Electronics Manufacturing Technical Articles

Electronics Manufacturing Technical Articles

Papers and articles related to SMT, PCB & EMS industry.

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1749 SMT / PCB Assembly Related Technical Articles

Company X -Air conditioning display panel test plan

Aug 16, 2021 | pti

Air conditioning display panel test plan...

Publisher: Shenzhen PTI Technology CO.,LTD

Shenzhen PTI Technology CO.,LTD

Our company was established in 2004, Main products: ICT on-line tester, ICT, functional testing machine 、FCT、 TSI、 automatic test and control system (ATE), test automation solutions, etc.

深圳, China


Coatings and Pottings: A Critical Update

Aug 11, 2021 | Greg Caswell

Conformal coatings and potting materials continue to create issues for the electronics industry. This webinar will dig deeper into the failure modes of these materials, specifically issues with Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE), delamination, cracking, de-wetting, pinholes/bubbles and orange peel issues with conformal coatings and what mitigation techniques are available. Similarly, this webinar will look at the failure modes of potting materials, (e.g Glass Transition Temperature (Tg), PCB warpage, the effects of improper curing and potential methods for correcting these situations....

Publisher: DfR Solutions (acquired by ANSYS Inc)

DfR Solutions (acquired by ANSYS Inc)

DfR Solutions has world-renowned expertise in applying the science of Reliability Physics to electrical and electronics technologies, and is a leading provider of quality, reliability, and durability (QRD) research and consulting

College Park,

Consultant / Service Provider

Design, Development & Analysis of Vacuum Chamber of Potting Machine

Aug 11, 2021 | Mahesh S. Ghule, Dr.(Mrs.)R.S.Bindu

This paper shows the Design and Finite Element analysis of vacuum chamber of potting machine designed for electronic ignition coil applications. There are two types of potting methods 1) With Vacuum 2) Without Vacuum....

Publisher: D Y Patil College Of Engineering Akurdi, Pune

D Y Patil College Of Engineering Akurdi, Pune

The oldest campus of Dr. D. Y. Patil group of Institutions. This campus is started in year 1983 and further nurtured by our visionary Chairman Hon'ble Dr. P. D. Patil with the vision "Empowerment through knowledge" "Better ...

Akurdi, Pune, India

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Analysis of the Influence of Shrinkage Tensile Stress in Potting Material on the Anti-Overload Performance of the Circuit Board

Aug 11, 2021 | Lei Sun and Wenjun Yi

In this article, the influence of shrinkage tensile stress in potting materials on the anti-overload performance of a circuit board was studied. Firstly, the phenomenon of shrinkage tensile stress in common potting materials was analyzed, and it was found that the commonly used potting adhesives displayed large shrinkage characteristics. Secondly, a small experiment was set up to verify that the shrinkage tensile stress of potting adhesives would lead to printed circuit board (PCB) deformation, and the shrinkage stress was contrary to the acceleration direction of overload. Thirdly, the influence of potting adhesives on the overload resistance of the PCB was analyzed....

Publisher: Nanjing University

Nanjing University

Located in the ancient capital of Nanjing, Nanjing University and its predecessors have taken responsibility for the country and the nation during its development of over 100 years. Committed to the prosperity of the nation ...

Nanjing, Jiangsu, China

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Potting And Encapsulating – Avoiding Voids

Aug 11, 2021 | Paul Whitehead

Formulators of multi-component adhesives, potting and encapsulation materials are careful not to supply products with entrapped air. They do this by manufacturing under vacuum or degassing them before supplying to the end user. Consequently, entrapped air in a mixed material is usually a processing issue....

Publisher: Intertronics


INTERTRONICS supplies adhesives, coatings, sealants and equipment to customers with high technology, high performance assembly applications. Our customers are manufacturers in industries such as electronics, medical devices, plast

Oxfordshire, United Kingdom


An Intelligent Approach For Improving Printed Circuit Board Assembly Process Performance In Smart Manufacturing

Aug 04, 2021 | Vincent WC Fung and Kam Chuen Yung

The process of printed circuit board assembly (PCBA) involves several machines, such as a stencil printer, placement machine and reflow oven, to solder and assemble electronic components onto printed circuit boards (PCBs). In the production flow, some failure prevention mechanisms are deployed to ensure the designated quality of PCBA, including solder paste inspection (SPI), automated optical inspection (AOI) and in-circuit testing (ICT). However, such methods to locate the failures are reactive in nature, which may create waste and require additional effort to be spent re-manufacturing and inspecting the PCBs. Worse still, the process performance of the assembly process cannot be guaranteed at a high level. Therefore, there is a need to improve the performance of the PCBA process. To address the aforementioned challenges in the PCBA process, an intelligent assembly process improvement system (IAPIS) is proposed, which integrates the k-means clustering method and multi-response Taguchi method to formulate a pro-active approach to investigate and manage the process performance....

