Electronics Manufacturing Technical Articles

Electronics Manufacturing Technical Articles

Papers and articles related to SMT, PCB & EMS industry.

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1720 SMT / PCB Assembly Related Technical Articles

Physics of Failure (PoF) Based Lifetime Prediction of Power Electronics at the Printed Circuit Board Level

Sep 15, 2021 | Andrew Wileman, Suresh Perinpanayagam and Sohaib Aslam

This paper presents the use of physics of failure (PoF) methodology to infer fast and accurate lifetime predictions for power electronics at the printed circuit board (PCB) level in early design stages. It is shown that the ability to accurately model silicon–metal layers, semiconductor packaging, printed circuit boards (PCBs), and assemblies allows, for instance, the prediction of solder fatigue failure due to thermal, mechanical, and manufacturing conditions. The technique allows a lifecycle prognosis of the PCB, taking into account the environmental stresses it will encounter during the period of operation. Primarily, it involves converting an electronic computer aided design (eCAD) circuit layout into computational fluid dynamic (CFD) and finite element analysis (FEA) models with accurate geometries. From this, stressors, such as thermal cycling, mechanical shock, natural frequency, and harmonic and random vibrations, are applied to understand PCB degradation, and semiconductor and capacitor wear, and accordingly provide a method for high-fidelity power PCB modelling, which can be subsequently used to facilitate virtual testing and digital twinning for aircraft systems and sub-systems....

Publisher: Cranfield University

Cranfield University

Cranfield University is a British postgraduate public research university specialising in science, engineering, design, technology and management. Cranfield was founded as the College of Aeronautics in 1946.


Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Mathematical Model For Dynamic Force Analysis Of Printed Circuit Boards

Sep 15, 2021 | I.I. Kovtun, J.M. Boiko, S.A. Petrashchuk

Mathematical model for dynamic force analysis of printed circuit boards has been designed to calculate dynamic deformations and stresses in printed circuit boards and assess their dynamic strength and rigidity. The represented model describes a printed circuit board as a separate oscillatory system, which is simulated as prismatic beam set on two oscillating supports. Simulation and assessment of stress and deflection in printed circuit boards and obtaining their amplitude frequency responses provided recommendations, which ensure strength and stiffness of printed circuit boards subjected to dynamic loads.....

Publisher: Khmelnytsky National University

Khmelnytsky National University

Established in 1962, Khmelnytskyi National University is a non-profit public higher-education institution located in the urban setting of the medium city of Khmelnitsky (population range of 250,000-499,999 inhabitants), Khmelnytsk

Khmelnytskyi Oblast, Ukraine

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Failure Mechanisms Of Electromechanical Relays On PCBAs: Part I

Sep 15, 2021 | Gert Vogel

Many printed circuit board assemblies (PCBAs) have relays that are soldered to the PCB. If such an electromechanical component fails, it can cause the whole device to fail, just like any other electronic component. The spectrum of root causes that lead to an increased contact resistance or a complete contact failure is totally different from what usually occurs in the electronics domain. This article provides a detailed analysis of these failures and the corresponding root causes, many of them self-centering....

Publisher: Siemens Process Industries and Drives

Siemens Process Industries and Drives

Siemens industrial manufacturing software, process automation, and automation and drives technology increases flexibility, cuts market launch lead time, and significantly reduces energy for manufacturing companies.

Alpharetta, Georgia, USA

Consultant / Service Provider, Manufacturer, Training Provider

Failure Analysis

Sep 15, 2021 | ASM International®

Analyzing failures is a critical process in determining the physical root causes of problems. The process is complex, draws upon many different technical disciplines, and uses a variety of observation, inspection, and laboratory techniques. One of the key factors in properly performing a failure analysis is keeping an open mind while examining and analyzing the evidence to foster a clear, unbiased perspective of the failure....

Publisher: ASM International

ASM International

ASM International, formerly known as the American Society for Metals, an association of materials-centric engineers and scientists. ASM is dedicated to informing, educating, & connecting the materials community to solve problems.

Materials Park, Ohio, USA

Association / Non-Profit

Auto Electronic ICT+ Programming Automation Solution

Sep 09, 2021 | pti

Auto Electronic ICT+ Programming Automation Solution...

Publisher: Shenzhen PTI Technology CO.,LTD

Shenzhen PTI Technology CO.,LTD

Our company was established in 2004, Main products: ICT on-line tester, ICT, functional testing machine 、FCT、 TSI、 automatic test and control system (ATE), test automation solutions, etc.

深圳, China


The Great SAC Debate: Comparing The Reliability Of SAC305 And SAC405 Solders In A Variety Of Applications

Sep 08, 2021 | Heather McCormick, Polina Snugovsky, Craig Hamilton, Zohreh Bagheri, and Simin Bagheri

Although the electronics industry has largely settled on the use of SAC alloys for the assembly of the majority of lead free products, debate continues to exist over which SAC alloy – SAC305 (Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu) or SAC405 (Sn3.8Ag0.8Cu) – to use. The North American industry generally favours SAC405, while the Asian industry favours SAC305. SAC305 has the significant benefit of being less expensive than SAC405 owing to its lower silver content. However, there are lingering questions about whether the reliability of SAC305 is comparable to that of SAC405. Recent studies have concluded that no significant difference exists, but many potential applications were not studied. This paper compares the results of reliability testing of SAC305 and SAC405 in three different cases on a test vehicle representative of a mid-complexity server-type product which included a range of component types from CBGAs to discrete resistors....

Publisher: Celestica Corporation

Celestica Corporation

A multinational electronics manufacturing services (EMS) company.

Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Manufacturer, Standards Setting / Certification, Training Provider

iNEMI Pb-Free Alloy Characterization Project Report: Part II - Thermal Fatigue Results For Two Common Temperature Cycles

Sep 08, 2021 | Richard Parker, Richard Coyle, Gregory Henshall, Joe Smetana, Elizabeth Benedetto

The Pb-Free Alloy Characterization Program sponsored by International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative (iNEMI) is conducting an extensive investigation using accelerated temperature cycling (ATC) to evaluate ball grid array (BGA) thermal fatigue performance of 12 commercial or developmental Sn based Pb-free solder alloys. This paper presents the initial findings from a specific subset of the temperature cycling test matrix. The focus is on comparing alloy performance for two of the most commonly specified temperature cycles, 0 to 100 °C and -40 to 125 °C....

