Technical Library | 2009-05-07 23:23:00.0
Thermal fatigue has been one of the most serious problems for solder joint reliability. Thermo-mechanical fatigue failure is considered to be closely related to micro-structural coarsening (grain/phase growth). Factors that influence the phase growth are studied and measurement methods are discussed, including the preparation of the eutectic solder sample for phase size measurement. Three categories of models used to predict grain growth in polycrystalline materials are presented. Finally, phase growth in solder during high temperature aging and temperature cycling and its use as a damage correlation factor are discussed.
Technical Library | 2013-09-19 17:25:32.0
The next generation of smart phones will demand very thin multi-layer boards to reduce the product thickness again. This paper shows three different manufacturing approaches, which can be used for very thin any-layer build-ups. The technological approaches are compared on reliability level – the any-layer copper filled micro-via technology which is to be considered as state of the art technology for high end phones and the ALIVH-C/G technology that is well established in Japan. A test vehicle design featuring test coupons for comprehensive reliability test series has been defined as target application for investigation...
Technical Library | 2020-09-16 21:24:56.0
Additive manufacturing processes typically used for mechanical parts can be combined with enhanced technologies for electronics production to enable a highly flexible manufacturing of personalized 3D electronic devices. To illustrate different approaches for implementing electrical and electronic functionality, conductive paths and electronic components were embedded in a powder bed printed substrate using an enhanced 3D printer. In addition, a modified Aerosol Jet printing process and assembly technologies adapted from the technology of Molded Interconnect Devices were applied to print circuit patterns and to electrically interconnect components on the surface of the 3D substrates.
Technical Library | 2013-08-07 21:52:15.0
PCB architectures have continued their steep trend toward greater complexities and higher component densities. For quality control managers and test technicians, the consequence is significant. Their ability to electrically test these products is compounded with each new generation. Probe access to high density boards loaded with micro BGAs using a conventional in-circuit (bed-of-nails) test system is greatly reduced. The challenges and complexity of creating a comprehensive functional test program have all but assured that functional test will not fill the widening gap. This explains why sales of automated-optical and automated X-ray inspection (AOI and AXI) equipment have dramatically risen...
Technical Library | 2020-10-08 00:55:22.0
This article presents the development of a stretchable sensor network with high signal-to-noise ratio and measurement accuracy for real-time distributed sensing and remote monitoring. The described sensor network was designed as an island-and-serpentine type network comprising a grid of sensor "islands" connected by interconnecting "serpentines." A novel high-yield manufacturing process was developed to fabricate networks on recyclable 4-inch wafers at a low cost. The resulting stretched sensor network has 17 distributed and functionalized sensing nodes with low tolerance and high resolution. The sensor network includes Piezoelectric (PZT), Strain Gauge(SG), and Resistive Temperature Detector (RTD) sensors. The design and development of a flexible frame with signal conditioning, data acquisition, and wireless data transmission electronics for the stretchable sensor network are also presented. The primary purpose of the frame subsystem is to convert sensor signals into meaningful data, which are displayed in real-time for an end-user to view and analyze. The challenges and demonstrated successes in developing this new system are demonstrated, including (a) developing separate signal conditioning circuitry and components for all three sensor types (b) enabling simultaneous sampling for PZT sensors for impact detection and (c)configuration of firmware/software for correct system operation. The network was expanded with an in-house developed automated stretch machine to expand it to cover the desired area. The released and stretched network was laminated into an aerospace composite wing with edge-mount electronics for signal conditioning, processing, power, and wireless communication.