Publisher: Hong Kong Polytechnic University [The]

Hong Kong Polytechnic University [The]

With 80 years of proud tradition, PolyU is a world-class research university, ranking among the world's top 100 institutions. Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU) is a home for educating thinkers, communicators, and discovers.

Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

What Does Industry 4.0 Actually Deliver Today? Example Reflow.

Aug 04, 2021 | Vitor Barros

Industry 4.0 is one of the most exciting developments in the manufacturing industry in decades. It promises vast improvements for both manufacturers and their customers. For some companies, however, it can be overwhelming, and it can be difficult with the current available information to understand exactly what the benefits will be in the average factory, and to calculate the return on the investment. Therefore, it may be helpful to bring the discussion down to a tangible level and to isolate one little part of the whole smart electronic assembly factory, namely reflow....

Publisher: KIC Thermal

KIC Thermal

KIC's provides products and services designed to improve a variety of thermal monitoring, profiling and process control applications.

San Diego, California, USA

Consultant / Service Provider

Industry 4.0 For Inspection In The Electronics Industry

Aug 04, 2021 | Ragnar Vaga

The digital transformation with concepts like Industry 4.0, Smart Factory and the Internet of Things will change production, work processes and business models in electronics manufacturing radically and forever. It is all about connecting, gathering and exchanging big data. It is all about connectivity, and the gathering and exchange of big data....

Publisher: YXLON International

YXLON International

YXLON is the leading supplier of Industrial X-ray Inspection systems and Industrial Computed Tomography (CT) solutions for the non-destructive testing of materials. Markets served include Aerospace, Automotive, Electronics, etc.

Hudson, Ohio, USA

Consultant / Service Provider, Manufacturer

A Conceptual Framework Of Smart Manufacturing For PCB Industries

Aug 04, 2021 | M. Jabir1, G.Zailin, R.Mudassar, Y.Lei, H.Cong and W.Hao

In this paper, the existing status of PCB manufacturing environment and future development towards smart manufacturing system (SMS) are discussed. A cloud manufacturing system (CMS) paradigm is introduced in the existing PCB manufacturing environment to get easy access to resources, materials, manufacturing processes, planning problems and data sharing networks. The goal is to integrate the information sharing from planning problems, PCB assembly lines, retailer and shipment department to CMS for smart planning decisions to cope with the increasing demand and profit enhancement strategies. A conceptual framework is presented to introduce the smart manufacturing environment in the traditional PCB manufacturing system. The suggested framework of SMS helps to improve the performance of PCB manufacturing industries regarding smart planning and scheduling, intelligent monitoring of smart assembly lines for efficiency and production enhancement....

Publisher: Huazhong University of Science and Technology

Huazhong University of Science and Technology

Huazhong University of Science and Technology is a public research university located in Guanshan Subdistrict, Hongshan District, Wuhan, Hubei province, China. As a national key university directly affiliated to the Ministry of ..

Wuhan, Hubei, China

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Maximal Performance Through Vacuum Potting

Jul 28, 2021 | Scheugenpflug

The performance of electronic components is compromised by factors such as bubbles in the potting medium. Increasing numbers of applications – particularly in the automotive and electronics industries – therefore require completely bubble-free dispensing methods. This is where potting in a vacuum comes into focus. The widespread school of thought about this technology is that it is too complicated, too expensive and too slow. But a closer look shows that this view is incorrect. This is a mastered technology. As for costs, the calculation basis is key, since usually the potting and vacuum method is only considered after the required potting quality cannot be achieved reliably any other way. Under total cost of ownership assessments, higher system costs no longer play a key role, since component failure would result in much higher subsequent costs. And now there are proven solutions for high production volumes and/or shorter cycle times. This whitepaper explains when potting in a vacuum is ideal for your projects and what to be aware of....

Publisher: Scheugenpflug Inc.

Scheugenpflug Inc.

Producer of bonding, dispensing and potting solutions with outstanding expertise in automation. As part of the Atlas Copco Group, we have a worldwide sales & service network and access to the Group's extensive technology portfolio

Kennesaw, Georgia, USA


Conductive Anodic Filament Growth Failure

Jul 27, 2021 | Tarun Amla

With increasing focus on reliability and miniaturized designs, Conductive Anodic Filament (CAF) as failure mechanism is gaining a lot of attention. Smaller geometries make the printed circuit board (PCB) susceptible to conductive anodic filament growth. Isola has carried out work to characterize the CAF susceptibility of various resin systems under different process and design conditions. Tests were carried out to determine the effect of various factors such as resin systems, glass finishes, voltage bias and hole and line spacings on the CAF resistance. This work was intended to provide information to the user on the suitability of various grades for specific end use applications. The focus of the work at Isola is to find the right combination of process and design conditions for improved CAF resistant products....

Publisher: Isola Group

Isola Group

Isola a global material sciences company focused on designing, developing, manufacturing and marketing copper-clad laminates and dielectric prepregs used to fabricate advanced multilayer PCBs.