Publisher: iNEMI (International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative)

iNEMI (International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative)

iNEMI is an industry-led consortium focused on identifying and closing technology gaps, which includes the development and integration of the electronics industry supply infrastructure.

Herndon, Virginia, USA

Effect Of Silver In Common Lead-Free Alloys

Sep 08, 2021 | Ranjit Pandher, Tom Lawlor

There is need in the industry to understand the effects of silver presence in solders from various applications perspective. This article will attempt to present a review of the key published results on the silver containing alloys along with results of our internal studies on wave soldering, surface mount and BGA/CSP applications. Advantages and disadvantages of silver at different levels will be discussed. Specifically this report will focus on the effect of silver on process conditions, drop shock resistance, solder joint survivability in high strain rate situations, thermal fatigue resistance, Cu dissolution and effects of silver in combination with other alloy additives. Specific application problems demanding high silver level and other requiring silver level to the minimum will be discussed....

Publisher: Cookson Electronics

Cookson Electronics

Leading materials science company that provides high performance materials, chemistry and technology solutions to the electronics and surface finishing industries worldwide.

Lakeville, Minnesota, USA


Modeling Temperature Cycle Fatigue Life of Select SAC Solders

Sep 08, 2021 | Michael Osterman

While the presence of silver in SAC solder provided excellent temperature cycling durability, the silver in high silver SAC alloy also made the solders susceptible to failures under drop/shock loading. To improve the drop/shock reliability, the silver content in SAC alloys was reduced from three percent, to as low as no silver. Solder dopants, also known as microalloy additions, are elements (typically 0.1% or lower) other than the main constituents of the alloy that have been shown to improve solder performance. Commonly used microalloy additions include nickel (Ni), bismuth (Bi), manganese (Mn), and antimony (Sb)....

Publisher: CALCE Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering

CALCE Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering

The largest electronic products research center focused on electronics reliability, is dedicated to providing a knowledge and resource base to support the development of competitive electronic components, products and systems.

College Park, Maryland, USA

Consultant / Service Provider, Training Provider

Investigation of the Mechanical Properties of Mn-Alloyed Tin-Silver-Copper Solder Solidified with Different Cooling Rates

Sep 08, 2021 | Tamás Hurtony, Oliver Krammer, Balázs Illés, Gábor Harsányi, David Bušek and Karel Dušek

Manganese can be an optimal alloying addition in lead-free SAC (SnAgCu) solder alloys because of its low price and harmless nature. In this research, the mechanical properties of the novel SAC0307 (Sn/Ag0.3/Cu0.7) alloyed with 0.7 wt.% Mn (designated as SAC0307-Mn07) and those of the traditionally used SAC305 (Sn96.5/Ag3/Cu0.5) solder alloys were investigated by analyzing the shear force and Vickers hardness of reflowed solder balls. During the preparation of the reflowed solder balls, different cooling rates were used in the range from 2.7 K/s to 14.7 K/s....

Publisher: Budapest University of Technology and Economics

Budapest University of Technology and Economics

BME is considered the world's oldest Institute of Technology which has university rank and structure. It was the first institute in Europe to train engineers at university level.

Budapest, Hungary

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Utsource is a global online store of electronic components.

Sep 07, 2021 | Utsource

Utsource grows from a child to an adult serving the global 30W + customers. UTSOURCE.net is a professional purchasing B2B & B2C tools in electronic components field. UTSOURCE.net provides different types such as IC, Modules, RF transistors etc., and various product type's PDF parameter form as well as the related photographs, we also provide satisfying one-stop package service for customers. We fell honored to serve the global 30W + customers.We spent 15 years touching the needs of customers from all over the world.So we know better that our customers need their packages to arrive safely.After-sales service need at your fingertips and intimate service should be to customers' satisfaction...

Publisher: utsource


UTSOURCE.net is a professional purchasing B2B & B2C tools in electronic components field. UTSOURCE.net provides different types such as IC, Modules, RF transistors etc.,

Alhambra, California, USA


UV Laser PCB Depaneling Machine Improve Cutting Effect

Sep 02, 2021 | Winsmart

We are a professional manufacturer of PCB depaneling machines, which is workable for all boards, including flex and regid boards, v-scored boards and routed boards. Laser pcb depaneling is non-contact way without mechanical stress,this solution is good for modern precision PCB depaneling. It has below advantages: 1. No dust The production environment of the circuit board industry is carried out in the dust-free workshop. The traditional pcb depaneling equipment, such as blade moving type machine, will inevitably produce residues and micro powder, which will pollute the 10000 and 1000 class dust-free workshops and affect the conductivity of products. The UV laser PCB cutting machine is a vaporization processing process, which will not produce dust and is conducive to the conductivity of the product. 2. High cutting precision The processing gap of high-precision traditional processing equipment can not reach the gap width of less than 100 microns, which will cause certain damage to the lines on the edge or PCBA circuit board containing components. The focus spot of the laser cutting machine is small, and the ultraviolet cold processing mode has little thermal impact on the edge of the circuit board. The cutting position accuracy is less than 50 microns, and the cutting size accuracy is less than 30 microns, which will not affect the edge of the circuit board, and the precision is high. 3. No stress Traditional processing methods generally have V-grooves, which will cause certain damage to the board in the manufacturing process. The UV laser PCB cutting machine can directly cut the bare board without making V-grooves. In addition, the traditional processing methods directly use tools to act on the circuit board, especially the stamping method has a great impact on the circuit board, which is easy to cause board deformation. The laser cutting machine is a non-contact processing mode, which acts on the surface of the material through the high-energy beam, which will not cause the influence of stress and the deformation and damage of the circuit board. 4. For special-shaped cutting, it is easy to automate The UV laser PCB cutting machine can cut for any shape without replacing any props and fixtures, and without steel mesh. The same equipment can meet special-shaped and straight-line cutting, which is easy to realize assembly line automatic production and high flexibility. It is easy to improve production efficiency and save production process and production cycle. In particular, it can quickly and efficiently meet the needs of rapid proofing, directly import the drawing, and then locate the cutting. 5. High compatibility The UV laser PCB cutting machine can process the materials around the circuit board, such as PCB, FPC, covering film, pet, reinforcing board, IC, ultra-thin metal cutting, etc. it has strong practicability, is compatible with the processing of a variety of materials, is easy to operate, can be imported into the drawing, does not need to adjust any mechanical parts, and is easy to operate and maintain. 6. Good cutting edge effect The cutting edge is smooth and neat without burr. It can be processed and formed directly according to the size of the drawing, which is conducive to improving the yield of the product. It can be directly installed into the subsequent process without further processing. For more details about UV laser depaneling, please feel free to contact us. www.pcbdepanelingrouter.com...

