Technical Library | 2012-11-21 18:57:58.0
The continuing evolution toward advanced miniature packaging has led to ever increasing PCB density and complexity. As the manufacturing process becomes progressively more complicated, there is an ever increasing probability for defects to occur on finished PCB assemblies. For years the Automated Optical Inspection (AOI) industry has relied solely upon two-dimensional (2D) inspection principles to test the quality of workmanship on electronic assemblies. While advancements in conventional 2D optical inspection have made this technology suitable for detecting such defects as missing components, wrong components, proper component orientation, insufficient solder, and solder bridges; there is an inherent limitation in the ability to inspect for co-planarity of ultra-miniature chips, leaded device, BGA and LED packages.
Technical Library | 1999-08-27 09:29:49.0
Contract packaging houses have to contend with a large mix of die types and products. Flexibility and quick turnaround of package types is a must in this industry. Traditional methods of die encapsulation, (i.e., use of transfer-molding techniques), are only cost effective when producing a large number of components. Liquid encapsulants now provide similar levels of reliability1, and are cost effective...
Technical Library | 2020-12-02 20:36:54.0
Industry 4.0 is a topic of much discussion within the electronics manufacturing industry. Manufacturers and vendors are trying to come to terms with what that means. In the most simplistic of terms, Industry 4.0 is a trend toward automation and data exchange within the manufacturing process. This basically requires connectivity and communication from machine to machine within the manufacturing line. The challenge is to collect data from each of the systems within the line and make that data available to the rest of the machines. Without test and inspection, there is no Industry 4.0. The whole purpose of test and inspection is to collect actionable data that may be used to reduce defects and maximize efficiency within the manufacturing line. The goal is to minimize scrap and get a really good handle on those process parameters that need to be put in place to manufacture products the right way the first time. For maximum efficiency, three inspection systems are required within the production line. These are solder paste inspection (SPI) post-solder deposition, automated optical inspection (AOI) post-placement, and AOI post-reflow. This requires a substantial investment; however, the combination of all three inspection machines is really the only true way to provide feedback for each stage of the manufacturing process.
Technical Library | 2017-07-27 16:51:57.0
Reliability Expectations of Highly Dense Electronic Assemblies is commonly validated using Ion Chromatography and Surface Insulation Resistance. Surface Insulation Resistance tests resistance drops on both cleaned and non-cleaned circuit assemblies. It is well documented in the literature that SIR detects ionic residue and the potential of this residue to cause leakage currents in the presence of humidity and bias. Residues under leadless components are hard to inspect for and to ensure flux residue is totally removed. The question many assemblers consider is the risk of residues that may still be present under the body of components.
Technical Library | 2014-06-05 16:44:07.0
Stencil printing capability is becoming more important as the range of component sizes assembled on a single board increases. Coupled with increased component density, solder paste sticking to the aperture sidewalls and bottom of the stencil can cause insufficient solder paste deposits and solder bridging. Yield improvement requires increased focus on stencil technology, printer capability, solder paste functionality and understencil cleaning.(...) The purpose of this research is to study the wipe sequence, wipe frequency and wipe solvent(s) and how these factors interact to provide solder paste printing yield improvement.
Technical Library | 2019-05-31 14:15:01.0
ACI Technologies (ACI) is working on a project where one of the challenges is removing a large quantity of heat from audio amplifier circuits. This challenge is further complicated in that the heat generating circuits are located in a rack mounted box that needs to be shielded from electro-magnetic interference (EMI). Mechanically, this means that there cannot be open passages into the rack mounted box. We will first review the basic types of cooling available as commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) systems for the electronics industry, then discuss the pros and cons of each for different applications, and finally reveal the criteria and solution for the ACI project.
