Technical Library: wedge and bond (Page 1 of 3)

Wedge Bonding Tool Selection

Technical Library | 2019-05-23 10:30:22.0

Increasing I/O numbers, device complexity, and product miniaturization requires high precision bonding tools, and sophisticated equipment. Careful consideration should be given to wedge geometry while selecting the tool for a fine pitch wire bonding application. Wire bonding is a process that creates an electrical connection between a die and a substrate or lead typically using gold or aluminum wire. Wedge bonding is a specific type of wire bonding that uses a wedge shaped tool to create the welds. The design of the wedge tool has changed very little over the past decade. The wire is fed at an angle through the back of the wedge. This angle is typically 30 to 60 degrees and is application dependent. Some applications require a higher feed angle due to package clearance issues. Some deep access applications require a 90 degree feed angle. In this configuration, the wire is fed through a hole in the shank of the wedge tool. Wire feed is shown in Figure 1.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

Copper Wire Bond Failure Mechanisms.

Technical Library | 2014-07-24 16:26:34.0

Wire bonding a die to a package has traditionally been performed using either aluminum or gold wire. Gold wire provides the ability to use a ball and stitch process. This technique provides more control over loop height and bond placement. The drawback has been the increasing cost of the gold wire. Lower cost Al wire has been used for wedge-wedge bonds but these are not as versatile for complex package assembly. The use of copper wire for ball-stitch bonding has been proposed and recently implemented in high volume to solve the cost issues with gold. As one would expect, bonding with copper is not as forgiving as with gold mainly due to oxide growth and hardness differences. This paper will examine the common failure mechanisms that one might experience when implementing this new technology.

DfR Solutions

Nanofluids, Nanogels and Nanopastes for Electronic Packaging

Technical Library | 2010-12-22 13:59:14.0

This paper discusses polymer based nanogels, nanofluids and nanopastes for thermal interface material (TIM) applications. Nanopaste and nanogel formulated using controlled-sized particles to fill small bond lines is highlighted.

i3 Electronics

Approaches to Overcome Nodules and Scratches on Wire Bondable Plating on PCBs

Technical Library | 2020-08-27 01:22:45.0

Initially adopted internal specifications for acceptance of printed circuit boards (PCBs) used for wire bonding was that there were no nodules or scratches allowed on the wirebond pads when inspected under 20X magnification. The nodules and scratches were not defined by measurable dimensions and were considered to be unacceptable if there was any sign of a visual blemish on wire-bondable features. Analysis of the yield at a PCB manufacturer monitored monthly for over two years indicated that the target yield could not be achieved, and the main reasons for yield loss were due to nodules and scratches on the wirebonding pads. The PCB manufacturer attempted to eliminate nodules and scratches. First, a light-scrubbing step was added after electroless copper plating to remove any co-deposited fine particles that acted as a seed for nodules at the time of copper plating. Then, the electrolytic copper plating tank was emptied, fully cleaned, and filtered to eliminate the possibility of co-deposited particles in the electroplating process. Both actions greatly reduced the density of the nodules but did not fully eliminate them. Even though there was only one nodule on any wire-bonding pad, the board was still considered a reject. To reduce scratches on wirebonding pads, the PCB manufacturer utilized foam trays after routing the boards so that they did not make direct contact with other boards. This action significantly reduced the scratches on wire-bonding pads, even though some isolated scratches still appeared from time to time, which caused the boards to be rejected. Even with these significant improvements, the target yield remained unachievable. Another approach was then taken to consider if wire bonding could be successfully performed over nodules and scratches and if there was a dimensional threshold where wire bonding could be successful. A gold ball bonding process called either stand-off-stitch bonding (SSB) or ball-stitch-on-ball bonding (BSOB) was used to determine the effects of nodules and scratches on wire bonds. The dimension of nodules, including height, and the size of scratches, including width, were measured before wire bonding. Wire bonding was then performed directly on various sizes of nodules and scratches on the bonding pad, and the evaluation of wire bonds was conducted using wire pull tests before and after reliability testing. Based on the results of the wire-bonding evaluation, the internal specification for nodules and scratches for wirebondable PCBs was modified to allow nodules and scratches with a certain height and a width limitation compared to initially adopted internal specifications of no nodules and no scratches. Such an approach resulted in improved yield at the PCB manufacturer.