Publisher: Winsmart Electronic Co.,Ltd

Winsmart Electronic Co.,Ltd

Manufacturer of PCB depaneling and PCB soldering machines since 2005, products include CE approval V-groove PCB depanelizer, PCB router, PCB punching machine, laser depaneling, hot bar soldering machines and soldering robots.

Huizhou, China


Tombstoning Of 0402 And 0201 Components: "A Study Examining The Effects Of Various Process And Design Parameters On Ultra-Small Passive Devices"

Sep 01, 2021 | Michael Yuen, Heather Benedict, Kris Havlovitz, Tim Pitsch, Andy C. Mackie

The long-standing trend in the electronics industry has been the miniaturization of electronic components. It is projected that this trend will continue as Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) and Electronic Manufacturing Service (EMS) providers strive to reduce "real estate" on printed circuit boards. Typically, the miniaturization of components can be achieved by integration or size reduction. At present, size reduction is considered to be more cost effective and flexible than integration. Passive components, which are used in limiting current, terminating transmission lines and de-coupling switching noise, are the primary focus in size reduction due to their variety of uses....

Publisher: Plexus Corporation

Plexus Corporation

Are you ready to experience the difference? Plexus Corp provides comprehensive product development and manufacturing services to Fortune 500 companies in the medical, networking/datacom, high-end computing, industrial and commercial electronics indus

Neenah, Wisconsin, USA


Solving Surface-Mount Assembly Challenges Presented by 0201mm Components

Sep 01, 2021 | Richard Vereijssen

The global electronics industry's ability to deliver seemingly limitless ongoing advancements in product capabilities has encouraged an insatiable consumer demand for more, better, and smaller. Demands for high functionality of mobile devices, smart watches, military, medical, audio, and wearable technology continue to drive requirements for miniaturisation....

Publisher: Yamaha Motor IM America, Inc.

Yamaha Motor IM America, Inc.

Yamaha Motor IM America offers Single and Dual Lane production Printers, Mounters and AOI.

Kennesaw, Georgia, USA


Test plan for refrigerator main board

Aug 31, 2021 | pti

Test plan for refrigerator main board...

Publisher: Shenzhen PTI Technology CO.,LTD

Shenzhen PTI Technology CO.,LTD

Our company was established in 2004, Main products: ICT on-line tester, ICT, functional testing machine 、FCT、 TSI、 automatic test and control system (ATE), test automation solutions, etc.

深圳, China


A Study On Process, Strength And Microstructure Analysis Of Low Temperature SnBi Containing Solder Pastes Mixed With Lead-Free Solder Balls

Aug 25, 2021 | Sakthi Cibi Kannammal Palaniappan and Martin.K.Anselm, Ph.D.

As the traditional eutectic SnPb solder alloy has been outlawed, the electronic industry has almost completely transitioned to the lead-free solder alloys. The conventional SAC305 solder alloy used in lead-free electronic assembly has a high melting and processing temperature with a typical peak reflow temperature of 245ºC which is almost 30ºC higher than traditional eutectic SnPb reflow profile. Some of the drawbacks of this high melting and processing temperatures are yield loss due to component warpage which has an impact on solder joint formation like bridging, open defects, head on pillow....

Publisher: Rochester Institute of Technology

Rochester Institute of Technology

Rochester Institute of Technology is a private research university in the town of Henrietta in the Rochester, New York metropolitan area. The university offers undergraduate and graduate degrees, including doctoral and professiona

Rochester, New York, USA

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Study on the Reliability of Sn–Bi Composite Solder Pastes with Thermosetting Epoxy under Thermal Cycling and Humidity Treatment

Aug 25, 2021 | Lu Liu, Songbai Xue, Ruiyang Ni, Peng Zhang and Jie Wu

In this study, a Sn–Bi composite solder paste with thermosetting epoxy (TSEP Sn–Bi) was prepared by mixing Sn–Bi solder powder, flux, and epoxy system. The melting characteristics of the Sn–Bi solder alloy and the curing reaction of the epoxy system were measured by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). A reflow profile was optimized based on the Sn–Bi reflow profile, and the Organic Solderability Preservative (OSP) Cu pad mounted 0603 chip resistor was chosen to reflow soldering and to prepare samples of the corresponding joint. The high temperature and humidity reliability of the solder joints at 85 C/85% RH (Relative Humidity) for 1000 h and the thermal cycle reliability of the solder joints from ...

Publisher: Nanjing University

Nanjing University

Located in the ancient capital of Nanjing, Nanjing University and its predecessors have taken responsibility for the country and the nation during its development of over 100 years. Committed to the prosperity of the nation ...

Nanjing, Jiangsu, China

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Test Plan for Automotive Electronic Circuit Board

Aug 23, 2021 | pti

After the equipment was introduced, the production capacity was increased by 20%, and the number of operators was reduced by 50%. Employees' salary expenses have been reduced by RMB 120,000 per year, and the pass-through rate has increased by 10% ....

Publisher: Shenzhen PTI Technology CO.,LTD

Shenzhen PTI Technology CO.,LTD

Our company was established in 2004, Main products: ICT on-line tester, ICT, functional testing machine 、FCT、 TSI、 automatic test and control system (ATE), test automation solutions, etc.

