Technical Library | 2020-11-04 17:49:45.0
OEMs and CMs designing and building electronic assemblies for high reliability applications are typically faced with a decision to clean or not to clean the assembly. If ionic residues remain on the substrate surface, potential failure mechanisms, including dendritic growth by electrochemical migration reaction and leakage current, may result. These failures have been well documented. If a decision to clean substrates is made, there are numerous cleaning process options available. For defluxing applications, the most common systems are spray-in-air, employing either batch or inline cleaning equipment and an engineered aqueous based cleaning agent. Regardless of the type of cleaning process adopted, effective cleaning of post solder residue requires chemical, thermal and mechanical energies. The chemical energy is derived from the engineered cleaning agent; the thermal energy from the increased temperature of the cleaning agent, and the mechanical energy from the pump system employed within the cleaning equipment. The pump system, which includes spray pressure, spray bar configuration and nozzle selection, is optimized for the specific process to create an efficient cleaning system. As board density has increased and component standoff heights have decreased, cleaning processes are steadily challenged. Over time, cleaning agent formulations have advanced to match new solder paste developments, spray system configurations have improved, and wash temperatures (thermal energy) have been limited to a maximum of 160ºF. In most cases, this is due to thermal limitations of the materials used to build the polymer-based cleaning equipment. Building equipment out of stainless steel is an option, but one that may be cost prohibitive. Given the maximum allowable wash temperature, difficult cleaning applications are met by increasing the wash exposure time; including reducing the conveyor speed of inline cleaners or extending wash time in batch cleaners. Although this yields effective cleaning results, process productivity may be compromised. However, high temperature resistant polymer materials, capable of withstanding a 180°F wash temperature, are now available and can be used in cleaning equipment builds. For this study, the authors explored the potential for increasing cleaning process efficiency as a result of an increase in thermal energy due to the use of higher wash temperature. The cleaning equipment selected was an inline cleaner built with high temperature resistant polymer material. For the analysis, standard substrates were used. These were populated with numerous low standoff chip cap components and soldered with both no-clean tin-lead and lead-free solder pastes. Two aqueous based cleaning agents were selected, and multiple wash temperatures and wash exposure times were evaluated. Cleanliness assessments were made through visual analysis of under-component inspection, as well as localized extraction and Ion Chromatography in accordance with current IPC standards.
Technical Library | 2020-04-14 15:49:38.0
The number of through-hole components on printed circuit boards (PCB) has declined significantly over the last decade. Miniaturization in electronics has resulted in less THT (through-hole technology) and leads with a finer pitch. For this reason, the soldering of these components has also changed from wave soldering to Point-to-point selective soldering. Soldering these small, fine-pitch components is a challenge when surface mount components (SMD) are positioned very close to THT components on the PCB layout. This study, done in cooperation with a large automotive EMS customer, defines the process windows for through-hole technology for fine-pitch components. It determines what is feasible to solder and defines layout design parameter that make soldering possible with SMD areas and other components on the assembly.
Technical Library | 2020-04-14 16:00:20.0
The number of through hole connections on a circuit assembly are decreasing with the drive toward miniaturization. When these assemblies are manufactured in high volumes the most convenient method is selective soldering. Although selective soldering is very well introduced in automotive and industrial applications it can also be a very efficient method to solder high volume consumer products.
Technical Library | 2007-06-06 15:25:30.0
Though today's microvias and high aspect plated through holes (PTH's) look nothing like the earliest through holes of 40 years ago, the PTH in its various forms remains the “weak link” and most critical element of printed wiring boards and laminate chip carriers (...) The paper outlines an approach to evaluating PTH reliability and quality that involves characterizing PTH life across a range of temperatures to reveal intricacies not seen by testing at a single delta-T, and certainly difficult to predict by modeling alone.
Technical Library | 2011-03-16 20:05:15.0
Fiber weave effect is becoming more of an issue as bit rates continue to sore upwards to 5GB/s and beyond. Due to the non-homogenous nature of printed circuit board laminates, the fiberglass weave pattern causes signals to propagate at different speeds wi
Technical Library | 2007-03-08 19:31:10.0
Reflow profile has significant impact on solder joint performance because it influences wetting and microstructure of the solder joint. The degree of wetting, the microstructure (in particular the intermetallic layer), and the inherent strength of the solder all factor into the reliability of the solder joint. This paper presents experimental results on the effect of reflow profile on both 63%Sn 37%Pb (SnPb) and 96.5%Sn 3.0%Ag 0.5%Cu (SAC 305) solder joint shear force.
Technical Library | 2008-01-10 19:24:48.0
This research takes an in-depth look at the challenges encountered in developing a lead free wave soldering process based on the specific products as well as on specific materials. It attempts to provide the reader with the information necessary to make educated decisions in selecting materials and controlling various process parameters in order to execute a rational implementation strategy for a reliable and robust lead free wave soldering process.
Technical Library | 2013-08-29 19:52:43.0
Au over Ni on Cu is a widely used printed circuit board (PCB) surface finish, under bump metallization (UBM), and component lead metallization. It is generally accepted that less than 3 wt.% Au in Sn-Pb solder joints inhibits formation of detrimental intermetallic compounds (IMC). However, the critical limit for Au content in Pb-free solder joints is not well established. Three surface-mount package platforms, one with a matte Sn surface finish and the others with Ni/Au finish, were soldered to Ni/Au-finished PCB using Sn-3.0Ag 0.5Cu (SAC305) solder, in a realistic manufacturing setting. The assembled boards were divided into three groups: one without any thermal treatment, one subjected to isothermal aging at 125°C for 30 days, and the third group aged at 125°C for 56 days...
Technical Library | 2020-09-23 21:29:25.0
The electronics industry could benefit greatly from using a reliable, manufacturable, reduced temperature, SMT solder material (alloy-composition) which is cost competitive with traditional Sn3Ag0.5Cu (SAC305) solder. The many possible advantages and some disadvantages / challenges are discussed. Until recently, the use of Sn/Bi based materials has been investigated with negative consequences for high strain rate (drop-shock) applications and thus, these alloys have been avoided. Recent advances in alloy "doping" have opened the door to revisit Sn/Bi alloys as a possible alternative to SAC-305 for many applications. We tested the manufacturability and reliability of three low-temperature and one SAC-305 (used as a control) solder paste materials. Two of these materials are doped Sn/Bi/Ag and one is just Sn/Bi/Ag1%. We will discuss the tests and related results. And lastly, we will discuss the prospects, applications and possible implications (based on this evaluation) of these materials together with future actions.