Technical Library | 2009-09-18 14:42:37.0
In recent years, various studies have been issued on cleaning under low standoff components; most however, with incomplete information. It is essential to revisit and describe the latest challenges in the market, identifying obvious gaps in available information. Such information is crucial for potential and existing users to fully address the cleanliness levels under their respective components. With the emergence of lead-free soldering and even smaller components, new challenges have arisen including cleaning in gaps of less than 1-mil.
Technical Library | 2020-12-02 20:36:54.0
Industry 4.0 is a topic of much discussion within the electronics manufacturing industry. Manufacturers and vendors are trying to come to terms with what that means. In the most simplistic of terms, Industry 4.0 is a trend toward automation and data exchange within the manufacturing process. This basically requires connectivity and communication from machine to machine within the manufacturing line. The challenge is to collect data from each of the systems within the line and make that data available to the rest of the machines. Without test and inspection, there is no Industry 4.0. The whole purpose of test and inspection is to collect actionable data that may be used to reduce defects and maximize efficiency within the manufacturing line. The goal is to minimize scrap and get a really good handle on those process parameters that need to be put in place to manufacture products the right way the first time. For maximum efficiency, three inspection systems are required within the production line. These are solder paste inspection (SPI) post-solder deposition, automated optical inspection (AOI) post-placement, and AOI post-reflow. This requires a substantial investment; however, the combination of all three inspection machines is really the only true way to provide feedback for each stage of the manufacturing process.
Technical Library | 1999-08-27 09:27:10.0
Conformal coating is a material that is applied to electronic products or assemblies to protect them from solvents, moisture, dust or other contaminants that may cause harm. Coating also prevents dendrite growth, which may result in product failure. This paper will discuss the variables that affect the application of conformal coatings, and review in detail those variables that impact the process of selective coating of printed circuit boards.
Technical Library | 2021-01-03 19:24:52.0
Reflow soldering is the primary method for interconnecting surface mount technology (SMT) applications. Successful implementation of this process depends on whether a low defect rate can be achieved. In general, defects often can be attributed to causes rooted in all three aspects, including materials, processes, and designs. Troubleshooting of reflow soldering requires identification and elimination of root causes. Where correcting these causes may be beyond the reach of manufacturers, further optimizing the other relevant factors becomes the next best option in order to minimize the defect rate.
Technical Library | 2019-05-29 10:38:59.0
Decapsulation, or de-cap, is a failure analysis technique which involves the removal of material packaging from an integrated circuit (IC). After de-cap, visual inspection by optical microscopy of the internal circuitry may reveal areas where damage is most likely to have occurred. In addition, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) can identify the composition of any anomalies present after de-cap under higher magnification. The removal process of package material can be done either mechanically or chemically depending on the design of the integrated circuit. With ceramic packaging, de-cap is usually done mechanically by chiseling off the top with a fine razor and small hammer. For plastic packaging, de-cap requires chemical etching by strong acids. In this Tech Tips article, de-cap by chemical etching will be outlined step by step.
Technical Library | 2020-09-02 14:34:23.0
Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a process of creating coatings on a molecular layer by layer basis. Using an iterated sequence of self-saturating deposition cycles that are self-terminating, a single layer can be deposited at a time, allowing for highly uniform films with complete conformality. The composition of the film typically used for coating printed wiring boards (PWBs) is a high alumina (Al2O3) sequential deposition of alumina and titania capped with a corrosion protective titanium aluminate layer, most notably ALD-Cap from Sundew Technologies, LLC. Rework is a process of restoring an electronics assembly to full functionality to prolong equipment life and reduce the amount of scrap. The process typically involves:
Technical Library | 2019-12-05 13:30:46.0
Conformal coatings are regularly employed to protect the surface of a soldered printed circuit board assembly from moisture, chemicals in the PCBA's service environment, and foreign objects or debris. Conformal coatings are nonconductive and therefore cannot be placed on any location where electrical contact will be required, such as connector pins, test points, and sockets. Conformal coatings are also not permitted on any mechanical interface location, such as mounting holes or brackets, to assure the proper fit between items in the final assembly. In order to apply conformal coatings to an assembly and comply with the restrictions on keep-out areas, masking is employed to protect those surfaces.
Technical Library | ACI Technologies, Inc.
One of the two basic risks of employing the commercially accepted, Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) compliant, lead-free (Pb-free) electronics is the threat to the electronics reliability from the growth of tin whiskers. The other basic risk deals with Pb-free solder joint reliability.
Technical Library | 2019-08-14 22:20:55.0
Cleanliness is a product of design, including component density, standoff height and the cleaning equipment’s ability to deliver the cleaning agent to the source of residue. The presence of manufacturing process soil, such as flux residue, incompletely activated flux, incompletely cured solder masks, debris from handling and processing fixtures, and incomplete removal of cleaning fluids can hinder the functional lifetime of the product. Contaminates trapped under a component are more problematic to failure. Advanced test methods are needed to obtain "objective evidence" for removing flux residues under leadless components.Cleaning process performance is a function of cleaning capacity and defined cleanliness. Cleaning performance can be influenced by the PCB design, cleaning material, cleaning machine, reflow conditions and a wide range of process parameters.This research project is designed to study visual flux residues trapped under the bottom termination of leadless components. This paper will research a non-destructive visual method that can be used to study the cleanability of solder pastes, cleaning material effectiveness for the soil, cleaning machine effectiveness and process parameters needed to render a clean part.
Technical Library | 2020-08-05 17:13:12.0
A primary issue in electronics reliability for military applications is the ability to ensure long term operability in harsh, extreme environments. This requires more rigid standards, such as the MIL-STD-883 (Department of Defense Test Method Standard for Microcircuits), which commercial grade electronics typically do not satisfy. A solution commonly employed is to package the critical electronic components in hermetically sealed metal or ceramic enclosures which are costly and labor intensive. Not only are the components more expensive, but the assembly process is more difficult to automate, resulting in a substantial cost premium for military grade electronics.