Chandler, Arizona, USA


Dielectric Material Damage Vs. Conductive Anodic Filament Formation

Jul 27, 2021 | Paul Reid

It should be noted that this is an overview paper that represents the early stages of an ongoing investigation into the causes and effects between conductive anodic filament (CAF) formation and printed wiring board (PWB) material damage. Our belief is that certain or specific types of material damage can increase the propensity for CAF formation. The preliminary data collected suggests is that there is no statistical correlation between the general definition of material damage (cohesive failure) and CAF. The resulting dichotomy is that we find no CAF failures in some coupons that have obvious material damage and we find CAF failures in coupons that don't exhibit material damage....

Publisher: PWB Interconnect Solutions Inc.

PWB Interconnect Solutions Inc.

PWB designs and manufactures test equipment and provides services to test the reliability of Printed Circuit Boards.

Nepean, Ontario, Canada


ECM And IOT How To Predict, Quantify, And Mitigate ECM Failure Potential

Jul 27, 2021 | Mike Konrad

Fast forward to current time. Today, our society embraces cleanliness. We expect, demand, and evaluate cleanliness in almost every aspect of our lives. We wash our cars and pets. We maintain high cleanliness standards in our hotels and public spaces. We require cleanliness in our restaurants and hospitals. We sanitize our hands throughout the day to prevent illness. We live in a clean-centric culture. While we drive clean cars, stay in clean hotels and eat clean food, there is one part of our life where we actually abandoned cleanliness. Many of the circuit assemblies that affect almost every aspect of our daily lives are no longer required to be clean. Even though our life experience confirms the link between cleanliness and reliability, happiness, health, and safety, circuit assemblies no longer maintain that "cleanliness is next to Godliness" status. This was not always the case. There was a time when virtually all circuit assemblies were cleaned. The removal of flux and other process-related contamination was commonplace. Cleaning was as normal as soldering. As we bring history into current time, one may relate the fall of Rome and its adoption of personal hygiene and the subsequent decline in human health to the large-scale abandonment of cleanliness expectations of circuit assemblies and the subsequent reliability issues it has created. How did this happen? Has history repeated itself?...

Publisher: Aqueous Technologies Corporation

Aqueous Technologies Corporation

Manufacturer of automated defluxing/cleaning equipment, cleanliness testing equipment, and stencil cleaning equipment.

Corona, California, USA


Conductive Anodic Filament: Mechanisms and Affecting Factors

Jul 27, 2021 | Winco K.C. Yung

Conductive anodic filament (CAF) formation, a failure mode in printed wiring boards (PWBs) that are exposed to high humidity and voltage gradients, has caused catastrophic field failures. CAF is an electrochemical migration failure mechanism in PWBs. In this article, we discuss CAF, the factors that enhance it, and the necessary conditions for its occurrence. Published studies are discussed, and the results of historical mean time to failure models are summarized. Potential reasons for CAF enhancement solutions are discussed, and possible directions in which to develop anti-CAF materials are proposed....

Publisher: Hong Kong Polytechnic University [The]

Hong Kong Polytechnic University [The]

With 80 years of proud tradition, PolyU is a world-class research university, ranking among the world's top 100 institutions. Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU) is a home for educating thinkers, communicators, and discovers.

Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Global Connected Smart Thermostats Market to Record an Impressive Growth Rate during the Forecast Period 2021 to 2026

Jul 26, 2021 | David Wayne

Connected Smart Thermostats Market - Global Trends, Top Key Players, Industry Segments, Size, Development and Opportunities by Forecast 2021 to 2026...

Publisher: MarketsandResearch.biz


Marketsandresearch.biz is a leading global Market Research agency providing expert research solutions, trusted by the best.

Pune, India


Printed Circuit Board Quality: Copper Wrap

Jul 20, 2021 | Jeannette Plante, BhanuSood, Kelly Daniluk

Motivation: High reject rates for PCBs due to specification non-conformances Multiple rebuilds causing impactful schedule delays + Copper Wrap + Wicking + Etchback + Annular Ring Are rejected boards reliable? What are PCB quality requirements for? + Reliability: fewer cycles-to-failure? + Manufacturability: define threshold of modern manufacturing capability?...

Publisher: NASA Office Of Safety And Mission Assurance

NASA Office Of Safety And Mission Assurance

The Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (OSMA) assures the safety and enhances the success of all NASA activities through the development, implementation and oversight of agencywide safety, reliability, maintainability and ...