深圳, China


Flexible Hybrid Electronics: Direct Interfacing of Soft and Hard Electronics for Wearable Health Monitoring

Aug 18, 2021 | Yasser Khan, Mohit Garg, Qiong Gui, Mark Schadt, Abhinav Gaikwad, Donggeon Han, Natasha A. D. Yamamoto, Paul Hart, Robert Welte, William Wilson, Steve Czarnecki, Mark Poliks, Zhanpeng Jin, Kanad Ghose, Frank Egitto, James Turner, and Ana C. Arias

The interfacing of soft and hard electronics is a key challenge for flexible hybrid electronics. Currently, a multisubstrate approach is employed, where soft and hard devices are fabricated or assembled on separate substrates, and bonded or interfaced using connectors; this hinders the flexibility of the device and is prone to interconnect issues. Here, a single substrate interfacing approach is reported, where soft devices, i.e., sensors, are directly printed on Kapton polyimide substrates that are widely used for fabricating flexible printed circuit boards (FPCBs)....

Publisher: University of California Berkeley

University of California Berkeley

From a group of academic pioneers in 1868 to the Free Speech Movement in 1964, Berkeley is a place where the brightest minds from across the globe come together to explore, ask questions and improve the world.

Berkeley, USA

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Influence of Flexibility of the Interconnects on the Dynamic Bending Reliability of Flexible Hybrid Electronics

Aug 18, 2021 | Nagarajan Palavesam , Waltraud Hell, Andreas Drost, Christof Landesberger, Christoph Kutter and Karlheinz Bock

The growing interest towards thinner and conformable electronic systems has attracted significant attention towards flexible hybrid electronics (FHE). Thin chip-foil packages fabricated by integrating ultra-thin monocrystalline silicon integrated circuits (ICs) on/in flexible foils have the potential to deliver high performance electrical functionalities at very low power requirements while being mechanically flexible....

Publisher: Fraunhofer EMFT Research Institution for Microsystems and Solid State Technologies

Fraunhofer EMFT Research Institution for Microsystems and Solid State Technologies

Fraunhofer EMFT conducts cutting-edge applied research on sensors and actuators for people and the environment. The over hundred employees in the three locations in Munich, Oberpfaffenhofen and Regensburg possess impressive ...

Munich, Germany

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Electromechanical Reliability Testing of Flexible Hybrid Electronics Incorporating FleX Silicon-on-Polymer ICs

Aug 18, 2021 | Darrell E. Leber, Brian N. Meek, Seth D. Leija, Dale G. Wilson, Richard L. Chaney, and Douglas R. Hackler

Flexible Hybrid Electronics combine the best characteristics of printed electronics and silicon ICs to create high performance, ultra-thin, physically flexible systems. New static and dynamic tests are being developed to evaluate the performance of these systems. Dynamic radius of curvature and torsional test results are presented for a flexible hybrid electronics system with a FleX Silicon-on-Polymer operational amplifier manufactured in an 180nm CMOS process with 4-levels of metal interconnect mounted on a PET substrate....

Publisher: American Semiconductor, Inc.

American Semiconductor, Inc.

American Semiconductor serves the semiconductor and related industries as the leading developer and manufacturer of ultra-thin chip technology and manufacturing. The company invented and supplies Semiconductor-on-Polymer (SoP) ...

Boise, Idaho, USA

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Company X -Air conditioning display panel test plan

Aug 16, 2021 | pti

Air conditioning display panel test plan...

Publisher: Shenzhen PTI Technology CO.,LTD

Shenzhen PTI Technology CO.,LTD

Our company was established in 2004, Main products: ICT on-line tester, ICT, functional testing machine 、FCT、 TSI、 automatic test and control system (ATE), test automation solutions, etc.

深圳, China


Coatings and Pottings: A Critical Update

Aug 11, 2021 | Greg Caswell

Conformal coatings and potting materials continue to create issues for the electronics industry. This webinar will dig deeper into the failure modes of these materials, specifically issues with Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE), delamination, cracking, de-wetting, pinholes/bubbles and orange peel issues with conformal coatings and what mitigation techniques are available. Similarly, this webinar will look at the failure modes of potting materials, (e.g Glass Transition Temperature (Tg), PCB warpage, the effects of improper curing and potential methods for correcting these situations....

Publisher: DfR Solutions (acquired by ANSYS Inc)

DfR Solutions (acquired by ANSYS Inc)

DfR Solutions has world-renowned expertise in applying the science of Reliability Physics to electrical and electronics technologies, and is a leading provider of quality, reliability, and durability (QRD) research and consulting

College Park,

Consultant / Service Provider

Design, Development & Analysis of Vacuum Chamber of Potting Machine

Aug 11, 2021 | Mahesh S. Ghule, Dr.(Mrs.)R.S.Bindu

This paper shows the Design and Finite Element analysis of vacuum chamber of potting machine designed for electronic ignition coil applications. There are two types of potting methods 1) With Vacuum 2) Without Vacuum....

Publisher: D Y Patil College Of Engineering Akurdi, Pune

D Y Patil College Of Engineering Akurdi, Pune

The oldest campus of Dr. D. Y. Patil group of Institutions. This campus is started in year 1983 and further nurtured by our visionary Chairman Hon'ble Dr. P. D. Patil with the vision "Empowerment through knowledge" "Better ...

Akurdi, Pune, India

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Analysis of the Influence of Shrinkage Tensile Stress in Potting Material on the Anti-Overload Performance of the Circuit Board

Aug 11, 2021 | Lei Sun and Wenjun Yi

In this article, the influence of shrinkage tensile stress in potting materials on the anti-overload performance of a circuit board was studied. Firstly, the phenomenon of shrinkage tensile stress in common potting materials was analyzed, and it was found that the commonly used potting adhesives displayed large shrinkage characteristics. Secondly, a small experiment was set up to verify that the shrinkage tensile stress of potting adhesives would lead to printed circuit board (PCB) deformation, and the shrinkage stress was contrary to the acceleration direction of overload. Thirdly, the influence of potting adhesives on the overload resistance of the PCB was analyzed....

Publisher: Nanjing University

Nanjing University

Located in the ancient capital of Nanjing, Nanjing University and its predecessors have taken responsibility for the country and the nation during its development of over 100 years. Committed to the prosperity of the nation ...

