Technical Library | 2019-07-10 23:36:14.0
Pockets of gas, or voids, trapped in the solder interface between discrete power management devices and circuit assemblies are, unfortunately, excellent insulators, or barriers to thermal conductivity. This resistance to heat flow reduces the electrical efficiency of these devices, reducing battery life and expected functional life time of electronic assemblies. There is also a corresponding increase in current density (as the area for current conduction is reduced) that generates additional heat, further leading to performance degradation.
Technical Library | 1999-08-27 09:27:10.0
Conformal coating is a material that is applied to electronic products or assemblies to protect them from solvents, moisture, dust or other contaminants that may cause harm. Coating also prevents dendrite growth, which may result in product failure. This paper will discuss the variables that affect the application of conformal coatings, and review in detail those variables that impact the process of selective coating of printed circuit boards.
Technical Library | 2012-11-21 18:57:58.0
The continuing evolution toward advanced miniature packaging has led to ever increasing PCB density and complexity. As the manufacturing process becomes progressively more complicated, there is an ever increasing probability for defects to occur on finished PCB assemblies. For years the Automated Optical Inspection (AOI) industry has relied solely upon two-dimensional (2D) inspection principles to test the quality of workmanship on electronic assemblies. While advancements in conventional 2D optical inspection have made this technology suitable for detecting such defects as missing components, wrong components, proper component orientation, insufficient solder, and solder bridges; there is an inherent limitation in the ability to inspect for co-planarity of ultra-miniature chips, leaded device, BGA and LED packages.
Technical Library | 2012-11-12 14:06:48.0
With consumers constantly looking for lower prices on their technology products and manufacturers trying to squeak out higher margins from their production lines, the need for process control and lower overhead costs have become even more important. One sector that is often overlooked is the hand soldering area of the factory. Many factories have been struggling with antiquated soldering systems for years. In some cases they are trying to make their investment in stations last much longer than they were designed for, or they are falsely trying to recoup their original investment ‐ all at the cost of higher operating expenses or even worse, reduced operator thru‐put.
Technical Library | 1999-05-09 13:07:16.0
This paper will give the reader a general understanding of EOS and ESD phenomena. It specifically addresses hand soldering's role in EOS and ESD and how to protect against and test for potential problems. It discusses how Metcal Systems address EOS and ESD concerns and how they differ from conventional soldering systems.
Technical Library | 2019-06-07 14:49:54.0
ACI Technologies was contacted in regards to poor solder joint reliability. The customer submitted an assembly that was exhibiting intermittent opens at multiple locations on a ball grid array (BGA) component. The assembly’s functionality did not survive international shipping, essentially shock and vibration failures, immediately making the quality of the solder joints suspect. The customer was asked about the contract manufacturer and the reflow oven profile as well as the solder paste and surface finish used. The ACI engineering staff evaluated the contract manufacturer’s technique and determined that they were competent in the methods they used for placing thermocouples in the proper locations and developing the reflow oven profile. The surface finish was unusual, but not unheard of, in that it was hard gold over hard nickel, rather than electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG). The customer was able to supply boundary scan testing data which showed a diagonal row of troublesome BGA pins.
Technical Library | 2020-11-09 16:59:53.0
A customer contacted ACI Technologies regarding a high failure rate of their assemblies. They provided assemblies to be X-rayed and inspected for the purpose of identifying any process related issues such as (but not limited to) solder and assembly workmanship and evidence of damage due to moisture related problems during reflow (a.k.a. "popcorning"). Moisture damage usually appears as physical damage to the component. The first indication of moisture damage would be externally observable changes to the package in the form of bulging or fractures to the outer surface of the component, an example of which is shown in Figure 1. Internally observable indicators of moisture damage typically include fractures to the die inside the package and lifted or fractured wire bonds. These conditions would be apparent during transmissive X-ray inspection. Another symptom of moisture related damage would be inconsistent solder joint sizes that result from package deformation during the liquidus phase of the reflow process. None of these indicators of moisture related damage were present on the customer samples.
Technical Library | 2010-03-23 11:50:22.0
This document discuss how to design SMT stencil base on IPC-7525. Introduction: PCBA (Printed Circuit Board Assembly) is a segment of printed circuit board technology. This segment of printed circuit board industry is concentrated in assemble all the pieces of electronic industry to one piece before output them to market. This segment covers: interconnection technology, package design technology, system integration technology, board and system test technology
Technical Library | 2019-09-23 09:35:00.0
Failure analysis (FA), by its very nature, is needed only when things goawry. Before any testing is performed on the sample, a decision mustbe made as to whether or not the sample is allowed to be destroyedin the process of testing. Non-destructive testing can allow for re-use of the assembly since the functionality is not altered, but there still remains the possibility that inadvertent damage can occur through the course of the analysis. If non-destructive testing is preferred, then the following types of analysis can be performed. The testing can be divided into four categories: visual, X-ray (X-ray imaging and X-ray fluorescence), cleanliness (resistivity of solvent extract, ion chromatography, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), and mechanical (non-destructive wire bond pull).
Technical Library | 2017-07-27 16:51:57.0
Reliability Expectations of Highly Dense Electronic Assemblies is commonly validated using Ion Chromatography and Surface Insulation Resistance. Surface Insulation Resistance tests resistance drops on both cleaned and non-cleaned circuit assemblies. It is well documented in the literature that SIR detects ionic residue and the potential of this residue to cause leakage currents in the presence of humidity and bias. Residues under leadless components are hard to inspect for and to ensure flux residue is totally removed. The question many assemblers consider is the risk of residues that may still be present under the body of components.