Washington, District of Columbia, USA

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

A Study on Effects of Copper Wrap Specifications on Printed Circuit Board Reliability

Jul 20, 2021 | Bhanu Sood, John Shue, Jesse Leitner, Kelly Daniluk, Lionel-Nobel Sindjui

During the manufacturing of printed circuit boards (PCBs) for a Flight Project, it was found that a European manufacturer was building its boards to a European standard that had no requirement for copper wrap on the vias. The amount of copper wrap that was measured on coupons from the panel containing the boards of interest was less than the amount specified in IPC-6012 Rev B, Class 3. To help determine the reliability and usability of the boards, three sets of tests and a simulation were run. The test results, along with results of simulation and destructive physical analysis, are presented in this paper. The first experiment involved subjecting coupons from the panels supplied by the European manufacturer to thermal cycling. After 17 000 cycles, the test was stopped with no failures. A second set of accelerated tests involved comparing the thermal fatigue life of test samples made from FR4 and polyimide with varying amounts of copper wrap. Again, the testing did not reveal any failures. The third test involved using interconnect stress test coupons with through-hole vias and blind vias that were subjected to elevated temperatures to accelerate fatigue failures. While there were failures, as expected, the failures were at barrel cracks. In addition to the experiments, this paper also discusses the results of finite-element analysis using simulation software that was used to model plated-through holes under thermal stress using a steady-state analysis, also showing the main failure mode was barrel cracking. The tests show that although copper wrap was sought as a better alternative to butt joints between barrel plating and copper foil layers, manufacturability remains challenging and attempts to meet the requirements often result in features that reduce the reliability of the boards. Experimental and simulation work discussed in this paper indicate that the standard requirements for copper wrap are not contributing to the overall board reliability, although it should be added that a design with a butt joint is going to be a higher risk than a reduced copper wrap design. The study further shows that procurement requirements for wrap plating thickness from Class 3 to Class 2 would pose little risk to reliability (minimum 5 μm/0.197 mil for all via types).Experimental results corroborated by modeling indicate that the stress maxima are internal to the barrels rather than at the wrap location. In fact, the existence of Cu wrap was determined to have no appreciable effect on reliability....

Publisher: NASA Office Of Safety And Mission Assurance

NASA Office Of Safety And Mission Assurance

The Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (OSMA) assures the safety and enhances the success of all NASA activities through the development, implementation and oversight of agencywide safety, reliability, maintainability and ...

Washington, District of Columbia, USA

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Inkjet-Printing-Derived Lead-Zirconate-Titanate-Based Thick Films For Printed Electronics

Jul 13, 2021 | Danjela Kuscer, Silvo Drnovšek, Franck Levassort

We have investigated the processing of lead-zirconate-titanate-based thick films by inkjet printing Pb (Zr0.53Ti0.47)0.98Nb0.02O3 with a 6 mol% excess of PbO nanosized powder dispersed in water. Differentwaveforms were employed to determine the optimum size and shape of the drops. A uniform, defect-free pattern with dimensions of 4 mm × 4 mm can be printed using 20 V and a drop spacing of 20 μm. The inkjet-printed films were heated to 400 °C to remove the organics and subsequently sintered at 750 and 850 °C. The correlations between the density, grain size and electromechanical properties of the thick films and bulk ceramics are qualitatively discussed. A thickness coupling factor of 46% was obtained for a 15-μm-thick film sintered at low temperature of 850 °C, which is comparable to the value of the bulk ceramic with an identical nominal chemical composition. Our results are important for the economic and environmental-benign printing of piezoelectric materials applicable in variety of electronic devices, such as sensors, actuators, transformers, piezoelectric energy harvesters and transducers....

Publisher: Jožef Stefan Institute

Jožef Stefan Institute

The Jožef Stefan Institute is the largest research institute in Slovenia. The main research areas are physics, chemistry, molecular biology, biotechnology, information technologies, reactor physics, energy and environment. ...

Ljubljana, Slovenia

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Silver in Printed & Flexible Electronics

Jul 13, 2021 | Matt Watson

This Market Trend Report for the Silver Institute examines silver's growing role in printed and flexible electronics. According to our research, 33.9% of the annual silver global supply in 2020 ended up in electronics. This is a total of 327 million troy ounces (Moz) that finds its way into various electronics markets every year. Given the projected growth of electrification, we are confident that this will continue to grow over time since silver is the world's most conductive material....

Publisher: Silver Institute

Silver Institute

The Silver Institute is a nonprofit international association that draws its membership from across the breadth of the silver industry. This includes leading silver mining houses, refiners, bullion suppliers, manufacturers of ...

Washington, District of Columbia, USA

Association / Non-Profit

Advanced Technologies for Industry – Product Watch Flexible and printed electronics

Jul 13, 2021 | Chiel Scholten, Kincsö Izsak and Maialen Perez

Flexible electronics refers to a class of lightweight, flexible and electronic sensing components and electronic devices built on stretchable substrates1 that are used (and can be used) for a broad set of products and applications such as displays and sensors. The most prominent characteristic is that they can bend in contrast to electronic systems built in rigid materials. They are manufactured on flexible plastic substrates, such as polyamide, PEEK2 or transparent conductive polyester films3, or other materials such as paper, textile, or thin glass. The term flexible also refers to the roll-to-roll manufacturing process....

Publisher: European Commission - Executive Agency for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (EASME)

European Commission - Executive Agency for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (EASME)

The Executive Agency for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (EASME) has been set-up by the European Commission to manage on its behalf several EU programmes in the fields of SME support & innovation, environment, climate action, e

Belgique/Belgiën, Belgium

Association / Non-Profit

ICT+FCT Test Transformation Case

Jul 10, 2021 | pti

An effective solution to reduce labor costs and improve production efficiency...

