Technical Library | 2008-02-20 21:42:52.0
Tier 2 and Tier 3 EMS companies face increasing pressure from competition in low-cost manufacturing countries to produce assembled boards at lower cost, with increased complexity and to tighter deadlines. They also face an increasing amount of high-mix, small-to-mediumvolume production runs. Even OEMs find it hard to predict what products they will be manufacturing in three to five years time, driving the need to invest in highly flexible production tools that will cater to their needs over the lifetime of the equipment. This paper examines methodologies for optimising the process, improving stock control and providing greater traceability using lean manufacturing techniques.
Technical Library | 2019-05-29 10:38:59.0
Decapsulation, or de-cap, is a failure analysis technique which involves the removal of material packaging from an integrated circuit (IC). After de-cap, visual inspection by optical microscopy of the internal circuitry may reveal areas where damage is most likely to have occurred. In addition, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) can identify the composition of any anomalies present after de-cap under higher magnification. The removal process of package material can be done either mechanically or chemically depending on the design of the integrated circuit. With ceramic packaging, de-cap is usually done mechanically by chiseling off the top with a fine razor and small hammer. For plastic packaging, de-cap requires chemical etching by strong acids. In this Tech Tips article, de-cap by chemical etching will be outlined step by step.
Technical Library | 2019-07-19 10:21:14.0
One of the most frequently asked questions of ACI Technologies (ACI) is how to qualify and verify that the electronic systems shipped by their respective companies are Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) compliant. The RoHS directive has been implemented since July of 2006, and the preoccupation with what constitutes a compliant product continues to confuse the electronic industry. ACI receives countless inquiries regarding how to qualify and verify that the electronic systems shipped by the irrespective companies are RoHS compliant. The approach to proving compliancy requires a sequential analytical process that utilizes a decision flow chart.
Technical Library | 2019-09-16 09:41:02.0
“What is Virtual Manufacturing?” The simplest answer is a manufacturing simulation using a computer. The more complete answer is that virtual manufacturing is the process of designing a model of a real system and conducting experiments with this model for the purpose of understanding the behavior of the system. In today’s complex manufacturing environment, processes must be completely understood before implementation in order to “get it right the first time.” To achieve this goal, the use of a virtual environment is essential for simulating individual manufacturing processes and the total manufacturing system. By driving compatibility between the product design and the assembly plant process, these virtual tools enable the early optimization of cost, quality, and time to help achieve integrated products, process and resource design, and affordability.
Technical Library | 2020-04-14 15:56:32.0
This paper will focus on the application requirements of solder printing small aperture designs, concentrating on 008004 (inch) / 0201 (metric) size components, and the results of a design of experiment printing these challenging apertures. As Moore's law continues to be applied to component miniaturization, the next installment of reduced packaging has arrived in the form of the 008004/0201 for resistors and capacitors. Component size roughly the size of a grain of sand presents specific challenges to the solder printing process. To address these challenges, each aspect of the printing process will need be examined. This includes essential machine requirements, including correct squeegee blades, tooling support, and calibrations, to meet the demanding specifications. The correct match and design of materials will be addressed, focusing on the stencil and substrate design along with solder paste and cleaning solvent requirements. A design of experiment will be reviewed that applies the machine and materials discussed, including the printer and Solder Paste Inspection (SPI) setup and the specific machine parameters used. The results of these DOE's will then be closely examined.
Technical Library | 2014-10-23 18:10:10.0
The functional reliability of electronic circuits determines the overall reliability of the product in which the final products are used. Market forces including more functionality in smaller components, no-clean lead-free solder technologies, competitive forces and automated assembly create process challenges. Cleanliness under the bottom terminations must be maintained in harsh environments. Residues under components can attract moisture and lead to leakage currents and the potential for electrochemical migration (...) The purpose of this research study is to evaluate innovative spray and soak methods for removing low residue flux residues and thoroughly rinsing under Bottom Termination and Leadless Components
Technical Library | 2007-08-16 13:34:31.0
While experienced inspectors may be able to determine the aesthetic differences between a lead-free PCB assembly and a tin-lead version, one cannot rely on the "experienced eye". "Less wetting out to the pad edges" (Figure A) and "graininess and lack of shininess of the solder joint" (Figure B) are typical comments about some lead-free solder joints. However, in cases where a Nitrogen atmosphere was present during the reflow of the solder joint (Figure C), there will be little visual differences between the lead free alloys and their tin-lead counterparts.
Technical Library | 2007-02-01 10:08:40.0
The increased replacement of high lead count SMT devices with BGAs and other high ball count area array packages has brought increased challenges to PCB rework and repair. Often solder mask areas surrounding BGA pad areas are damaged when components are removed.
Technical Library | 2007-06-21 17:03:16.0
The rapid assimilation of Ball Grid Array (BGA) and other Area Array Package technology in the electronics industry is due to the fact that this package type allows for a greater I/O count in a smaller area while maintaining a pitch that allows for ease of manufacture (...) While there have been several studies comparing these two attachment methods, this study highlights the effect of rework technique on the electrical characteristics and reliability of reworked BGAs.
Technical Library | 2019-05-29 23:10:30.0
There are times when a PCB prototype needs to be built quickly to test out a design. In such cases where it is known early on that there will be multiple iterations or that a "one and done" assembly will be made that there will be some SMT assemblers who choose to hand print solder paste onto the board using a "frameless" stencil. In such cases where hand printing is used, the consistency of the printing technique has typically been in question. Furthermore, the effectiveness of both the nanocoatings as well as the higher end stainless steel materials, which have been heretofore studied in controlled printing environments, will be evaluated for their impact on the hand printing process.The purpose of the study was to determine the effectiveness of select nanocoating materials as well as certain high end stainless steel stencil materials as they relate to the manual SMT printing process. A variety of nanocoatings were applied to SMT metal stencils and solder paste volume measurements were taken to compare the effectiveness.