Nanjing, Jiangsu, China

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Potting And Encapsulating – Avoiding Voids

Aug 11, 2021 | Paul Whitehead

Formulators of multi-component adhesives, potting and encapsulation materials are careful not to supply products with entrapped air. They do this by manufacturing under vacuum or degassing them before supplying to the end user. Consequently, entrapped air in a mixed material is usually a processing issue....

Publisher: Intertronics


INTERTRONICS supplies adhesives, coatings, sealants and equipment to customers with high technology, high performance assembly applications. Our customers are manufacturers in industries such as electronics, medical devices, plast

Oxfordshire, United Kingdom


An Intelligent Approach For Improving Printed Circuit Board Assembly Process Performance In Smart Manufacturing

Aug 04, 2021 | Vincent WC Fung and Kam Chuen Yung

The process of printed circuit board assembly (PCBA) involves several machines, such as a stencil printer, placement machine and reflow oven, to solder and assemble electronic components onto printed circuit boards (PCBs). In the production flow, some failure prevention mechanisms are deployed to ensure the designated quality of PCBA, including solder paste inspection (SPI), automated optical inspection (AOI) and in-circuit testing (ICT). However, such methods to locate the failures are reactive in nature, which may create waste and require additional effort to be spent re-manufacturing and inspecting the PCBs. Worse still, the process performance of the assembly process cannot be guaranteed at a high level. Therefore, there is a need to improve the performance of the PCBA process. To address the aforementioned challenges in the PCBA process, an intelligent assembly process improvement system (IAPIS) is proposed, which integrates the k-means clustering method and multi-response Taguchi method to formulate a pro-active approach to investigate and manage the process performance....

Publisher: Hong Kong Polytechnic University [The]

Hong Kong Polytechnic University [The]

With 80 years of proud tradition, PolyU is a world-class research university, ranking among the world's top 100 institutions. Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU) is a home for educating thinkers, communicators, and discovers.

Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

What Does Industry 4.0 Actually Deliver Today? Example Reflow.

Aug 04, 2021 | Vitor Barros

Industry 4.0 is one of the most exciting developments in the manufacturing industry in decades. It promises vast improvements for both manufacturers and their customers. For some companies, however, it can be overwhelming, and it can be difficult with the current available information to understand exactly what the benefits will be in the average factory, and to calculate the return on the investment. Therefore, it may be helpful to bring the discussion down to a tangible level and to isolate one little part of the whole smart electronic assembly factory, namely reflow....

Publisher: KIC Thermal

KIC Thermal

KIC's provides products and services designed to improve a variety of thermal monitoring, profiling and process control applications.

San Diego, California, USA

Consultant / Service Provider

Industry 4.0 For Inspection In The Electronics Industry

Aug 04, 2021 | Ragnar Vaga

The digital transformation with concepts like Industry 4.0, Smart Factory and the Internet of Things will change production, work processes and business models in electronics manufacturing radically and forever. It is all about connecting, gathering and exchanging big data. It is all about connectivity, and the gathering and exchange of big data....

Publisher: YXLON International

YXLON International

YXLON is the leading supplier of Industrial X-ray Inspection systems and Industrial Computed Tomography (CT) solutions for the non-destructive testing of materials. Markets served include Aerospace, Automotive, Electronics, etc.

Hudson, Ohio, USA

Consultant / Service Provider, Manufacturer

A Conceptual Framework Of Smart Manufacturing For PCB Industries

Aug 04, 2021 | M. Jabir1, G.Zailin, R.Mudassar, Y.Lei, H.Cong and W.Hao

In this paper, the existing status of PCB manufacturing environment and future development towards smart manufacturing system (SMS) are discussed. A cloud manufacturing system (CMS) paradigm is introduced in the existing PCB manufacturing environment to get easy access to resources, materials, manufacturing processes, planning problems and data sharing networks. The goal is to integrate the information sharing from planning problems, PCB assembly lines, retailer and shipment department to CMS for smart planning decisions to cope with the increasing demand and profit enhancement strategies. A conceptual framework is presented to introduce the smart manufacturing environment in the traditional PCB manufacturing system. The suggested framework of SMS helps to improve the performance of PCB manufacturing industries regarding smart planning and scheduling, intelligent monitoring of smart assembly lines for efficiency and production enhancement....

Publisher: Huazhong University of Science and Technology

Huazhong University of Science and Technology

Huazhong University of Science and Technology is a public research university located in Guanshan Subdistrict, Hongshan District, Wuhan, Hubei province, China. As a national key university directly affiliated to the Ministry of ..

Wuhan, Hubei, China

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Maximal Performance Through Vacuum Potting

Jul 28, 2021 | Scheugenpflug

The performance of electronic components is compromised by factors such as bubbles in the potting medium. Increasing numbers of applications – particularly in the automotive and electronics industries – therefore require completely bubble-free dispensing methods. This is where potting in a vacuum comes into focus. The widespread school of thought about this technology is that it is too complicated, too expensive and too slow. But a closer look shows that this view is incorrect. This is a mastered technology. As for costs, the calculation basis is key, since usually the potting and vacuum method is only considered after the required potting quality cannot be achieved reliably any other way. Under total cost of ownership assessments, higher system costs no longer play a key role, since component failure would result in much higher subsequent costs. And now there are proven solutions for high production volumes and/or shorter cycle times. This whitepaper explains when potting in a vacuum is ideal for your projects and what to be aware of....

Publisher: Scheugenpflug Inc.

Scheugenpflug Inc.

Producer of bonding, dispensing and potting solutions with outstanding expertise in automation. As part of the Atlas Copco Group, we have a worldwide sales & service network and access to the Group's extensive technology portfolio

Kennesaw, Georgia, USA


Conductive Anodic Filament Growth Failure

Jul 27, 2021 | Tarun Amla

With increasing focus on reliability and miniaturized designs, Conductive Anodic Filament (CAF) as failure mechanism is gaining a lot of attention. Smaller geometries make the printed circuit board (PCB) susceptible to conductive anodic filament growth. Isola has carried out work to characterize the CAF susceptibility of various resin systems under different process and design conditions. Tests were carried out to determine the effect of various factors such as resin systems, glass finishes, voltage bias and hole and line spacings on the CAF resistance. This work was intended to provide information to the user on the suitability of various grades for specific end use applications. The focus of the work at Isola is to find the right combination of process and design conditions for improved CAF resistant products....