Publisher: Shenzhen PTI Technology CO.,LTD

Shenzhen PTI Technology CO.,LTD

Our company was established in 2004, Main products: ICT on-line tester, ICT, functional testing machine 、FCT、 TSI、 automatic test and control system (ATE), test automation solutions, etc.

深圳, China


Effects Of Surface Finish On High Frequency Signal Loss Using Various Substrate Materials

Jul 06, 2021 | Don Cullen, Bruce Kline, Gary Moderhock, Larry Gatewood

The amount of information transferred on wireless networks has increased dramatically with the tremendous growth of mobile phones, Internet access, and hand held devices. In order to build the infrastructure needed to handle ever increasing data transfer, manufacturers of electronic devices turn to high speed, high frequency electronic signals. The need to render these electronic devices portable is another technology driver. The merge of high-frequency signals with small geometry conductive traces means that the topic of signal loss has reached a critical point in existing device production....

Publisher: MacDermid, Inc.

MacDermid, Inc.

A global diversified specialty chemicals company focused on providing innovative solutions across several large and growing end-markets that enhance the products of everyday life.

Waterbury, Connecticut, USA


Reliable Novel Nickel-Free Surface Finish Solution For High-Frequency Pcb Applications

Jul 06, 2021 | Ariel McFalls, Sam Rhodes, and Kunal Shah, Ph.D.

The evolution of internet-enabled mobile devices has driven innovation in the manufacturing and design of technology capable of high-frequency electronic signal transfer. Among the primary factors affecting the integrity of high-frequency signals is the surface finish applied on PCB copper pads – a need commonly met through the electroless nickel immersion gold process, ENIG. However, there are well-documented limitations of ENIG due to the presence of nickel, the properties of which result in an overall reduced performance in high-frequency data transfer rate for ENIG-applied electronics, compared to bare copper....

Publisher: LiloTree


LiloTree is an advanced materials technology company, providing next-generation technology solutions through chemistry and materials innovations. Based in Seattle, Washington, we're an NSF funded company, manufacturer & distrib...

Redmond, Washington, USA


Introduction Of A New PCB Surface Finish For The Electronics Industry

Jul 06, 2021 | Frank Ferdinandi

A new PCB surface finish has been developed that offers outstanding performance and excellent environmental protection. This finish has the potential to replace more common finishes such as ENIG, ImAg, ImSn, ENEPIG, or OSP with a chemically resistant plasma deposited coating. The substitution of the wet processes with this dry plasma process offers significant advantages e.g. lower quantities of chemicals used, environmental benefits and improved operator safety....

Publisher: Semblant Technologies

Semblant Technologies

Semblant is a l leader in innovating and deploying nanomaterials in the electronics industry. The company's unique nanotechnology solutions, backed by a broad range of fundamental patents, have been designed specifically to ...

London, United Kingdom


How Does Surface Finish Affect Solder Paste Performance?

Jul 06, 2021 | Tony Lentz

The surface finishes commonly used on printed circuit boards (PCBs) have an effect on solder paste performance in the surface mount process. Some surface finishes are non-planar like hot air solder level (HASL) which can lead to inconsistencies in solder paste printing. Other surface finishes are difficult to wet during reflow like organic solderability preservative (OSP). What is the overall effect of surface finish on solder paste performance? Which solder paste is best for each surface finish? It is the goal of this paper to answer these questions....



With numerous facilities in the United States, we are one of the electronics industry's leading manufacturers of lead-free solder products, superior quality stencils, and precision cut parts.

Greeley, Colorado, USA


Understanding the Cleaning Process for Automatic Stencil Printers

Jun 28, 2021 | Ed Nauss

The automatic stencil wiper –first line of defense 2 • The Printing process and why we need to focus on the wiping function • Frequency of wiping • Wiping options • Wiper profiles • Event driven wiping • Advanced options • Materials – Paper • Materials – Solvent • Preventive maintenance • Random stuff...

Publisher: ITW EAE


ITW EAE is a manufacturer of equipment used in the electronic assembly and semiconductor industries. The group brings together world-class products from Camalot, Despatch, Electrovert, MPM, and Vitronics Soltec.

Lakeville, Minnesota, USA


The Reasons for Cleaning

Jun 28, 2021 | Michael Konrad

This book is a compilation of many articles I have published on the subjects of cleaning, reliability, and cleanliness testing. Throughout these articles, I promote a common mantra: Clean is better than dirty. Less contamination is better than more contamination. Some assemblies can tolerate more contamination; others, less....

Publisher: Aqueous Technologies Corporation

Aqueous Technologies Corporation

Manufacturer of automated defluxing/cleaning equipment, cleanliness testing equipment, and stencil cleaning equipment.