Technical Library | 2014-10-23 18:10:10.0
The functional reliability of electronic circuits determines the overall reliability of the product in which the final products are used. Market forces including more functionality in smaller components, no-clean lead-free solder technologies, competitive forces and automated assembly create process challenges. Cleanliness under the bottom terminations must be maintained in harsh environments. Residues under components can attract moisture and lead to leakage currents and the potential for electrochemical migration (...) The purpose of this research study is to evaluate innovative spray and soak methods for removing low residue flux residues and thoroughly rinsing under Bottom Termination and Leadless Components
Technical Library | 2010-01-13 12:34:10.0
Micro-sectioning (sometimes referred to as cross-sectioning)is a technique, used to characterize materials or to perform a failure mode analysis, for exposing an internal section of a PCB or package. Destructive in nature, cross-sectioning requires encapsulation of the specimen in order to provide support, stability, and protection. Failures that can be investigated through micro-sectional analysis include component defects, thermo-mechanical failures, processing failures related to solder reflow, opens or shorts, voiding and raw material evaluations.
Technical Library | 2014-07-31 16:36:59.0
Metal whiskers often grow across leads of electric equipment and electronic package causing current leakage or short circuits and raising significant reliability issues. The nature of metal whiskers remains a mystery after several decades of research. Here, the existence of metal whiskers is attributed to the energy gain due to electrostatic polarization of metal filaments in the electric field. The field is induced by surface imperfections: contaminations, oxide states, grain boundaries, etc. A proposed theory provides closed form expressions and quantitative estimates for the whisker nucleation and growth rates, explains the range of whisker parameters and effects of external biasing, and predicts statistical distribution of their lengths.
Technical Library | 2019-04-08 23:21:29.0
Climatest Symor® adopts molecular sieve to dry air, the whole system is controlled by microcomputer, when humidity is high, It will start to absorb moisture,when the humidity reach the pre-set value, it will stop absorbing, and then discharge the water to outside the cabinet by heating,again and again by automatic control. The most effective and environment-friendly moisture-absorbing desiccant is molecular sieve, molecular sieve is the microporous crystal material synthesized by silicon and aluminium oxide. In order to keep the crystal net discharge to be zero, atoms with cations are located in the crystal structure.and the cation used in these synthetic crystals is usually sodium. At present, there are two kinds of molecular sieves widely used in the dry box industry: Class A and Class X. Molecular sieves are synthesized, shaped and activated under strictly controlled production processes. The whole controlled sythesis process can ensure consistency of the three-dimensional pore size. 3A molecular sieve pore size is 3 angstroms, 4A molecular sieve pore size is 4 angstroms; 13X molecular sieve pore size is 8.5 angstroms. The working principle of molecular sieve: Molecular sieves adsorb molecules onto the crystal surface by physical attraction force. Since 95% surface area of the molecular sieve is within aperture,it needs to screen the adjacent molecules by different size. Only small size molecules can enter into the inner adsorption surface of the molecular sieve through the crystal aperture. This selective adsorption phenomenon is called molecular sieve effect. The molecular sieve adsorption capacity and charge density (polarity) are further related to the adsorbed molecules. The molecular sieves can further distinguish which of the mixed molecules can be adsorbed and determine to what extent the charge density can allow the molecules to be adsorbed onto the crystal. Water molecules are particularly small (2.6 angstroms), that belong to highly polar molecules (very strong positive and negative electron density), and are easily adsorbed by molecular sieves, even under very low moisture condition,once the water molecules are adsorbed,they will be firmly fixed on the crystal. The environment-friendly moisture absorption device is equipped with molecular sieve. When it’s absorbing, the memory alloy controller is in tensile state, and the spring is in contractive state,which just make the valve contact the outer baffle, this insulates the outside air from inside dry box air to achieve dehumidification purpose; and after molecular sieve absorbed moisture inside dry box and become saturated, the program will automatically control the memory alloy device to shrink it so that the valve reaches the inner baffle position. Meanwhile, due to the shrinkage of the memory alloy, the spring is stretched and the valve is pulled out of the outer baffle,so that the moisture in molecular sieve will be discharged into the outside. after the dehumidifying process finished, the program automatically control and reset the memory alloy and spring,to restart absorbing status.