Technical Library | 2020-01-15 23:54:34.0
Flexible electronics has significantly advanced over the last few years, as devices and circuits from nanoscale structures to printed thin films have started to appear. Simultaneously, the demand for high-performance electronics has also increased because flexible and compact integrated circuits are needed to obtain fully flexible electronic systems. It is challenging to obtain flexible and compact integrated circuits as the silicon based CMOS electronics, which is currently the industry standard for high-performance, is planar and the brittle nature of silicon makes bendability difficult. For this reason, the ultra-thin chips from silicon is gaining interest. This review provides an in-depth analysis of various approaches for obtaining ultra-thin chips from rigid silicon wafer. The comprehensive study presented here includes analysis of ultra-thin chips properties such as the electrical, thermal, optical and mechanical properties, stress modelling, and packaging techniques. The underpinning advances in areas such as sensing, computing, data storage, and energy have been discussed along with several emerging applications (e.g., wearable systems, m-Health, smart cities and Internet of Things etc.) they will enable. This paper is targeted to the readers working in the field of integrated circuits on thin and bendable silicon; but it can be of broad interest to everyone working in the field of flexible electronics.
Technical Library | 2015-03-19 20:33:34.0
Silicon is arguably the best electronic material, but it is not a good optoelectronic material. By employing first-principles calculations and the cluster-expansion approach, we discover that hydrogenated bilayer silicene (BS) shows promising potential as a new kind of optoelectronic material. Most significantly, hydrogenation converts the intrinsic BS, a strongly indirect semiconductor, into a direct-gap semiconductor with a widely tunable band gap. At low hydrogen concentrations, four ground states of single- and double sided hydrogenated BS are characterized by dipole-allowed direct (or quasidirect) band gaps in the desirable range from 1 to 1.5 eV, suitable for solar applications. At high hydrogen concentrations, three well-ordered double-sided hydrogenated BS structures exhibit direct (or quasidirect) band gaps in the color range of red, green, and blue, affording white light-emitting diodes. Our findings open opportunities to search for new silicon-based light-absorption and light-emitting materials for earth-abundant, high efficiency, optoelectronic applications.Originally published by the American Physical Society
Technical Library | 2013-03-14 17:19:28.0
Commercial-off-the-shelf ball/column grid array packaging (COTS BGA/CGA) technologies in high reliability versions are now being considered for use in a number of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) electronic systems. Understanding the process and quality assurance (QA) indicators for reliability are important for low-risk insertion of these advanced electronic packages. This talk briefly discusses an overview of packaging trends for area array packages from wire bond to flip-chip ball grid array (FCBGA) as well as column grid array (CGA). It then presents test data including manufacturing and assembly board-level reliability for FCBGA packages with 1704 I/Os and 1-mm pitch, fine pitch BGA (FPBGA) with 432 I/Os and 0.4-mm pitch, and PBGA with 676 I/Os and 1.0-mm pitch packages. First published in the 2012 IPC APEX EXPO technical conference proceedings.
Technical Library | 2016-08-02 06:04:42.0
The next generation FUNDAS rest on one and only one motto (i.e.) technology up-gradation. For innovations in any corner of the world, a completely unique electronic solution is derived that accounts for fast trending modernization in the lifestyle of humans. With electronic design or manufacturing solution, the printed circuit boards are the groundwork for every electronic project. As the electronic control system and instruments are now applied in every predominant market across the globe, the use of PCB is predicted to have universal application in the global society. This article details you on the type of PCB’s used in the industrial sector, the application of PCB and innovations marked in the industrial sector with current steps taken by PCB manufacturers to provide unique solutions to the industrial sharks. See more: http://www.technotronix.us/pcbblog/printed-circuit-board-for-industrial-application-drives-a-wave-of-innovation/
Technical Library | 2013-01-30 14:02:44.0
Many OEM’s require that individual wires and cables used in their products be clearly identified with a mark or label. For some, such as in the military and aerospace markets, wire and cable identification (or “wire ID”) is mandatory and the process is governed by stringent specifications, such as SAE AS50881 (formerly MIL5088L). For others, the decision to use wire ID is a voluntary one. This article will describe what type of information is typically identified on wire and cables, concepts for improved productivity, what types of systems are available and the pros and cons of each.