Corona, California, USA


Innovative Electroplating Processes for IC Substrates - Via Fill, Through Hole Fill, and Embedded Trench Fill

Jun 21, 2021 | Saminda Dharmarathna , Sy Maddux , Chao Benjamin , Ivan Li , William Bowermana , Kesheng Feng , Jim Watkowski

In this era of electronics miniaturization, high yield and low-cost integrated circuit (IC) substrates play a crucial role by providing a reliable method of high density interconnection of chip to board. In order to maximize substrate real-estate, the distance between Cu traces also known as line and space (L/S) should be minimized. Typical PCB technology consists of L/S larger than 40 µ whereas more advanced wafer level technology currently sits at or around 2 µm L/S. In the past decade, the chip size has decreased significantly along with the L/S on the substrate. The decreasing chip scales and smaller L/S distances has created unique challenges for both printed circuit board (PCB) industry and the semiconductor industry. Fan-out panel-level packaging (FOPLP) is a new manufacturing technology that seeks to bring the PCB world and IC/semiconductor world even closer. While FOPLP is still an emerging technology, the amount of high-volume production in this market space provide a financial incentive to develop innovative solutions in order to enable its ramp up. The most important performance aspect of the fine line plating in this market space is plating uniformity or planarity. Plating uniformity, trace/via top planarity, which measures how flat the top of the traces and vias are a few major features. This is especially important in multilayer processing, as nonuniformity on a lower layer can be transferred to successive layers, disrupting the device design with catastrophic consequences such as short circuits. Additionally, a non-planar surface could also result in signal transmission loss by distortion of the connecting points, like vias and traces. Therefore, plating solutions that provide a uniform, planar profile without any special post treatment are quite desirable....

Publisher: MacDermid Inc.

MacDermid Inc.

MacDermid is a global provider of specialty chemicals for the most complex printed circuit board designs. We specialize in the areas of final finishes, through-hole metallization, and circuit formation.

Waterbury, Connecticut, USA


Simulation of Droplet Jetting of a Non-Newtonian Mixed Suspension

Jun 15, 2021 | Martin Svensson, Andreas Mark, Fredrik Edelvik, Andrzej Karawajczyk and Gustaf Mårtensson

The jet printing of a dense mixed non-Newtonian suspension is based on the rapid displacement of fluid through a nozzle, the forming of a droplet and eventually the break-off of the filament. The ability to model this process would facilitate the development of future jetting devices. The purpose of this study is to propose a novel simulation framework and to show that it captures the main effects such as droplet shape, volume and speed. In the framework, the time dependent flow and the fluid-structure interaction between the suspension, the moving piston and the deflection of the jetting head is simulated. The system is modelled as a two phase system with the surrounding air being one phase and the dense suspension the other. Hence, the non-Newtonian suspension is modelled as a mixed single phase with properties determined from material testing. The simulations were performed with two coupled in-house solvers developed at Fraunhofer-Chalmers Centre; IBOFlow, a multiphase flow solver and LaStFEM, a large strain FEM solver. Jetting behaviour was shown to be affected not only by piston motion and fluid rheology, but also by the energy loss in the jetting head. The simulation results were compared to experimental data obtained from an industrial jetting head....

Publisher: Fraunhofer-Chalmers Research Centre for Industustrial Mathematics

Fraunhofer-Chalmers Research Centre for Industustrial Mathematics

FCC offers Contract Research, Software and Services for a broad range of industrial applications. Modelling, Simulation and Optimization of products and processes can boost technical development, improve efficiency and cut costs

Göteborg, Sweden

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Dispensing EMI Shielding Materials: An Alternative to Sputtering

Jun 15, 2021 | Garrett Wong & Jinu Choi

Shielding electronic systems against electromagnetic interference (EMI) has become a hot topic. Technological advancements toward 5G standards, wireless charging of mobile electronics, in-package antenna integration, and system-in-package (SiP) adoption are driving the need to apply more effective EMI shielding and isolation to component packages and larger modules. For conformal shielding, EMI shielding materials for exterior package surfaces have mostly been applied with a physical vapor deposition (PVD) process of sputtering, leveraging front-end packaging technologies to back-end packaging applications. However, sputtering technology challenges in scalability and cost along with advancements in dispensable materials are driving considerations for alternative dispensing techniques for EMI shielding....

Publisher: ASYMTEK Products | Nordson Electronics Solutions

ASYMTEK Products | Nordson Electronics Solutions

A leader in automated fluid dispensing, jetting, and conformal coating. Products include stand-alone dispensing workstations and fully automated, in-line conveyorized systems with advanced process controls.

Carlsbad, California, USA


Enabling Advanced Assembly and Packaging with Automated Dispensing

Jun 15, 2021 | Jeff Leal

Today's automated dispensing for electronics manufacturing is a complex and precise process in order to meet the challenges posed by ever more demanding assembly and component technology requirements. Dedicated dispenser technology is key to success in meeting challenging applications in a production environment with precision and repeatability. The major components that comprise a dispenser will be described, with a view toward understanding the importance of each; the result will illustrate how these sub-systems combine to create high-volume dispensing platforms. Real world examples with data substantiating the speed and accuracy obtained for some of the most common advanced dispensing applications in the market will be demonstrated such as high speed surface mount adhesive, wafer level Underfill and shield edge interconnects....

