size and complexity of circuits continue to develop in the electronics industry. According to the iNEMI 2013 placement accuracy for these kinds of components will reach 6 sigma placement accuracy in X and Y of 30 um by 2023.This study attempts to understand the dependencies on piezo actuation pulse profile on jetting deposit quality, especially focused on positioning, satellites and shape. The correlation of deposit diameter and positioning deviation as a function of piezo actuation profile shows that positioning error for deposits increase almost monotonically with decreasing droplet volume irrespective of the piezo-actuation profile. The trends for shape and satellite levels are not as clear and demand further study.
Technical Library | 2020-03-04 23:53:17.0
Critical to maintaining quality control in high-throughput screening is the need for constant monitoring of liquid-dispensing fidelity. Traditional methods involve operator intervention with gravimetric analysis to monitor the gross accuracy of full plate dispenses, visual verification of contents, or dedicated weigh stations on screening platforms that introduce potential bottlenecks and increase the plate-processing cycle time. We present a unique solution using open-source hardware, software, and 3D printing to automate dispenser accuracy determination by providing real-time dispense weight measurements via a network-connected precision balance. This system uses an Arduino microcontroller to connect a precision balance to a local network. By integrating the precision balance as an Internet of Things (IoT) device, it gains the ability to provide real-time gravimetric summaries of dispensing, generate timely alerts when problems are detected, and capture historical dispensing data for future analysis. All collected data can then be accessed via a web interface for reviewing alerts and dispensing information in real time or remotely for timely intervention of dispense errors. The development of this system also leveraged 3D printing to rapidly prototype sensor brackets, mounting solutions, and component enclosures.
Technical Library | 2020-12-16 18:50:42.0
System operating speeds continue to increase as a function of the consumer demand for such technologies as faster Internet connectivity, video on demand, and mobile communications technology. As a result, new high performance PCB substrates have emerged to address signal integrity issues at higher operating frequencies. These are commonly called low Dk and/or low loss (Df) materials. The published "typical" values found on a product data sheet provide limited information, usually a single construction and resin content, and are derived from a wide range of test methods and test sample configurations. A printed circuit board designer or front end application engineer must be aware that making a design decision based on the limited information found on a product data sheet can lead to errors which can delay a product launch or increase the assembled PCB cost. The purpose of this paper is to highlight critical selection factors that go beyond a typical product data sheet and explain how these factors must be considered when selecting materials for high speed applications
Technical Library | 2019-10-24 06:29:59.0
Making your novel electronic item design ready for mass fabrication and printed circuit board assembly consists of a lot of steps as well as risks. I will provide a few recommendations about how to neglect pricey errors and how to reduce the time to promote your novel item designs. You can hire printed circuit board assembly services for this. As soon as you have accomplished your product as well as printed circuit board design, you wish to get started developing prototypes prior to you commit to big fabrication volume. A lot of design software packages, for instance, PCB layout design software, as well as an industrial design software program, possess simulation potentials incorporated. Carrying out a simulation facilitates curtailing numerous design mistakes prior to the first prototype is developed. In case you are developing an intrusive item, you might desire to think about a modular design wherein all of the chief functionalities are situated in individual modules. All through your testing, you could then swap modules that don’t cater to the design limits. Spinning individual modules would be swifter and more cost-effective in comparison to spinning a complete design. Counting on the design intricacy, you can mull over manually mounting printed circuit board elements to bank dollars. Nonetheless, for medium to big intricacy this procedure likely to be very time taking, typically in case you wish to create numerous prototypes. Hence it makes sense thinking about a contract manufacturer for the assembly. Whilst running miniature quantity fabrication runs, the fabrication setup expenditure will usually control the by and large prototype constructs expenditure. Whilst seeking a subcontractor, it is finest to choose a vendor that focuses on prototype builds to reduce the cost. Prototype printed circuit board fabricators characteristically join the circuit boards of a number of clients which efficiently shares the setup expenditure in the midst of some customers. The disadvantage is that you would characteristically only be able to want among numerous standard printed circuit board material thicknesses as well as sizes. Apart from choosing a supplier with low setup expenditure, choosing a firm that would moreover be capable to manage your whole fabrication runs curtails mistakes because switching fabricators have the chance of errors owing to a specific supplier interpreting fabrication design data in a different way. This manner your design is already translated into the particular machine data that implies little or no setup expenditure for your final fabrication. A few PCB manufacturers also provide printed circuit board design services that are awesome plus if you do not possess experience with the design. Moreover, these vendors would be capable to help you in case there are issues with your design folders and be capable to detect issues prior to the fabrication.
Technical Library | 2019-09-04 21:35:53.0
Since the European Directives, RoHS (Restriction of Hazardous Substances) and REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals), entered into force in 2006-7, the number of regulated substances continues to grow. REACH adds new substances roughly twice a year, and more substances will be added to RoHS in 2019. While these open-ended regulations represent an ongoing burden for supply chain reporting, some ability to remain ahead of new substance restrictions can be achieved through full material declarations (FMD) specifically the IPC-1752A Class D Standard (the "Standard"), which was developed by the IPC - Association Connecting Electronic Industries. What is important to the supply chain is access to user-friendly, easily accessible or free, fully supported tools that allow suppliers to create and modify XML (Extensible Markup Language) files as specified in the Standard. Some tools will provide enhancements that validate required data entry and provide real-time interactive messages to facilitate the resolution of errors. In addition, validation and auto-population of substance CAS (Chemical Abstract Service) numbers, and Class D weight rollup validation ensure greater success in the acceptance of the declarations in customer systems that automate data gathering and reporting. A good tool should support importing existing IPC-1752A files for editing; this capability reduces the effort to update older declarations and greatly benefits suppliers of a family of products with similar composition. One of the problems with FMDs is the use of "wildcard" non-CAS numbers based on a declarable substance list (DSL). While the substances in different company's lists tend to have some overlap, no two DSL’s are the same. We provide an understanding of the commonality and differences between representative DSLs, and the ability to configure how much of a non-DSL substance percent is allowed. Case studies are discussed to show how supplier compliance data, can be automatically loaded into the customer's enterprise compliance system. Finally, we briefly discuss future enhancements and other developments like Once an Article, Always an Article (O5A) that will continue to require IPC standards and supporting tools to evolve.