Teledyne DALSA

Failure Modes in Wire bonded and Flip Chip Packages

Technical Library | 2014-12-11 18:00:09.0

The growth of portable and wireless products is driving the miniaturization of packages resulting in the development of many types of thin form factor packages and cost effective assembly processes. Wire bonded packages using conventional copper lead frame have been used in industry for quite some time. However, the demand for consumer electronics is driving the need for flip chip interconnects as these packages shorten the signals, reduce inductance and improve functionality as compared to the wire bonded packages. The flip chip packages have solder bumps as interconnects instead of wire bonds and typically use an interposer or organic substrate instead of a metal lead frame (...) The paper provides a general overview of typical defects and failure modes seen in package assembly and reviews the efforts needed to understand new failure modes during package assembly. The root cause evaluations and lessons learned as the factory transitioned to thin form factor packages are shared

Peregrine Semiconductor

Challenges on ENEPIG Finished PCBs: Gold Ball Bonding and Pad Metal Lift

Technical Library | 2017-09-07 13:56:11.0

As a surface finish for PCBs, Electroless Nickel/Electroless Palladium/Immersion Gold (ENEPIG) was selected over Electroless Nickel/Immersion Gold (ENIG) for CMOS image sensor applications with both surface mount technology (SMT) and gold ball bonding processes in mind based on the research available on-line. Challenges in the wire bonding process on ENEPIG with regards to bondability and other plating related issues are summarized.

Teledyne DALSA

Assembly and Reliability of 1704 I/O FCBGA and FPBGAs

Technical Library | 2013-03-14 17:19:28.0

Commercial-off-the-shelf ball/column grid array packaging (COTS BGA/CGA) technologies in high reliability versions are now being considered for use in a number of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) electronic systems. Understanding the process and quality assurance (QA) indicators for reliability are important for low-risk insertion of these advanced electronic packages. This talk briefly discusses an overview of packaging trends for area array packages from wire bond to flip-chip ball grid array (FCBGA) as well as column grid array (CGA). It then presents test data including manufacturing and assembly board-level reliability for FCBGA packages with 1704 I/Os and 1-mm pitch, fine pitch BGA (FPBGA) with 432 I/Os and 0.4-mm pitch, and PBGA with 676 I/Os and 1.0-mm pitch packages. First published in the 2012 IPC APEX EXPO technical conference proceedings.

Jet Propulsion Laboratory

Mechanical stress test for component solder joints and bonding wires

Technical Library | 2016-08-24 06:15:35.0

From consumer electronics to systems control, automotive technology to aviation and aerospace – today, electronics are absolutely essential in many sectors. They increasingly replace mechanical components, eliminating wear and tear and thereby extending the service life. What is easily forgotten in this regard is that electronics are also subject to the laws of mechanics. Mechanical test equipment is crucial to test components for the secure hold of welded, soldered or adhesive bonds. A new, mechanically intricate test probe with universal clamping jaws, that can even grasp the individual bonding wires, is in line with the trend toward ever smaller components. Serving as an actuator for these is a micro drive that can be precisely controlled using a miniaturised motion controller to relieve the control unit in the test device.


High Reliability and High Throughput Ball Bumping Process Solution – Solder Joint Encapsulant Adhesives

Technical Library | 2018-04-05 10:40:43.0

The miniaturization of microchips is always driving force for revolution and innovation in the electronic industry. When the pitch of bumps is getting smaller and smaller the ball size has to be gradually reduced. However, the reliability of smaller ball size is getting weaker and weaker, so some traditional methods such as capillary underfilling, corner bonding and edge bonding process have been being implemented in board level assembly process to enhance drop and thermal cycling performance. These traditional processes have been increasingly considered to be bottleneck for further miniaturization because the completion of these processes demands more space. So the interest of eliminating these processes has been increased. To meet this demand, YINCAE has developed solder joint encapsulant adhesives for ball bumping applications to enhance solder joint strength resulting in improving drop and thermal cycling performance to eliminate underfilling, edge bonding or corner bonding process in the board level assembly process. In this paper we will discuss the ball bumping process, the reliability such as strength of solder joints, drop test performance and thermal cycling performance.

YINCAE Advanced Materials, LLC.

Gold Wire Bonding Performance and Reliability of ENEPIG Surface Finishes.

Technical Library | 2011-03-30 21:14:33.0

The expression "multifunctional PCB", as a synonym for a PCB which is applicable with a variety of assembly techniques, is already established on the market. That means the PCB can be used for multiple reflow soldering and multiple assembly techniques lik


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