Publisher: Speedline Technologies, Inc.

Speedline Technologies, Inc.

Speedline Technologies serves the electronics assembly and semiconductor packaging industries with class-leading equipment, responsive support and unparalleled process knowledge.

Franklin, Massachusetts, USA


Ping-pong type FPC universal test equipment

Jun 10, 2021 | pti

test equipment /FPC universal...

Publisher: Shenzhen PTI Technology CO.,LTD

Shenzhen PTI Technology CO.,LTD

Our company was established in 2004, Main products: ICT on-line tester, ICT, functional testing machine 、FCT、 TSI、 automatic test and control system (ATE), test automation solutions, etc.

深圳, China


Characteristics of Metals Leached from Waste Printed Circuit Boards Using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

Jun 07, 2021 | Jinsung An

The aim of this study was to compare leaching characteristics of metals from printed circuit boards (PCBs), taken from waste electrical and electronic equipment in the presence and in the absence of the iron-oxidizing bacteria, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. A. ferrooxidans not only increases the leached concentration of Cu from the PCBs, but also inhibits the components of the 0K medium and leached Cu from forming precipitates such as libethenite (Cu2(PO4)(OH)), thereby assisting Cu recovery from the PCBs. In addition, the leached concentration of Pb from PCBs decreased in the presence of A. ferrooxidans, due to Pb forming amorphous precipitates. It is expected that Pb is not highly toxic to A. ferrooxidans. Consequently, A. ferrooxidans can be used as a cost-effective and environmentally friendly way to leach out valuable metals from PCBs as low-grade urban ore....

Publisher: Semyung University

Semyung University

Semyung University educates students to make the world a brighter place. Because it means to cultivate human beings that become the light in the world and to make humanity greatly beneficial, It is a concept that encompasses ...

Chungcheongbuk-do, South Korea

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Estimating Recycling Return of Integrated Circuits Using Computer Vision on Printed Circuit Boards

Jun 07, 2021 | Leandro H. de S. Silva , Agostinho A. F. Júnior, George O. A. Azevedo, Sergio C. Oliveira and Bruno J. T. Fernandes

The technological growth of the last decades has brought many improvements in daily life, but also concerns on how to deal with electronic waste. Electrical and electronic equipment waste is the fastest-growing rate in the industrialized world. One of the elements of electronic equipment is the printed circuit board (PCB) and almost every electronic equipment has a PCB inside it. While waste PCB (WPCB) recycling may result in the recovery of potentially precious materials and the reuse of some components, it is a challenging task because its composition diversity requires a cautious pre-processing stage to achieve optimal recycling outcomes. Our research focused on proposing a method to evaluate the economic feasibility of recycling integrated circuits (ICs) from WPCB. The proposed method can help decide whether to dismantle a separate WPCB before the physical or mechanical recycling process and consists of estimating the IC area from a WPCB, calculating the IC's weight using surface density, and estimating how much metal can be recovered by recycling those ICs. To estimate the IC area in a WPCB, we used a state-of-the-art object detection deep learning model (YOLO) and the PCB DSLR image dataset to detect the WPCB's ICs. Regarding IC detection, the best result was obtained with the partitioned analysis of each image through a sliding window, thus creating new images of smaller dimensions, reaching 86.77% mAP. As a final result, we estimate that the Deep PCB Dataset has a total of 1079.18 g of ICs, from which it would be possible to recover at least 909.94 g of metals and silicon elements from all WPCBs' ICs. Since there is a high variability in the compositions of WPCBs, it is possible to calculate the gross income for each WPCB and use it as a decision criterion for the type of pre-processing....

Publisher: University of Pernambuco

University of Pernambuco

The Federal University of Pernambuco was established in 1946, born out of the Faculty of Law of Olinda (which still exists as a faculty within the university today). The university operates three campuses in the Brazilian ...

Recife, Brazil

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Waste-Printed Circuit Board Recycling: Focusing on Preparing Polymer Composites and Geopolymers

Jun 07, 2021 | Qin Wang, Baogui Zhang, Shaoqi Yu, Jingjing Xiong, Zhitong Yao, Baoan Hu, and Jianhua Yan

