Technical Library | 2013-12-27 10:39:21.0
The head-in-pillow defect has become a relatively common failure mode in the industry since the implementation of Pb-free technologies, generating much concern. A head-in-pillow defect is the incomplete wetting of the entire solder joint of a Ball-Grid Array (BGA), Chip-Scale Package (CSP), or even a Package-On-Package (PoP) and is characterized as a process anomaly, where the solder paste and BGA ball both reflow but do not coalesce. When looking at a cross-section, it actually looks like a head has pressed into a soft pillow. There are two main sources of head-in-pillow defects: poor wetting and PWB or package warpage. Poor wetting can result from a variety of sources, such as solder ball oxidation, an inappropriate thermal reflow profile or poor fluxing action. This paper addresses the three sources or contributing issues (supply, process & material) of the head-in-pillow defects. It will thoroughly review these three issues and how they relate to result in head-in pillow defects. In addition, a head-in-pillow elimination plan will be presented with real life examples will be to illustrate these head-in-pillow solutions.
Technical Library | 2020-07-02 01:14:44.0
Head-in-Pillow (HIP) defects are a growing concern in the electronics industry. These defects are usually believed to be the result of several factors, individually or in combination. Some of the major contributing factors include: surface quality of the BGA spheres, activity of the paste flux, improper placement / misalignment of the components, a non-optimal reflow profile, and warpage of the components. To understand the role of each of these factors in producing head-in-pillow defects and to find ways to mitigate them, we have developed two in-house tests.
Technical Library | 2009-11-05 11:17:32.0
Head-in-pillow (HiP), also known as ball-and-socket, is a solder joint defect where the solder paste deposit wets the pad, but does not fully wet the ball. This results in a solder joint with enough of a connection to have electrical integrity, but lacking sufficient mechanical strength. Due to the lack of solder joint strength, these components may fail with very little mechanical or thermal stress. This potentially costly defect is not usually detected in functional testing, and only shows up as a failure in the field after the assembly has been exposed to some physical or thermal stress.
Technical Library | 2022-12-23 20:44:54.0
One of the upcoming reliability issues which is related to the lead-free solder introduction, are the headin-pillow solderability problems, mainly for BGA packages. These problems are due to excessive package warpage at reflow temperature. Both convex and concave warpage at reflow temperature can lead to the head-in-pillow problem where the solder paste and solder ball are in mechanical contact but not forming one uniform joint. With the thermo-Moiré profile measurements, this paper explains for two flex BGA packages the head-in-pillow. Both local and global height differences higher than 100 µm have been measured at solder reflow temperature. This can be sufficient to have no contact between the molten solder ball and solder paste. Finally, the impact of package drying is measured
Technical Library | 2010-03-04 18:11:53.0
While the electronics manufacturing industry has been occupied with the challenge of RoHS compliance and with it, Pb-free soldering, established trends of increasing functionality and miniaturization have continued. The increasing use of ultra-fine pitch and area-array devices presents challenges in both printing and flux technology. With the decrease in both the size and the pitch of said components, new problems may arise, such as head-in-pillow and graping defects
Technical Library | 2014-12-18 17:22:34.0
Manufacturing technology faces challenges with new packages/process when confronting the need for high yields. Identifying product defects associated with the manufacturing process is a critical part of electronics manufacturing. In this project, we focus on how to use AXI to identify BGA Head-in-Pillow (HIP), which is challenging for AXI testing. Our goal is to help us understand the capabilities of current AXI machines.
Technical Library | 2014-03-06 19:04:07.0
Over the last few years, there has been an increase in the rate of Head-in-Pillow component soldering defects which interrupts the merger of the BGA/CSP component solder spheres with the molten solder paste during reflow. The issue has occurred across a broad segment of industries including consumer, telecom and military. There are many reasons for this issue such as warpage issues of the component or board, ball co-planarity issues for BGA/CSP components and non-wetting of the component based on contamination or excessive oxidation of the component coating. The issue has been found to occur not only on lead-free soldered assemblies where the increased soldering temperatures may give rise to increase component/board warpage but also on tin-lead soldered assemblies.
Technical Library | 2017-07-06 15:50:17.0
Head-in-pillow (HiP) is a BGA defect which happens when solder balls and paste can't contact well during reflow soldering. Package warpage was one of the major reasons for HiP formation. In this paper, package warpage was measured and simulated. It was found that the package warpage was sensitive to the thickness of inside chips. A FEM method considering viscoelastic property of mold compound was introduced to simulate package warpage. The CTE mismatch was found contributes to more than 90% of the package warpage value when reflowing at the peak temperature. A method was introduced to measure the warpage threshold, which is the smallest warpage value that may lead to HiP. The results in different atmospheres showed that the warpage threshold was 50μm larger in N2 than that in air, suggesting that under N2 atmosphere the process window for HiP defects was larger than that under air, which agreed with the experiments.
Technical Library | 2016-01-12 11:05:28.0
The electronic industry is currently very interested in low temperature soldering processes such as using Sn/Bi alloy to improve process yield, eliminate the head-in-pillow effect, and enhance rework yield. However, Sn/Bi alloy is not strong enough to replace lead-free (SAC) and eutectic Sn/Pb alloys in most applications. In order to improve the strength of Sn/Bi solder joints, enhance mechanical performance, and improve reliability properties such as thermal cycling performance of soldered electronic devices, YINCAE has developed a low temperature solder joint encapsulant for Sn/Bi soldering applications. This low temperature solder joint encapsulant can be dipped, dispensed, or printed. After reflow with Sn/Bi solder paste or alloy, solder joint encapsulant encapsulates the solder joint. As a result, the strength of solder joints is enhanced by several times, and thermal cycling performance is significantly improved. All details will be discussed in this paper.
Technical Library | 2014-08-19 16:04:28.0
SMT assembly planning and failure analysis of surface mount assembly defects often include component warpage evaluation. Coplanarity values of Integrated Circuit packages have traditionally been used to establish pass/fail limits. As surface mount components become smaller, with denser interconnect arrays, and processes such package-on-package assembly become prevalent, advanced methods using dual surface full-field data become critical for effective Assembly Planning, Quality Assurance, and Failure Analysis. A more complete approach than just measuring the coplanarity of the package is needed. Analyzing the gap between two surfaces that are constantly changing during the reflow thermal cycle is required, to effectively address the challenges of modern SMT assembly.