Publisher: Isola Group

Isola Group

Isola a global material sciences company focused on designing, developing, manufacturing and marketing copper-clad laminates and dielectric prepregs used to fabricate advanced multilayer PCBs.

Chandler, Arizona, USA


Dielectric Material Damage Vs. Conductive Anodic Filament Formation

Jul 27, 2021 | Paul Reid

It should be noted that this is an overview paper that represents the early stages of an ongoing investigation into the causes and effects between conductive anodic filament (CAF) formation and printed wiring board (PWB) material damage. Our belief is that certain or specific types of material damage can increase the propensity for CAF formation. The preliminary data collected suggests is that there is no statistical correlation between the general definition of material damage (cohesive failure) and CAF. The resulting dichotomy is that we find no CAF failures in some coupons that have obvious material damage and we find CAF failures in coupons that don't exhibit material damage....

Publisher: PWB Interconnect Solutions Inc.

PWB Interconnect Solutions Inc.

PWB designs and manufactures test equipment and provides services to test the reliability of Printed Circuit Boards.

Nepean, Ontario, Canada


ECM And IOT How To Predict, Quantify, And Mitigate ECM Failure Potential

Jul 27, 2021 | Mike Konrad

Fast forward to current time. Today, our society embraces cleanliness. We expect, demand, and evaluate cleanliness in almost every aspect of our lives. We wash our cars and pets. We maintain high cleanliness standards in our hotels and public spaces. We require cleanliness in our restaurants and hospitals. We sanitize our hands throughout the day to prevent illness. We live in a clean-centric culture. While we drive clean cars, stay in clean hotels and eat clean food, there is one part of our life where we actually abandoned cleanliness. Many of the circuit assemblies that affect almost every aspect of our daily lives are no longer required to be clean. Even though our life experience confirms the link between cleanliness and reliability, happiness, health, and safety, circuit assemblies no longer maintain that "cleanliness is next to Godliness" status. This was not always the case. There was a time when virtually all circuit assemblies were cleaned. The removal of flux and other process-related contamination was commonplace. Cleaning was as normal as soldering. As we bring history into current time, one may relate the fall of Rome and its adoption of personal hygiene and the subsequent decline in human health to the large-scale abandonment of cleanliness expectations of circuit assemblies and the subsequent reliability issues it has created. How did this happen? Has history repeated itself?...

Publisher: Aqueous Technologies Corporation

Aqueous Technologies Corporation

Manufacturer of automated defluxing/cleaning equipment, cleanliness testing equipment, and stencil cleaning equipment.

Corona, California, USA


Conductive Anodic Filament: Mechanisms and Affecting Factors

Jul 27, 2021 | Winco K.C. Yung

Conductive anodic filament (CAF) formation, a failure mode in printed wiring boards (PWBs) that are exposed to high humidity and voltage gradients, has caused catastrophic field failures. CAF is an electrochemical migration failure mechanism in PWBs. In this article, we discuss CAF, the factors that enhance it, and the necessary conditions for its occurrence. Published studies are discussed, and the results of historical mean time to failure models are summarized. Potential reasons for CAF enhancement solutions are discussed, and possible directions in which to develop anti-CAF materials are proposed....

Publisher: Hong Kong Polytechnic University [The]

Hong Kong Polytechnic University [The]

With 80 years of proud tradition, PolyU is a world-class research university, ranking among the world's top 100 institutions. Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU) is a home for educating thinkers, communicators, and discovers.

Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Global Connected Smart Thermostats Market to Record an Impressive Growth Rate during the Forecast Period 2021 to 2026

Jul 26, 2021 | David Wayne

Connected Smart Thermostats Market - Global Trends, Top Key Players, Industry Segments, Size, Development and Opportunities by Forecast 2021 to 2026...

Publisher: MarketsandResearch.biz


Marketsandresearch.biz is a leading global Market Research agency providing expert research solutions, trusted by the best.

Pune, India


Printed Circuit Board Quality: Copper Wrap

Jul 20, 2021 | Jeannette Plante, BhanuSood, Kelly Daniluk

Motivation: High reject rates for PCBs due to specification non-conformances Multiple rebuilds causing impactful schedule delays + Copper Wrap + Wicking + Etchback + Annular Ring Are rejected boards reliable? What are PCB quality requirements for? + Reliability: fewer cycles-to-failure? + Manufacturability: define threshold of modern manufacturing capability?...

Publisher: NASA Office Of Safety And Mission Assurance

NASA Office Of Safety And Mission Assurance

The Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (OSMA) assures the safety and enhances the success of all NASA activities through the development, implementation and oversight of agencywide safety, reliability, maintainability and ...

Washington, District of Columbia, USA

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

A Study on Effects of Copper Wrap Specifications on Printed Circuit Board Reliability

Jul 20, 2021 | Bhanu Sood, John Shue, Jesse Leitner, Kelly Daniluk, Lionel-Nobel Sindjui

During the manufacturing of printed circuit boards (PCBs) for a Flight Project, it was found that a European manufacturer was building its boards to a European standard that had no requirement for copper wrap on the vias. The amount of copper wrap that was measured on coupons from the panel containing the boards of interest was less than the amount specified in IPC-6012 Rev B, Class 3. To help determine the reliability and usability of the boards, three sets of tests and a simulation were run. The test results, along with results of simulation and destructive physical analysis, are presented in this paper. The first experiment involved subjecting coupons from the panels supplied by the European manufacturer to thermal cycling. After 17 000 cycles, the test was stopped with no failures. A second set of accelerated tests involved comparing the thermal fatigue life of test samples made from FR4 and polyimide with varying amounts of copper wrap. Again, the testing did not reveal any failures. The third test involved using interconnect stress test coupons with through-hole vias and blind vias that were subjected to elevated temperatures to accelerate fatigue failures. While there were failures, as expected, the failures were at barrel cracks. In addition to the experiments, this paper also discusses the results of finite-element analysis using simulation software that was used to model plated-through holes under thermal stress using a steady-state analysis, also showing the main failure mode was barrel cracking. The tests show that although copper wrap was sought as a better alternative to butt joints between barrel plating and copper foil layers, manufacturability remains challenging and attempts to meet the requirements often result in features that reduce the reliability of the boards. Experimental and simulation work discussed in this paper indicate that the standard requirements for copper wrap are not contributing to the overall board reliability, although it should be added that a design with a butt joint is going to be a higher risk than a reduced copper wrap design. The study further shows that procurement requirements for wrap plating thickness from Class 3 to Class 2 would pose little risk to reliability (minimum 5 μm/0.197 mil for all via types).Experimental results corroborated by modeling indicate that the stress maxima are internal to the barrels rather than at the wrap location. In fact, the existence of Cu wrap was determined to have no appreciable effect on reliability....

