Technical Library: labour (Page 1 of 1)

“Near-Shoring” Electronics Manufacturing

Technical Library | 2013-04-12 08:20:15.0

There is much to read about the shifting sands of electronics manufacturing, including current moves by OEMs to alter their EMS relationships to better mitigate risk and cost, while EMS companies look for additional ways in which to adjust their business models in an attempt to improve their profitability. Electronics outsourcing over time evolved from a means to buffer manufacturing demand fluctuations into a wide scale shift in capabilities, in part in order to deal with vastly shorter product life cycles. Following the global economic crash of 2000, aka “the internet bubble,” more and more EMS providers responded by transferring their manufacturing to low cost labour regions, and in particular China.

JJS Electronics LTD

Reliability Testing For Microvias In Printed Wire Boards

Technical Library | 2021-01-21 02:04:27.0

Traditional single level microvia structures are generally considered the most robust type of interconnection within a printed wire board (PWB) substrate. The rapid implementation of HDI technology now commonly requires between 2, 3 or 4 levels of microvias sequentially processed into the product. Recent OEM funded reliability testing has confirmed that by increasing the levels (stack height) these structures are proving less reliable, when compared to their single or double level counterparts. Recently false positive results have been recorded on products tested with traditional thermal shock testing methodology (cycling between -40°C and 125°C, or 145°C). A number of companies are incurring product failures resulting in increased costs associated with replacing the circuit boards, components and added labour.

PWB Interconnect Solutions Inc.

Successful Conformal Coating Masking

Technical Library | 2013-10-22 07:38:42.0

In conformal coating many components and printed circuit board locations must remain uncoated due to the insulating nature of the coating. The purpose of the conformal coating masking materials is to prevent migration of the conformal coatings into components that need to clear and designated keep out areas. This applies to both liquid conformal coating and Parylene processing. Get this basic process wrong and it can be a big problem, leading to the next stage of either repairing the conformal coating leak, stripping the conformal coating off the circuit board, removing a component to replace it or scrapping the board. This paper reviews typical masking application methods in conformal coating and provides advice on minimising problems.

SCH Technologies

Return on Investment of a Pre-Reflow AOI System

Technical Library | 2015-06-30 22:02:41.0

This paper describes the losses from defects at the placement process in the SMT line. Two case studies of European and Taiwanese SMT manufacturers illustrate the actual losses from their defects. An evaluation method to select a pre-reflow AOI system maximizing the return on investment (ROI) is introduced. In the end, ROIs of three commercial pre-reflow AOI systems are compared to demonstrate the importance of selecting an appropriate AOI system. This paper will increase the probability that anyone installing an AOI system during the pre-reflow process will obtain a successful gain with short payback period.

CyberOptics Corporation

Optimizing the Clean-Tech Manufacturing Mix

Technical Library | 2010-02-03 14:50:51.0

This paper will consider the unique characteristics of the renewable energy and clean-tech sectors and explore how a smartly optimized electronics manufacturing outsourcing model can help OEMs accelerate their timeto- market and support their cost-per-kilowatt reduction goals.

OCM Manufacturing

A Comparison of Mulpin VS Embedded Passive Technology

Technical Library | 2016-12-15 17:18:28.0

Why embed the components? Embedded components have advantages over SMD because they are naturally screened from high frequency radio emissions (RFI or EMI). They can also be smaller than current SMD components. Both embedded and Mulpin components have these advantages, but Mulpin components have many more advantages and none of the disadvantages which can be seen below.

Mulpin Research Laboratories

Thermal Capabilities of Solder Masks and Other Coating Materials - How High Can We Go?

Technical Library | 2019-09-24 15:41:53.0

This paper focuses on three different coating material groups which were formulated to operate under high thermal stress and are applied at printed circuit board manufacturing level. While used for principally different applications, these coatings have in common that they can be key to a successful thermal management concept especially in e-mobility and lighting applications. The coatings consist of: Specialty (green transparent) liquid photoimageable solder masks (LPiSM) compatible with long-term thermal storage/stress in excess of 150°C. Combined with the appropriate high-temperature base material, and along with a suitable copper pre-treatment, these solder resists are capable of fulfilling higher thermal demands. In this context, long-term storage tests as well as temperature cycling tests were conducted. Moreover, the effect of various Cu pre-treatment methods on the adhesion of the solder masks was examined following 150, 175 and 200°C ageing processes. For this purpose, test panels were conditioned for 2000 hours at the respective temperatures and were submitted to a cross-cut test every 500 h. Within this test set-up, it was found that a multi-level chemical pre-treatment gives significantly better adhesion results, in particular at 175°C and 200°C, compared with a pre-treatment by brush or pumice brush. Also, breakdown voltage as well as tracking resistance were investigated. For an application in LED technology, the light reflectivity and white colour stability of the printed circuit board are of major importance, especially when high-power LEDs are used which can generate larger amounts of heat. For this reason, a very high coverage power and an intense white colour with high reflectivity values are essential for white solder masks. These "ultra-white" and largely non-yellowing LPiSM need to be able to withstand specific thermal loads, especially in combination with high-power LED lighting applications. The topic of thermal performance of coatings for electronics will also be discussed in view of printed heatsink paste (HSP) and thermal interface paste (TIP) coatings which are used for a growing number of applications. They are processed at the printed circuit board manufacturing level for thermal-coupling and heat-spreading purposes in various thermal management-sensitive fields, especially in the automotive and LED lighting industries. Besides giving an overview of the principle functionality, it will be discussed what makes these ceramic-filled epoxy- or silicone-based materials special compared to using "thermal greases" and "thermal pads" for heat dissipation purposes.

Lackwerke Peters GmbH + Co KG

COVID-19 - Managing Supply Chain Risk and Disruption

Technical Library | 2020-06-12 00:12:13.0

Responding to the immediate challenge While COVID-19 may be the catalyst for companies to revisit their global supply chain strategy and accelerate the adoption of Digital Supply Network models and capabilities, short-term actions need to be made to respond to the immediate challenge.


New development of atomic layer deposition: processes, methods and applications

Technical Library | 2020-09-08 16:43:32.0

Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is an ultra-thin film deposition technique that has found many applications owing to its distinct abilities. They include uniform deposition of conformal films with controllable thickness, even on complex three-dimensional surfaces, and can improve the efficiency of electronic devices. This technology has attracted significant interest both for fundamental understanding how the new functional materials can be synthesized by ALD and for numerous practical applications, particularly in advanced nanopatterning for microelectronics, energy storage systems, desalinations, catalysis and medical fields. This review introduces the progress made in ALD, both for computational and experimental methodologies, and provides an outlook of this emerging technology in comparison with other film deposition methods. It discusses experimental approaches and factors that affect the deposition and presents simulation methods, such as molecular dynamics and computational fluid dynamics, which help determine and predict effective ways to optimize ALD processes, hence enabling the reduction in cost, energy waste and adverse environmental impacts. Specific examples are chosen to illustrate the progress in ALD processes and applications that showed a considerable impact on other technologies.

University of Johannesburg


labour searches for Companies, Equipment, Machines, Suppliers & Information

FPC* - Fluid Pressure Control - Dispensing Pump

Nozzles, Feeders, Spare Parts - Siemens, Fuji, Juki, Yamaha, etc...
Reflow Oven

High Speed Precision In-Line SPI System - Mirtec MS-11
Selective Conformal Coating System

Easily dispense fine pitch components with ±25µm positioning accuracy.
2022 Eptac IPC Certification Training Schedule

Software programs for SMT placement and AOI Inspection machines from CAD or Gerber.