Technical Library | 2019-09-24 15:41:53.0
This paper focuses on three different coating material groups which were formulated to operate under high thermal stress and are applied at printed circuit board manufacturing level. While used for principally different applications, these coatings have in common that they can be key to a successful thermal management concept especially in e-mobility and lighting applications. The coatings consist of: Specialty (green transparent) liquid photoimageable solder masks (LPiSM) compatible with long-term thermal storage/stress in excess of 150°C. Combined with the appropriate high-temperature base material, and along with a suitable copper pre-treatment, these solder resists are capable of fulfilling higher thermal demands. In this context, long-term storage tests as well as temperature cycling tests were conducted. Moreover, the effect of various Cu pre-treatment methods on the adhesion of the solder masks was examined following 150, 175 and 200°C ageing processes. For this purpose, test panels were conditioned for 2000 hours at the respective temperatures and were submitted to a cross-cut test every 500 h. Within this test set-up, it was found that a multi-level chemical pre-treatment gives significantly better adhesion results, in particular at 175°C and 200°C, compared with a pre-treatment by brush or pumice brush. Also, breakdown voltage as well as tracking resistance were investigated. For an application in LED technology, the light reflectivity and white colour stability of the printed circuit board are of major importance, especially when high-power LEDs are used which can generate larger amounts of heat. For this reason, a very high coverage power and an intense white colour with high reflectivity values are essential for white solder masks. These "ultra-white" and largely non-yellowing LPiSM need to be able to withstand specific thermal loads, especially in combination with high-power LED lighting applications. The topic of thermal performance of coatings for electronics will also be discussed in view of printed heatsink paste (HSP) and thermal interface paste (TIP) coatings which are used for a growing number of applications. They are processed at the printed circuit board manufacturing level for thermal-coupling and heat-spreading purposes in various thermal management-sensitive fields, especially in the automotive and LED lighting industries. Besides giving an overview of the principle functionality, it will be discussed what makes these ceramic-filled epoxy- or silicone-based materials special compared to using "thermal greases" and "thermal pads" for heat dissipation purposes.
Technical Library | 2013-01-17 15:34:33.0
The use of an electroless nickel, immersion gold (ENIG) surface finish comes with the inherent potential risk of Black Pad failures that can cause fracture embrittlement at the interface between the solder and the metal pad. As yet, there is no conclusive agreed solution to effectively eliminate Black Pad failures. The case studies presented are intended to add to the understanding of the Black Pad failure mechanism and to identify both the plating and the subsequent assembly processes and conditions that can help to prevent the likelihood of Black Pad occurring.
Technical Library | 2015-06-11 21:20:29.0
The use of bottom terminated components (BTC) has become widespread, specifically the use of Quad Flat No-lead (QFN) packages. The small outline and low height of this package type, improved electrical and thermal performance relative to older packaging technology, and low cost make the QFN/BTC attractive for many applications.Over the past 15 years, the implementation of the QFN/BTC package has garnered a great amount of attention due to the assembly and inspection process challenges associated with the package. The difference in solder application parameters between the center pad and the perimeter pads complicates stencil design, and must be given special attention to balance the dissimilar requirements
Technical Library | 2013-01-03 20:27:54.0
Electronics assemblies with large flip-chip BGA packages can be prone to either pad cratering or brittle intermetallic (IMC) failures under excessive PCB bending. Pad cratering cracks are not detected by electrical testing or non-destructive inspection methods, yet they pose a long term reliability risk since the cracks may propagate under subsequent loads to cause electrical failure. Since the initiation of pad cratering does not result in an instantaneous electrical signature, detecting the onset of this failure has been challenging. An acoustic emission methodology was recently developed by the authors to detect the onset of pad cratering. The instantaneous release of elastic energy associated with the initiation of an internal crack, i.e., Acoustic Emission (AE), can be monitored to accurately determine the onset of both pad cratering and brittle intermetallic (IMC) failures.
Technical Library | 2015-12-31 15:19:28.0
Today's consumer electronic product are characterized by miniatuization, portability and light weight with high performance, especially for 3G mobile products. In the future more fine pitch CSPs (0.4mm) component will be required. However, the product reliability has been a big challenge with the fine pitch CSP. Firstly, the fine pitch CSPs are with smaller solder balls of 0.25mm diameter or even smaller. The small solder ball and pad size do weaken the solder connection and the adhesion of the pad and substrate, thus the pad will peel off easily from the PCB substrate. In addition, miniature solder joint reduce the strength during mechanical vibration, thermal shock, fatigue failure, etc. Secondly, applying sufficient solder paste evenly on the small pad of the CSP is difficult because stencil opening is only 0.25mm or less. This issue can be solved using the high end type of stencil such as Electroforming which will increase the cost.
Technical Library | 2019-04-17 21:29:14.0
Electroless nickel electroless palladium immersion gold (ENEPIG) surface finish for printed circuit board (PCB) has now become a key surface finish that is used for both tin-lead and lead-free solder assemblies. This paper presents the reliability of land grid array (LGA) component packages with 1156 pads assembled with tin-lead solder onto PCBs with an ENEPIG finish and then subjected to thermal cycling and then isothermal aging.
Technical Library | 2015-02-19 16:54:34.0
Pad cratering is an important failure mode besides crack of solder joint as it’ll pass the regular test but have impact on the long term reliability of the product. A new pin pull test method with solder ball attached and positioning the test board at an angle of 30º is employed to study the strength of pad cratering. This new method clearly reveals the failure mechanism. And a proper way to interpret the finite element analysis (FEA) result is discussed. Impact of pad dimension, width and angle of copper trace on the strength is included. Some findings not included in previous research could help to guide the design for better performance
Technical Library | 2014-10-30 01:48:43.0
The ultimate life of a microelectronics component is often limited by failure of a solder joint due to crack growth through the laminate under a contact pad (cratering), through the intermetallic bond to the pad, or through the solder itself. Whatever the failure mode proper assessments or even relative comparisons of life in service are not possible based on accelerated testing with fixed amplitudes, or random vibration testing, alone. Effects of thermal cycling enhanced precipitate coarsening on the deformation properties can be accounted for by microstructurally adaptive constitutive relations, but separate effects on the rate of recrystallization lead to a break-down in common damage accumulation laws such as Miner's rule. Isothermal cycling of individual solder joints revealed additional effects of amplitude variations on the deformation properties that cannot currently be accounted for directly. We propose a practical modification to Miner's rule for solder failure to circumvent this problem. Testing of individual solder pads, eliminating effects of the solder properties, still showed variations in cycling amplitude to systematically reduce subsequent acceleration factors for solder pad cratering. General trends, anticipated consequences and remaining research needs are discussed
Technical Library | 2009-11-05 11:17:32.0
Head-in-pillow (HiP), also known as ball-and-socket, is a solder joint defect where the solder paste deposit wets the pad, but does not fully wet the ball. This results in a solder joint with enough of a connection to have electrical integrity, but lacking sufficient mechanical strength. Due to the lack of solder joint strength, these components may fail with very little mechanical or thermal stress. This potentially costly defect is not usually detected in functional testing, and only shows up as a failure in the field after the assembly has been exposed to some physical or thermal stress.
Technical Library | 2012-07-11 20:10:59.0
As technology advances, understanding thermal management issues of high frequency PCB's increases. There are many different aspects to consider for PCB thermal management. This paper will investigate thermal management issues of high frequency PCB's as it