Technical Library | 2015-08-13 15:52:40.0
Pad cratering has become more prevalent with the switch to lead free solders and lead free compatible laminates. This mainly is due to the use of higher reflow temperature, stiffer Pb-free solder alloys, and the more brittle Pb-free compatible laminates. However, pad cratering is difficult to detect by monitoring electric resistance since pad cratering initiates before an electrical failure occurs. Several methods have been developed to evaluate laminate materials' resistance to pad cratering. Pad-solder level tests include ball shear, ball pull and pin pull. The detailed methods for ball shear, ball pull, and pin pull testing are documented in an industry standard IPC-9708. Bansal, et al. proposed to use acoustic emission (AE) sensors to detect pad cratering during four-point bend test. Currently there is an industry-working group working on test guidelines for acoustic emission measurement during mechanical testing.
Technical Library | 2013-06-13 15:31:24.0
Electromigration (EM) is a mass transportation mechanism driven by electron wind force, thermal gradient, chemical potential and stress gradient. According to Moore’s law, number of transistors on integrated circuits (ICs) doubles approximately every 2 years. Moore’s law holds true since its introduction in 1970s. This insatiable demand for smaller ICs size, larger integration and higher Input/Output (IO) count of microelectronics has made ball grid array (BGA) the most promising connection type in electronic packaging industry. This trend, however, renders EM reliability of solders joints a major bottleneck to hinder further development of electronics industry...
Technical Library | 2007-09-13 16:58:52.0
With the use of laser light for reflow having been established, all that remains is to apply it to best effect. Each time a laser is fired, it pumps a specific amount of energy at a particular wavelength to a particular point in space. Where technique comes in is choosing where and for how long to apply that light along with the application of accessory equipment to optimize solder paste reflow. This presentation covers the specifics of how to determine which process choices are the right process choices based on the needs of your product to maximize yield and throughput.