Publisher: NASA Office Of Safety And Mission Assurance

NASA Office Of Safety And Mission Assurance

The Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (OSMA) assures the safety and enhances the success of all NASA activities through the development, implementation and oversight of agencywide safety, reliability, maintainability and ...

Washington, District of Columbia, USA

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Inkjet-Printing-Derived Lead-Zirconate-Titanate-Based Thick Films For Printed Electronics

Jul 13, 2021 | Danjela Kuscer, Silvo Drnovšek, Franck Levassort

We have investigated the processing of lead-zirconate-titanate-based thick films by inkjet printing Pb (Zr0.53Ti0.47)0.98Nb0.02O3 with a 6 mol% excess of PbO nanosized powder dispersed in water. Differentwaveforms were employed to determine the optimum size and shape of the drops. A uniform, defect-free pattern with dimensions of 4 mm × 4 mm can be printed using 20 V and a drop spacing of 20 μm. The inkjet-printed films were heated to 400 °C to remove the organics and subsequently sintered at 750 and 850 °C. The correlations between the density, grain size and electromechanical properties of the thick films and bulk ceramics are qualitatively discussed. A thickness coupling factor of 46% was obtained for a 15-μm-thick film sintered at low temperature of 850 °C, which is comparable to the value of the bulk ceramic with an identical nominal chemical composition. Our results are important for the economic and environmental-benign printing of piezoelectric materials applicable in variety of electronic devices, such as sensors, actuators, transformers, piezoelectric energy harvesters and transducers....

Publisher: Jožef Stefan Institute

Jožef Stefan Institute

The Jožef Stefan Institute is the largest research institute in Slovenia. The main research areas are physics, chemistry, molecular biology, biotechnology, information technologies, reactor physics, energy and environment. ...

Ljubljana, Slovenia

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Silver in Printed & Flexible Electronics

Jul 13, 2021 | Matt Watson

This Market Trend Report for the Silver Institute examines silver's growing role in printed and flexible electronics. According to our research, 33.9% of the annual silver global supply in 2020 ended up in electronics. This is a total of 327 million troy ounces (Moz) that finds its way into various electronics markets every year. Given the projected growth of electrification, we are confident that this will continue to grow over time since silver is the world's most conductive material....

Publisher: Silver Institute

Silver Institute

The Silver Institute is a nonprofit international association that draws its membership from across the breadth of the silver industry. This includes leading silver mining houses, refiners, bullion suppliers, manufacturers of ...

Washington, District of Columbia, USA

Association / Non-Profit

Advanced Technologies for Industry – Product Watch Flexible and printed electronics

Jul 13, 2021 | Chiel Scholten, Kincsö Izsak and Maialen Perez

Flexible electronics refers to a class of lightweight, flexible and electronic sensing components and electronic devices built on stretchable substrates1 that are used (and can be used) for a broad set of products and applications such as displays and sensors. The most prominent characteristic is that they can bend in contrast to electronic systems built in rigid materials. They are manufactured on flexible plastic substrates, such as polyamide, PEEK2 or transparent conductive polyester films3, or other materials such as paper, textile, or thin glass. The term flexible also refers to the roll-to-roll manufacturing process....

Publisher: European Commission - Executive Agency for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (EASME)

European Commission - Executive Agency for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (EASME)

The Executive Agency for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (EASME) has been set-up by the European Commission to manage on its behalf several EU programmes in the fields of SME support & innovation, environment, climate action, e

Belgique/Belgiën, Belgium

Association / Non-Profit

ICT+FCT Test Transformation Case

Jul 10, 2021 | pti

An effective solution to reduce labor costs and improve production efficiency...

Publisher: Shenzhen PTI Technology CO.,LTD

Shenzhen PTI Technology CO.,LTD

Our company was established in 2004, Main products: ICT on-line tester, ICT, functional testing machine 、FCT、 TSI、 automatic test and control system (ATE), test automation solutions, etc.

深圳, China


Effects Of Surface Finish On High Frequency Signal Loss Using Various Substrate Materials

Jul 06, 2021 | Don Cullen, Bruce Kline, Gary Moderhock, Larry Gatewood

The amount of information transferred on wireless networks has increased dramatically with the tremendous growth of mobile phones, Internet access, and hand held devices. In order to build the infrastructure needed to handle ever increasing data transfer, manufacturers of electronic devices turn to high speed, high frequency electronic signals. The need to render these electronic devices portable is another technology driver. The merge of high-frequency signals with small geometry conductive traces means that the topic of signal loss has reached a critical point in existing device production....

Publisher: MacDermid, Inc.

MacDermid, Inc.

A global diversified specialty chemicals company focused on providing innovative solutions across several large and growing end-markets that enhance the products of everyday life.

Waterbury, Connecticut, USA


Reliable Novel Nickel-Free Surface Finish Solution For High-Frequency Pcb Applications

Jul 06, 2021 | Ariel McFalls, Sam Rhodes, and Kunal Shah, Ph.D.

The evolution of internet-enabled mobile devices has driven innovation in the manufacturing and design of technology capable of high-frequency electronic signal transfer. Among the primary factors affecting the integrity of high-frequency signals is the surface finish applied on PCB copper pads – a need commonly met through the electroless nickel immersion gold process, ENIG. However, there are well-documented limitations of ENIG due to the presence of nickel, the properties of which result in an overall reduced performance in high-frequency data transfer rate for ENIG-applied electronics, compared to bare copper....

Publisher: LiloTree


LiloTree is an advanced materials technology company, providing next-generation technology solutions through chemistry and materials innovations. Based in Seattle, Washington, we're an NSF funded company, manufacturer & distrib...

