Technical Library | 2023-01-17 17:12:33.0
Reflowed indium metal has for decades been the standard for solder thermal interface materials (solder TIMs or sTIMs) in most high-performance computing (HPC) TIM1 applications. The IEEE Heterogeneous Integration Thermal roadmap states that new thermal interface materials solutions must provide a path to the successful application of increased total-package die areas up to 100cm2. While GPU architectures are relatively isothermal during usage, CPU hotspots in complex heterogeneously-integrated modules will need to be able to handle heat flux hotspots up to 1000W/cm2 within the next two years. Indium and its alloys are used as reflowed solder thermal interface materials in both CPU and GPU "die to lid/heat spreader" (TIM1) applications. Their high bulk thermal conductivity and proven long-term reliability suit them well for extreme thermomechanical stresses. Voiding is the most important failure mode and has been studied by x-ray. The effects of surface pretreatment, pressure during reflow, solder flux type/fluxless processing, and preform design parameters, such as alloy type, are also examined. The paper includes data on both vacuum and pressure (autoclave) reflow of sTIMs, which is becoming necessary to meet upcoming requirements for ultralow voiding in some instances.
Technical Library | 2019-09-03 17:06:09.0
Both optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are powerful tools for failure analysis in electronics and are used for low and high magnification examination. This article will provide detailed, step by step information for examining solder joints.
Technical Library | 2020-04-14 15:56:32.0
This paper will focus on the application requirements of solder printing small aperture designs, concentrating on 008004 (inch) / 0201 (metric) size components, and the results of a design of experiment printing these challenging apertures. As Moore's law continues to be applied to component miniaturization, the next installment of reduced packaging has arrived in the form of the 008004/0201 for resistors and capacitors. Component size roughly the size of a grain of sand presents specific challenges to the solder printing process. To address these challenges, each aspect of the printing process will need be examined. This includes essential machine requirements, including correct squeegee blades, tooling support, and calibrations, to meet the demanding specifications. The correct match and design of materials will be addressed, focusing on the stencil and substrate design along with solder paste and cleaning solvent requirements. A design of experiment will be reviewed that applies the machine and materials discussed, including the printer and Solder Paste Inspection (SPI) setup and the specific machine parameters used. The results of these DOE's will then be closely examined.
Technical Library | 2019-05-30 10:59:13.0
In the current economic environment, the ability to reuse ball grid array(BGA) components that have failed due to solder defects may be an efficient way for electronics manufacturers to reduce costs. Cost may not be the only driving factor in the decision to engage in this recycling practice. The increasing demands placed upon the complexity of microprocessors and integrated circuits (ICs) has decreased the availability of some components, and increased their lead time. Because of this, reballing may provide a means to meet schedule, reduce rework turn-around time, and give a manufacturer a decisive advantage over other companies in an ever increasingly competitive market. This article will discuss the process of reballing BGA components (Figure 1), examining preparation (the preform method, the screen method), and cleaning and bake-out.
Technical Library | 1999-08-05 10:57:54.0
This study examines ergonomic stressors associated with front-end process tool maintenance, relates them to decreased machine utilization, and proposes solution strategies to reduce their negative impact on productivity.
Technical Library | 2017-09-13 00:20:21.0
The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between energy-resource depletion, climate change, health resources and the Environmental Kuznets Curve(EKC) under the financial constraint environment in the panel of selected developed countries, over the period of 2000–2013.
Technical Library | 2008-10-09 00:06:36.0
This article examines stamp soldering, a solution that provides consistent high quality by repeatedly applying accurate amounts of molten solder onto a printed circuit board using static volumetric solder stamps guaranteeing total flatness during the through-hole soldering process.
Technical Library | 2022-01-12 19:21:29.0
The benefits of autonomous vehicles (AVs) are widely acknowledged, but there are concerns about the extent of these benefits and AV risks and unintended consequences. In this article, we first examine AVs and different categories of the technological risks associated with them. We then explore strategies that can be adopted to address these risks, and explore emerging responses by governments for addressing AV risks.
Technical Library | 2012-12-14 14:28:20.0
This paper examines the potential failure mechanisms that can damage modern lowvoltage CMOS devices and their relationship to electrical testing. Failure mechanisms such as electrostatic discharge (ESD), CMOS latch-up, and transistor gate oxide degradation can occur as a result of electrical over-voltage stress (EOS). In this paper, EOS due to electrical testing is examined and an experiment is conducted using pulsed voltage waveforms corresponding to conditions encountered during in-circuit electrical testing. Experimental results indicate a correlation between amplitude and duration of the pulse waveform and device degradation due to one or more of the failure mechanisms.
Technical Library | 2016-07-07 15:37:18.0
How susceptible are the metals used in modern electronics manufacturing to corrosion by common beverages? This is a question of interest, especially to manufacturers, retailers and to a certain extent end customers. In this study the dissolution of aluminum, copper, gold, iron, lead, nickel, SAC305 solder, silver, tin and zinc was examined. Individual foils of these materials were fully immersed in one of sixteen chosen beverages and heated for 3 days at 40°C. The resulting solutions were analyzed using ICP-OES. The data were examined in light of the known pH, conductivity and ionic contents of the beverages, determined in previous work. Conclusions about the relative susceptibility to corrosion of the various metals and the corrosive power of the different beverages are made.