Technical Library | ACI Technologies, Inc.
Tin (Sn) metal displays the characteristic of growing “tin whiskers” from pure tin coatings (most actively on relatively thin, electrodeposited or immersion tin coatings), usually months or years from the initial deposition of the tin. Tin whiskers are electrically conductive, filamentary, single crystals of white (beta phase) tin. These filaments of single crystal tin are usually one to five microns in diameter, and a few microns up to several tens of millimeters long, that grow spontaneously from the tin coatings. Alloying additions of several percent (by weight) of lead (Pb) prevents these electrically conductive tin whiskers from growing. Pb alloyed into the Sn was discovered to prevent the occurrence of tin whiskers in electronic assemblies in the 1950s as the Bell Laboratories solution to the problem of tin whiskers. The alloying of the tin with lead has thus quietly averted incalculable losses from short circuits in electronic equipment for the last 60 years.
Technical Library | 2014-11-28 15:55:13.0
A soldering alloy composition Sn40-Bi60 has been manufactured by quenching method to achieve the both cast and wire shape. Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) was done to study the melting behavior for a large portion of the alloy melts sharply at a approximately 136 C0 ,the melting point of Sn-Bi. X-Ray diffraction and optical microscopy were used to analyzed its microstructure characterization. The hardness of the alloys has been tested and find at a value 2 HRB as ductile form.
Technical Library | 2008-07-01 18:59:09.0
As lead-free and RoHS compliancy fast approaches, it is more important than ever to build it right the first time. Lead-free assembly and RoHS will bring about numerous changes and the number of variables with which to contend is increasing, creating increased risk of defects and reduced product reliability. However, understanding what the variables are and their impact on the assembly can great increase product reliability.
Technical Library | 2011-11-03 18:04:07.0
This paper presents the development of a novel vehicle-routing-based algorithm for optimizing component pick-up and placement on a collect-and-place type machine in printed circuit board manufacturing. We present a two-phase heuristic that produces soluti
Technical Library | 2012-05-31 18:01:31.0
First published in the 2012 IPC APEX EXPO technical conference proceedings. Considering technological advances in multi-depth cavities in the PCB manufacturing industry, various subtopics have materialized regarding the processing and application of such
Technical Library | 2016-09-19 20:26:36.0
This white paper seeks to set out the value of a ‘smarter’ approach to the reflow process and how a more intelligent oven can offer real added value and performance to the entire line. It also lays out some of the criteria that is important when selecting smart equipment for a smart process, that conforms to, and is ready for, IoM or Industry 4.0
Technical Library | 2017-01-23 21:12:01.0
"Water is not a problem of the future, but a key issue of our time for businesses: In the future, urgent water risks will increase in many areas of the world. A growing population, a changing consumer behavior and climate change will have an immediate impact on the availability and quality of water and thus build further pressure on governments, businesses and societies." (Quote from the summary of the 2014 WWF study "The imported risk. Germany's water risk in the age of globalization.")
Technical Library | 2019-11-07 08:59:14.0
Inductors realized with high permeable MnZn ferrite require, unlike iron-powder cores with an inherent dis-tributed gap, a discrete air gap in the magnetic circuit to prevent saturation of the core material and/or tune the inductance value. This large discrete gap can be divided into several partial gaps in order to reduce the air gap stray field and consequently the proximity losses in the winding. The multi-gap core, realized by stacking several thin ferrite plates and inserting a non-magnetic spacer material between the plates, however, exhibits a substan-tial increase in core losses which cannot be explained from the intrinsic properties of the ferrite. In this paper, a comprehensive overview of the scientific literature regarding machining induced core losses in ferrite, dating back to the early 1970s, is provided which suggests that the observed excess core losses could be attributed to a deterioration of ferrite properties in the surface layer of the plates caused by mechanical stress exerted during machining.
Technical Library | 2007-11-29 17:20:31.0
Programs have been developed to predict the expected yield of flip chip assemblies, based on substrate design and the statistics of actual manufactured boards, as well as placement machine accuracy, variations in bump sizes, and possible substrate warpage. These predictions and the trends they reveal can be used to direct changes in design so that defect levels will fall below the acceptable limits. Shapes of joints are calculated analytically, or when this is not possible, numerically by means of a public domain program called Surface Evolver. The method is illustrated with an example involving the substrate for a flip chip BGA.
Technical Library | 2020-10-14 14:33:36.0
Epoxy based adhesives are prevalent interface materials for all levels of electronic packaging. One reason for their widespread success is their ability to accept fillers. Fillers allow the adhesive formulator to tailor the electrical and thermal properties of a given epoxy. Silver flake allow the adhesive to be both electrically conductive and thermally conductive. For potting applications, heat sinking, and general encapsulation where high electrical isolation is required, aluminum oxide has been the filler of choice. Today, advanced Boron Nitride filled epoxies challenge alternative thermal interface materials like silicones, greases, tapes, or pads. The paper discusses key attributes for designing and formulating advanced thermally conductive epoxies. Comparisons to other common fillers used in packaging are made. The filler size, shape and distribution, as well as concentration in the resin, will determine the adhesive viscosity and rheology. Correlation's between Thermal Resistance calculations and adhesive viscosity are made. Examples are shown that determination of thermal conductivity values in "bulk" form, do not translate into actual package thermal resistance. Four commercially available thermally conductive adhesives were obtained for the study. Adhesives were screened by shear strength measurements, Thermal Cycling ( -55 °C to 125 °C ) Resistance, and damp heat ( 85 °C / 85 %RH ) resistance. The results indicate that low modulus Boron Nitride filled epoxies are superior in formulation and design. Careful selection of stress relief agents, filler morphology, and concentration levels are critical choices the skilled formulator must make. The advantages and limitations of each are discussed and demonstrated.