Technical Library | 2013-10-22 07:38:42.0
In conformal coating many components and printed circuit board locations must remain uncoated due to the insulating nature of the coating. The purpose of the conformal coating masking materials is to prevent migration of the conformal coatings into components that need to clear and designated keep out areas. This applies to both liquid conformal coating and Parylene processing. Get this basic process wrong and it can be a big problem, leading to the next stage of either repairing the conformal coating leak, stripping the conformal coating off the circuit board, removing a component to replace it or scrapping the board. This paper reviews typical masking application methods in conformal coating and provides advice on minimising problems.
Technical Library | 2014-06-23 14:50:52.0
It was unusual to see chip terminations change colors when tin lead solders were used but with the introduction of lead free reflow soldering and the corresponding increases in reflow temperatures terminations are now changing colors. Two conditions are present when reflow temperatures are increased for lead free solder alloys that leads to discoloration. Reflow temperatures are above the melting point of tin (Sn MP is 232oC). Air temperatures commonly used in forced convection reflow systems are high enough to both melt the tin plating on the termination allowing it to be pulled into the solder joint due to solder joint liquid solder surface tension leaving behind the exposed nickel barrier. Now those metal oxide colors will be visible due to high air temperatures during reflow.
Technical Library | 2016-08-02 06:12:05.0
The audio device industry is set to grow in parallel with the technology triggering across the globe. Also the entertainment and hospitality industry has created an increased demand of audio devices at large. With the enhancement coming up in consumer applications every other day, the recent trend of implementing wireless technology in audio devices has captivated the attention in the market with its growing popularities all over the electronics industry. The recent audio discoveries have marked cosmic developments in the new product launch, business partnership and acquisition globally. With this, the audio device makers are now in race to present a multi featured compact device with giving an appealing dimension experience to the end users in order to survive in the electronic market.
Technical Library | 2016-08-11 01:21:34.0
Be it a residential building, hospital, shopping mall, hotel, school, educational institution or any kind of a building, the security of the building is a prime facet to get a complete building solution. This also includes protecting the building, its assent and the human life from the airborne toxic industrial chemical, radiological and biological attacks or any accidental release apart from fire, water, earthquake and other security concerns. For these high value security solutions, the upgraded technology for the building safety system is now a top priority, especially in the commercial building sector and residential constructions. To introduce a completely new concept and a unique solution, it is necessary to focus on the dynamic electronic design and manufacturing solution in consultation with the custom PCB experts.
Technical Library | 2016-08-17 01:24:36.0
To stake a claim in upcoming new technologies and increasing improved customer experience, it is now becoming a central point of consideration to bring out the new classy vehicle design, car manufacturing techniques, testing system in the global market. The current vehicle manufacturer’s also aim to maintain equilibrium between deep capital investment and long product cycle to make the car model a success story. With this, the type of printed circuit board to be used in the vehicle is decided with focusing more on the type of material used in the vehicle and the level of electronic manufacturing and design solution needed in the vehicle production. To go into the roots of the automotive industry, it is equally important to get insights into the PCB used in vehicles and the new innovations brought forward by researchers to create a dream vehicle of the series. The below paragraph drives you to the types of PCB used in the automotive sector.
Technical Library | 2019-09-04 21:35:53.0
Since the European Directives, RoHS (Restriction of Hazardous Substances) and REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals), entered into force in 2006-7, the number of regulated substances continues to grow. REACH adds new substances roughly twice a year, and more substances will be added to RoHS in 2019. While these open-ended regulations represent an ongoing burden for supply chain reporting, some ability to remain ahead of new substance restrictions can be achieved through full material declarations (FMD) specifically the IPC-1752A Class D Standard (the "Standard"), which was developed by the IPC - Association Connecting Electronic Industries. What is important to the supply chain is access to user-friendly, easily accessible or free, fully supported tools that allow suppliers to create and modify XML (Extensible Markup Language) files as specified in the Standard. Some tools will provide enhancements that validate required data entry and provide real-time interactive messages to facilitate the resolution of errors. In addition, validation and auto-population of substance CAS (Chemical Abstract Service) numbers, and Class D weight rollup validation ensure greater success in the acceptance of the declarations in customer systems that automate data gathering and reporting. A good tool should support importing existing IPC-1752A files for editing; this capability reduces the effort to update older declarations and greatly benefits suppliers of a family of products with similar composition. One of the problems with FMDs is the use of "wildcard" non-CAS numbers based on a declarable substance list (DSL). While the substances in different company's lists tend to have some overlap, no two DSL’s are the same. We provide an understanding of the commonality and differences between representative DSLs, and the ability to configure how much of a non-DSL substance percent is allowed. Case studies are discussed to show how supplier compliance data, can be automatically loaded into the customer's enterprise compliance system. Finally, we briefly discuss future enhancements and other developments like Once an Article, Always an Article (O5A) that will continue to require IPC standards and supporting tools to evolve.
Technical Library | 2012-03-08 20:08:57.0
You may have heard talk in the news lately regarding counterfeit electronic components making it into the US military supply chain. The U.S. Senate Armed Services Committee (SASC) recently reported in the Counterfeit Electronic Parts in the Defense Department Supply Chain hearing held on November 17, 2011, 1,800 cases of suspected counterfeit components that went into more than 1 million individual products. If you consider this number for the military, we can only imagine the number of counterfeits in our commercial yet high reliability products, such as life support or other critical systems. If you are the person within your electronics-based company who must perform risk analyses, counterfeiting is not a new concern, yet many do not realize just how good counterfeiters have become at their "trade".
Technical Library | 2013-12-27 10:39:21.0
The head-in-pillow defect has become a relatively common failure mode in the industry since the implementation of Pb-free technologies, generating much concern. A head-in-pillow defect is the incomplete wetting of the entire solder joint of a Ball-Grid Array (BGA), Chip-Scale Package (CSP), or even a Package-On-Package (PoP) and is characterized as a process anomaly, where the solder paste and BGA ball both reflow but do not coalesce. When looking at a cross-section, it actually looks like a head has pressed into a soft pillow. There are two main sources of head-in-pillow defects: poor wetting and PWB or package warpage. Poor wetting can result from a variety of sources, such as solder ball oxidation, an inappropriate thermal reflow profile or poor fluxing action. This paper addresses the three sources or contributing issues (supply, process & material) of the head-in-pillow defects. It will thoroughly review these three issues and how they relate to result in head-in pillow defects. In addition, a head-in-pillow elimination plan will be presented with real life examples will be to illustrate these head-in-pillow solutions.