Redmond, Washington, USA


Introduction Of A New PCB Surface Finish For The Electronics Industry

Jul 06, 2021 | Frank Ferdinandi

A new PCB surface finish has been developed that offers outstanding performance and excellent environmental protection. This finish has the potential to replace more common finishes such as ENIG, ImAg, ImSn, ENEPIG, or OSP with a chemically resistant plasma deposited coating. The substitution of the wet processes with this dry plasma process offers significant advantages e.g. lower quantities of chemicals used, environmental benefits and improved operator safety....

Publisher: Semblant Technologies

Semblant Technologies

Semblant is a l leader in innovating and deploying nanomaterials in the electronics industry. The company's unique nanotechnology solutions, backed by a broad range of fundamental patents, have been designed specifically to ...

London, United Kingdom


How Does Surface Finish Affect Solder Paste Performance?

Jul 06, 2021 | Tony Lentz

The surface finishes commonly used on printed circuit boards (PCBs) have an effect on solder paste performance in the surface mount process. Some surface finishes are non-planar like hot air solder level (HASL) which can lead to inconsistencies in solder paste printing. Other surface finishes are difficult to wet during reflow like organic solderability preservative (OSP). What is the overall effect of surface finish on solder paste performance? Which solder paste is best for each surface finish? It is the goal of this paper to answer these questions....



With numerous facilities in the United States, we are one of the electronics industry's leading manufacturers of lead-free solder products, superior quality stencils, and precision cut parts.

Greeley, Colorado, USA


Understanding the Cleaning Process for Automatic Stencil Printers

Jun 28, 2021 | Ed Nauss

The automatic stencil wiper –first line of defense 2 • The Printing process and why we need to focus on the wiping function • Frequency of wiping • Wiping options • Wiper profiles • Event driven wiping • Advanced options • Materials – Paper • Materials – Solvent • Preventive maintenance • Random stuff...

Publisher: ITW EAE


ITW EAE is a manufacturer of equipment used in the electronic assembly and semiconductor industries. The group brings together world-class products from Camalot, Despatch, Electrovert, MPM, and Vitronics Soltec.

Lakeville, Minnesota, USA


The Reasons for Cleaning

Jun 28, 2021 | Michael Konrad

This book is a compilation of many articles I have published on the subjects of cleaning, reliability, and cleanliness testing. Throughout these articles, I promote a common mantra: Clean is better than dirty. Less contamination is better than more contamination. Some assemblies can tolerate more contamination; others, less....

Publisher: Aqueous Technologies Corporation

Aqueous Technologies Corporation

Manufacturer of automated defluxing/cleaning equipment, cleanliness testing equipment, and stencil cleaning equipment.

Corona, California, USA


Innovative Electroplating Processes for IC Substrates - Via Fill, Through Hole Fill, and Embedded Trench Fill

Jun 21, 2021 | Saminda Dharmarathna , Sy Maddux , Chao Benjamin , Ivan Li , William Bowermana , Kesheng Feng , Jim Watkowski

In this era of electronics miniaturization, high yield and low-cost integrated circuit (IC) substrates play a crucial role by providing a reliable method of high density interconnection of chip to board. In order to maximize substrate real-estate, the distance between Cu traces also known as line and space (L/S) should be minimized. Typical PCB technology consists of L/S larger than 40 µ whereas more advanced wafer level technology currently sits at or around 2 µm L/S. In the past decade, the chip size has decreased significantly along with the L/S on the substrate. The decreasing chip scales and smaller L/S distances has created unique challenges for both printed circuit board (PCB) industry and the semiconductor industry. Fan-out panel-level packaging (FOPLP) is a new manufacturing technology that seeks to bring the PCB world and IC/semiconductor world even closer. While FOPLP is still an emerging technology, the amount of high-volume production in this market space provide a financial incentive to develop innovative solutions in order to enable its ramp up. The most important performance aspect of the fine line plating in this market space is plating uniformity or planarity. Plating uniformity, trace/via top planarity, which measures how flat the top of the traces and vias are a few major features. This is especially important in multilayer processing, as nonuniformity on a lower layer can be transferred to successive layers, disrupting the device design with catastrophic consequences such as short circuits. Additionally, a non-planar surface could also result in signal transmission loss by distortion of the connecting points, like vias and traces. Therefore, plating solutions that provide a uniform, planar profile without any special post treatment are quite desirable....

Publisher: MacDermid Inc.

MacDermid Inc.

MacDermid is a global provider of specialty chemicals for the most complex printed circuit board designs. We specialize in the areas of final finishes, through-hole metallization, and circuit formation.

Waterbury, Connecticut, USA


Simulation of Droplet Jetting of a Non-Newtonian Mixed Suspension

Jun 15, 2021 | Martin Svensson, Andreas Mark, Fredrik Edelvik, Andrzej Karawajczyk and Gustaf Mårtensson

The jet printing of a dense mixed non-Newtonian suspension is based on the rapid displacement of fluid through a nozzle, the forming of a droplet and eventually the break-off of the filament. The ability to model this process would facilitate the development of future jetting devices. The purpose of this study is to propose a novel simulation framework and to show that it captures the main effects such as droplet shape, volume and speed. In the framework, the time dependent flow and the fluid-structure interaction between the suspension, the moving piston and the deflection of the jetting head is simulated. The system is modelled as a two phase system with the surrounding air being one phase and the dense suspension the other. Hence, the non-Newtonian suspension is modelled as a mixed single phase with properties determined from material testing. The simulations were performed with two coupled in-house solvers developed at Fraunhofer-Chalmers Centre; IBOFlow, a multiphase flow solver and LaStFEM, a large strain FEM solver. Jetting behaviour was shown to be affected not only by piston motion and fluid rheology, but also by the energy loss in the jetting head. The simulation results were compared to experimental data obtained from an industrial jetting head....

Publisher: Fraunhofer-Chalmers Research Centre for Industustrial Mathematics

Fraunhofer-Chalmers Research Centre for Industustrial Mathematics

FCC offers Contract Research, Software and Services for a broad range of industrial applications. Modelling, Simulation and Optimization of products and processes can boost technical development, improve efficiency and cut costs

Göteborg, Sweden

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

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