Technical Library | 2017-07-27 16:51:57.0
Reliability Expectations of Highly Dense Electronic Assemblies is commonly validated using Ion Chromatography and Surface Insulation Resistance. Surface Insulation Resistance tests resistance drops on both cleaned and non-cleaned circuit assemblies. It is well documented in the literature that SIR detects ionic residue and the potential of this residue to cause leakage currents in the presence of humidity and bias. Residues under leadless components are hard to inspect for and to ensure flux residue is totally removed. The question many assemblers consider is the risk of residues that may still be present under the body of components.
Technical Library | 2017-07-13 16:16:27.0
Controlled humidity and temperature controlled surface insulation resistance (SIR) measurements of flux covered test vehicles, subject to a direct current (D.C.) bias voltage are recognized by a number of global standards organizations as the preferred method to determine if no clean solder paste and wave soldering flux residues are suitable for reliable electronic assemblies. The IPC, Japanese Industry Standard (JIS), Deutsches Institut fur Normung (DIN) and International Electrical Commission (IEC) all have industry reviewed standards using similar variations of this measurement. (...) This study will compare the results from testing two solder pastes using the IPC-J-STD-004B, IPC TM-650 188.8.131.52 surface insulation resistance test, and IPC TM-650 2.3.25 in an attempt to investigate the correlation of ROSE methods as predictors of electronic assembly electrical reliability.
Technical Library | 2013-04-11 15:43:17.0
With the explosion of growth in handheld electronics devices, manufacturers have been forced to look for ways to reinforce their assemblies against the inevitable bumps and drops that their products experience in the field. One method of reinforcement has been the utilization of underfills to "glue" certain SMDs to the PCB. Bumped SMDs attached to the PCB with a no-clean soldering process offer the unavoidable scenario of the underfill coming in contact with a flux residue. This may or may not create a reliability issue... First published in the 2012 IPC APEX EXPO technical conference proceedings
Technical Library | 2015-03-04 10:56:26.0
As the proliferation of modern day electronics continues to drive miniaturization and functionality, electronic designers/assemblers face the issue of environmental exposure and uncommon applications never previously contemplated. This reality, coupled with the goal of reducing the environmental and health implications of the production and disposal of these devices, has forced manufacturers to reconsider the materials used in production. Furthermore, the need to increase package density and reduce costs has led to the rapid deployment of leadless packages such as QFN, POP, LGA, and Micro-BGA. In many cases, the manufacturers of these devices will recommend the use of no clean fluxes due to concerns over the ability to consistently remove flux residues from under and around these devices. These concerns, along with the need to implement a tin whisker mitigation strategy and/or increase environmental tolerance, have led to the conundrum of applying conformal coating over no clean residues.
Technical Library | 2010-03-18 14:02:03.0
Selecting products that have been qualified by industry standards for use in printed circuit board assembly processes is an accepted best practice. That products which have been qualified, when used in combinations not specifically qualified, may have resultant properties detrimental to assembly function though, is often not adequately understood. Printed circuit boards, solder masks, soldering materials (flux, paste, cored wire, rework flux, paste flux, etc.), adhesives, and inks, when qualified per industry standards, are qualified using very specific test methods which may not adequately mimic the assembly process ultimately used.
Technical Library | 2016-12-22 16:44:04.0
Particulate matter contamination is known to become wet and therefore ionically conductive and corrosive if the humidity in the environment rises above the deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) of the particulate matter. In wet condition, particulate matter can electrically bridge closely spaced features on printed circuit boards (PCBs), leading to their electrical failure. (...) The objective of this paper is to develop and describe a practical, routine means of measuring the DRH of minute quantities of particulate matter (1 mg or less) found on PCBs.
Technical Library | 2018-08-29 21:17:53.0
No-clean solder pastes are widely used in a number of applications that are exposed to wide variations in temperature during the life of the assembled electronics device. Some have observed that cracks can and do form in flux residue and have postulated that this is the result of or exacerbated by temperature cycling. Furthermore, the potential exists for the flux residue to soften or liquefy at elevated temperatures, and even flow if orientated parallel to gravity. In situations such as in automotive electronics, where significant temperature cycling is a reality and high reliability is a must, concern sometimes exists that the cracking and possible softening or liquefying of the residue may have a deleterious effect on the electrical reliability of the flux residue. This paper will attempt to address this concern.
Technical Library | 2020-11-24 23:01:04.0
The miniaturization trend is driving industry to adopting low standoff components or components in cavity. The cost reduction pressure is pushing telecommunication industry to combine assembly of components and electromagnetic shield in one single reflow process. As a result, the flux outgassing/drying is getting very difficult for devices due to poor venting channel. This resulted in insufficiently dried/burnt-off flux residue. For a properly formulated flux, the remaining flux activity posed no issue in a dried flux residue for no-clean process. However, when venting channel is blocked, not only solvents remain, but also activators could not be burnt off. The presence of solvents allows mobility of active ingredients and the associated corrosion, thus poses a major threat to the reliability. In this work, a new halogen-free no-clean SnAgCu solder paste, 33-76-1, has been developed. This solder paste exhibited SIR value above the IPC spec 100 MΩ without any dendrite formation, even with a wet flux residue on the comb pattern. The wet flux residue was caused by covering the comb pattern with 10 mm × 10 mm glass slide during reflow and SIR testing in order to mimic the poorly vented low standoff components. The paste 33-76-1 also showed very good SMT assembly performance, including voiding of QFN and HIP resistance. The wetting ability of paste 33-76-1 was very good under nitrogen. For air reflow, 33-76-1 still matched paste C which is widely accepted by industry for air reflow process. The above good performance on both non-corrosivity with wet flux residue and robust SMT process can only be accomplished through a breakthrough in flux technology.
Technical Library | 2017-07-20 15:18:15.0
As electronic devices increase functionality in smaller form factors, there will be limitations, obstacles and challenges to overcome. Advances in component technology can create issues that may have time delayed effects. One such effect is device failure due to soldering residues trapped under bottom terminated components. If the residues trapped under the component termination are active and can be mobilized with moisture, there is the potential for ion mobilization causing current leakage.
Technical Library | 2012-08-09 20:33:45.0
First published in the 2012 IPC APEX EXPO technical conference proceedings. Corrosion resistance is becoming one of the most important topics in the electronics industry. Corrosion results in field failures and huge losses, which annually total several bi