Technical Library | 2020-07-08 20:05:59.0
There is a compelling need for functional testing of high-speed input/output signals on circuit boards ranging from 1 gigabit per second (Gbps) to several hundred Gbps. While manufacturing tests such as Automatic Optical Inspection (AOI) and In-Circuit Test (ICT) are useful in identifying catastrophic defects, most high-speed signals require more scrutiny for failure modes that arise due to high-speed conditions, such as jitter. Functional ATE is seldom fast enough to measure high-speed signals and interpret results automatically. Additionally, to measure these adverse effects it is necessary to have the tester connections very close to the unit under test (UUT) as lead wires connecting the instruments can distort the signal. The solution we describe here involves the use of a field programmable gate array (FPGA) to implement the test instrument called a synthetic instrument (SI). SIs can be designed using VHDL or Verilog descriptions and "synthesized" into an FPGA. A variety of general-purpose instruments, such as signal generators, voltmeters, waveform analyzers can thus be synthesized, but the FPGA approach need not be limited to instruments with traditional instrument equivalents. Rather, more complex and peculiar test functions that pertain to high-speed I/O applications, such as bit error rate tests, SerDes tests, even USB 3.0 (running at 5 Gbps) protocol tests can be programmed and synthesized within an FPGA. By using specific-purpose test mechanisms for high-speed I/O the test engineer can reduce test development time. The synthetic instruments as well as the tests themselves can find applications in several UUTs. In some cases, the same test can be reused without any alteration. For example, a USB 3.0 bus is ubiquitous, and a test aimed at fault detection and diagnoses can be used as part of the test of any UUT that uses this bus. Additionally, parts of the test set may be reused for testing another high-speed I/O. It is reasonable to utilize some of the test routines used in a USB 3.0 test, in the development of a USB 3.1 (running at 10 Gbps), even if the latter has substantial differences in protocol. Many of the SI developed for one protocol can be reused as is, while other SIs may need to undergo modifications before reuse. The modifications will likely take less time and effort than starting from scratch. This paper illustrates an example of high-speed I/O testing, generalizes failure modes that are likely to occur in high-speed I/O, and offers a strategy for testing them with SIs within FPGAs. This strategy offers several advantages besides reusability, including tester proximity to the UUT, test modularization, standardization approaching an ATE-agnostic test development process, overcoming physical limitations of general-purpose test instruments, and utilization of specific-purpose test instruments. Additionally, test instrument obsolescence can be overcome by upgrading to ever-faster and larger FPGAs without losing any previously developed design effort. With SIs and tests scalable and upward compatible, the test engineer need not start test development for high-speed I/O from scratch, which will substantially reduce time and effort.
Technical Library | 2007-05-17 16:44:37.0
In the quest for quality, selecting the right Statistical Process Control (SPC) Software system doesn't boil down to a simple functional "fit-to-requirements" anymore. Once the expert domain of highly focused, independent software developers, the competitive landscape has changed dramatically with the influx of big-name ERP software providers who are aggressively promoting integrated quality modules within an all-encompassing business application framework.
Technical Library | 2014-08-19 16:07:15.0
Warpage management consists of planning, measuring, analyzing, sharing, and reacting to data related to the surface shapes of electronics components as they change throughout the reflow assembly process. Leading semiconductor manufacturers have had warpage management systems in place for ten years or more, mainly because microchip package warpage must be understood and compensated for in order to attain high assembly yields. Similarly, newer device architectures such as package-on-package and system-on-a-chip are sensitive to warpage-related assembly issues, and companies involved in the manufacture and assembly of these devices tend to have the most advanced warpage management programs.
Technical Library | 2017-06-15 00:44:19.0
Ceramics packages are being used in the electronics industry to operate the devices in harsh environments. In this paper we report a study on acoustic imaging technology for nondestructively inspecting underfill layers connecting organic interposers sandwiched between two ceramics substrates.First, we inspected the samples with transmission mode of scanning acoustic tomography (SAT) system, an inspection routine usually employed in assembly lines because of its simpler interpretation criteria: flawed region blocks the acoustic wave and appears darker. In this multilayer sample, this approach does not offer the crucial information at which layer of underfill has flaws. To resolve this issue, we use C-Mode Scanning in reflection mode to image layer by layer utilizing ultrasound frequencies from 15MHz to 120MHz. Although the sample is thick and contains at least 5 internal material interfaces, we are able to identify defective underfill layer interfaces.
Technical Library | 2014-05-12 09:24:11.0
With the advancement of the electronic industry, Package on package (POP) has become increasingly popular IC package for electronic devices, particularly in mobile devices due to its benefits of miniaturization, design flexibility and cost efficiency. However, there are some issues that have been reported such as SIR drop due to small gap between top and bottom components, difficulty underfilling and rework due to stacked IC components and process yield issues. Some suppliers have reported using some methods such as dipping epoxy paste or epoxy flux to address these issues, but so far, no customer has reported using these methods or materials in their mass production. In order to address these issues for POP assembly, YINCAE has successfully developed a first individual solder joint encapsulant adhesive.
Technical Library | 1999-05-06 14:03:04.0
This paper describes how Nikes innovative architecture addresses the expanding requirements of Intels next-generation processor designs while enabling a design environment that is more productive than one built with the previous tool generation.
Technical Library | 1999-05-06 14:19:44.0
In many high-performance VLSI designs, including all recent Intel microprocessors, datapath is implemented in a bit-sliced structure to simultaneously manipulate multiple bits of data. The circuit and layout of such structures are largely kept the same for each bit slice to achieve maximal performance, higher designer productivity, and better layout density. There are very few tools available to automate the design of a general datapath structure, most of which is done manually...
Technical Library | 1999-05-06 14:44:11.0
Semiconductor device manufacturers face many difficult challenges as we enter the 21st century. Some are direct consequences of adherence to Gordon Moore's Law, which states that device complexity doubles about every 18 months. Feature size reduction, increased wafer diameter, increased chip size, ultra-clean processing, and defect reduction among others are manifestations that have a direct bearing on the cost and quality of products, factory flexibility in responding to changing technology or business conditions, and on the timelines of product delivery to the ultimate customer.
Technical Library | 2012-06-27 18:26:34.0
First published in the 2012 IPC APEX EXPO technical conference proceedings. Signal integrity analysis has shown that printed circuit board (PCB) insertion loss is a key factor affecting high speed channel performance. Determining and controlling PCB inser
Technical Library | 2012-10-18 21:58:51.0
First published in the 2012 IPC APEX EXPO technical conference proceedings. In this paper, we report on a comprehensive study regarding the morphology evolution and voiding of SnAgCu solder joints on the central pad of two different packages – QFN and an Agilent package called TOPS – on PCBs with a Ni/Au surface finish.