Technical Library | 2020-01-28 00:23:58.0
This paper explores new advances in the reflow soldering process including vacuum technology and warpage mitigation systems. The first topic for discussion will be the implementation of a vacuum process directly in a conventional inline soldering system. The second topic presented is the mitigation of warpage on substrates or wafers.
Technical Library | 2019-07-10 23:36:14.0
Pockets of gas, or voids, trapped in the solder interface between discrete power management devices and circuit assemblies are, unfortunately, excellent insulators, or barriers to thermal conductivity. This resistance to heat flow reduces the electrical efficiency of these devices, reducing battery life and expected functional life time of electronic assemblies. There is also a corresponding increase in current density (as the area for current conduction is reduced) that generates additional heat, further leading to performance degradation.
Technical Library | 2013-09-25 20:57:24.0
Conformal coating is an enabling process that allows for the ruggedizing of electronic devices and modules. As the process increases the durability of electronics that are subjected to various end-use environmental conditions, it adds value to the product. While it does add value, consumers and manufacturers expect the electronics to work when subjected to dirt, humidity, moisture, corrosive materials, and various other contaminants. This expectation results in a drive to minimize the cost of the process. The lowest cost of ownership for a conformal coating process occurs by utilizing automated selective conformal coating equipment.
Technical Library | 2021-01-03 19:24:52.0
Reflow soldering is the primary method for interconnecting surface mount technology (SMT) applications. Successful implementation of this process depends on whether a low defect rate can be achieved. In general, defects often can be attributed to causes rooted in all three aspects, including materials, processes, and designs. Troubleshooting of reflow soldering requires identification and elimination of root causes. Where correcting these causes may be beyond the reach of manufacturers, further optimizing the other relevant factors becomes the next best option in order to minimize the defect rate.
Technical Library | 2019-05-23 10:38:07.0
Solvent and co-solvent cleaning involves the use of engineered solvents in a vapor phase system. The solvents classically used were Class 1 Ozone Depleting Substances, but new types of solvents have been developed that are less environmentally harmful. In some cases, isopropyl alcohol is used with a co-solvent. In these types of cleaning systems, a cloud of boiling vapor solvent is maintained between a boil sump and a cooling coil. When the items to be cleaned are immersed in the vapor cloud, the solvent condenses on the assemblies and acts to dissolve the residues. These processes usually involve a final rinse step outside of the vapor cloud to ensure that all dissolved residues are washed off the assemblies (Figure 1).
Technical Library | ACI Technologies, Inc.
Tin (Sn) metal displays the characteristic of growing “tin whiskers” from pure tin coatings (most actively on relatively thin, electrodeposited or immersion tin coatings), usually months or years from the initial deposition of the tin. Tin whiskers are electrically conductive, filamentary, single crystals of white (beta phase) tin. These filaments of single crystal tin are usually one to five microns in diameter, and a few microns up to several tens of millimeters long, that grow spontaneously from the tin coatings. Alloying additions of several percent (by weight) of lead (Pb) prevents these electrically conductive tin whiskers from growing. Pb alloyed into the Sn was discovered to prevent the occurrence of tin whiskers in electronic assemblies in the 1950s as the Bell Laboratories solution to the problem of tin whiskers. The alloying of the tin with lead has thus quietly averted incalculable losses from short circuits in electronic equipment for the last 60 years.
Technical Library | 2012-09-13 20:45:17.0
First published in the 2012 IPC APEX EXPO technical conference proceedings. Prior to committing production boards to vapor phase soldering, we performed an evaluation to assess reliability and evaluate the vacuum soldering option. The reliability of vapor
Technical Library | 2014-03-20 12:37:39.0
In the beginning of SMT, Vapor Phase Soldering was the preferred reflow soldering technology because of its excellent heat transfer capabilities. There were also some disadvantages like fast temperature rise, nearly no influence on the temperature profiles and high costs. So the use of Vapor Phase Soldering was reduced to special applications with high mass or complex boards in low numbers (e.g. for military or aerospace use).
Technical Library | 2013-03-27 23:43:40.0
Vapor phase, once cast to the annals’ of history is making a comeback. Why? Reflow technology is well developed and has served the industry for many years, it is simple and it is consistent. All points are true – when dealing with the centre section of the bell curve. Today’s PCB manufacturers are faced with many designs which no longer fall into that polite category but rather test the process engineering groups with heavier and larger panels, large ground planes located in tricky places, component mass densities which are poorly distributed, ever changing Pb Free alloys and higher process temperatures. All the time the costs for the panels increase, availability of “process trial” boards diminishes and yields are expected to be extremely high with zero scrap rates. The final process in the assembly line has the capacity to secure all the value of the assembly or destroy it. If a panel is poorly soldered due to poor Oven setup or incorrect programming of the profile the recovery of the panel is at best expensive, at worst a loss. For these challenges people are turning to Vapor Phase.
Technical Library | 2014-01-30 18:08:04.0
As of today, the electronic industry is aware of the requirements for their products to be lead free. All components are typically available in lead free quality. This comprises packages like BGAs with BGA solder balls to PCB board finishes like HASL. The suppliers are providing everything that is needed. It is harder to get the old tin leaded (SnPb) components for new applications today, than lead free ones. So why has not everybody changed over fully yet and how can the challenges be overcome? A big concern in this transition process is reflow soldering. The process temperatures for lead free applications became much higher. Related with this is more stress for all the components. It affects the quality and reliability of the electronic units and products...