The waste from end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment has become the fastest growing waste problem in the world. The difficult-to-treat waste-printed circuit boards (WPCBs), which are nearly 3−6 wt % of the total electronic waste, generate great environmental concern nowadays. For WPCB treatment and recycling, the mechanical−physical method has turned out to be more technologically and economically feasible. In this work, the mechanical−physical treatment and recycling technologies for WPCBs were investigated, and future research was directed as well. Removing electric and electronic components(EECs) from WPCBs is critical for their crushing and metal recovery; however, environmentally friendly and high-efficiency removal techniques need be developed. Concentrated metals rich in Cu, Al, Au, Pb, and Sn recovered from WPCBs need be further refined to add to their economic values. The low value added nonmetallic fraction of waste-printed circuit boards (NMF-WPCBs) accounts for approximately 60 wt % of the WPCBs. From the perspective of environmental management, a zero-waste approach to recycling them should be developed to gain values. Preparing polymer composites and geopolymers offers many advantages and has potential applications in various fields, especially as construction and building materials. However, the mechanical and thermal properties of NMF-WPCBs composites should be further improved for preparing polymer composites. Surface modification or filler blending could be applied to improve the interfacial comparability between NMF-WPCBs and the polymer matrix. The NMFWPCBs shows potential in preparing cement mortar and geological polymers, but the environmental safety resulting from metals needs to be taken into account. This study will provide a significant reference for the industrial recycling of NMF-WPCBs...

Publisher: Zhejiang University

Zhejiang University

Zhejiang University, also colloquially referred to as Zheda, is an elite C9 League university located in Hangzhou, the capital of Zhejiang province. Founded in 1897, Zhejiang University is one of China's oldest, most selective, an

Zhejiang, China

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Industry 4.0 For Economic Developers Terms to Know

Jun 02, 2021 | Des Moines Area Community College

A glossary of Industry 4.0 Terms to Know...

Publisher: Des Moines Area Community College

Des Moines Area Community College

One of the finest educational institutions in America and for the seventh consecutive year, voted Best Place to Continue Your Education by CityView readers. The more you learn about DMACC, the more you will experience our truly...

Des Moines, Iowa, USA

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Industry 4.0 Capturing value at scale in discrete manufacturing

Jun 02, 2021 | Christoph Schmitz, Andreas Tschiesner, Christian Jansen, Stefan Hallerstede, Florian Garms

With an estimated value creation potential for manufacturers and suppliers of USD 3.7 trillion in 2025,1 high hopes are set on Industry 4.0 to bring the next industrial revolution to discrete manufacturing. Yet, only about 30 percent of companies are capturing value from Industry 4.0 solutions at scale today. Approaches are dominated by envisioning technology development going forward rather than identifying areas of largest impact and tracking it back to Industry 4.0 value drivers. Further governance and organizational anchoring are often unclear. Resulting hurdles related to a lack of clarity regarding business value, limited resources, and an overwhelming number of potential use cases leave the majority of companies stuck in "pilot purgatory."...

Publisher: McKinsey & Company

McKinsey & Company

An American worldwide management consulting firm, founded in 1926 by University of Chicago professor James O. McKinsey, that advises on strategic management to corporations, governments, and other organizations.

New York, New York, USA

Consultant / Service Provider

A Theoretical Framework for Industry 4.0 and Its Implementation with Selected Practical Schedules

Jun 02, 2021 | Bo˙zena Gajdzik, Sandra Grabowska, Sebastian Saniuk

In recent years, there has been dynamic changes in the industrial environment as a result of further innovations called Industry 4.0 (I.4.0), especially in the field of digital technology and manufacturing. Despite numerous examples of the implementation of Industry 4.0 in enterprises, there is no general framework for the implementation of Industry 4.0 with a detailed schedule. Researching the ways of implementing Industry 4.0 is still a current and unexplored area of research. The main aim of the paper is to present the concept of the theoretical framework for Industry 4.0 implementation based on selected schedules of the Industry 4.0 implementation. The paper was based on information from literature review and analysis of pilot enterprise projects to Industry 4.0 (case study) that were conducted in selected enterprises. The paper presents the key components of the framework of Industry 4.0 and the basic stage of implementing the concept in the enterprises, paying attention to their sequence and time frames. The proposed approach is dedicated to researchers and practitioners who implement the concept of Industry 4.0 in enterprises...

Publisher: Silesian University of Technology

Silesian University of Technology

A university located in the Polish province of Silesia, with most of its facilities in the city of Gliwice. It was founded in 1945 by Polish professors of the Lwow Polytechnic, who were forced to leave their native city and move t

Gliwice, Poland

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Copper Electroplating Technology for Microvia Filling

May 26, 2021 | Mark Lefebvre, George Allardyce, Masaru Seita, Hideki Tsuchida, Masaru Kusaka, Shinjiro Hayashi

This paper describes a copper electroplating enabling technology for filling microvias. Driven by the need for faster, smaller and higher performance communication and electronic devices, build-up technology incorporating microvias has emerged as a viable multilayer printed circuit manufacturing technology. Increased wiring density, reduced line widths, smaller through-holes and microvias are all attributes of these High Density Interconnect (HDI) packages. Filling the microvias with conductive material allows the use of stacked vias and via in pad designs thereby facilitating additional packaging density. Other potential design attributes include thermal management enhancement and benefits for high frequency circuitry. Electrodeposited copper can be utilized for filling microvias and provides potential advantages over alternative via plugging techniques. The features, development, scale up and results of direct current (DC) and periodic pulse reverse (PPR) acid copper via filling processes, including chemistry and equipment, are described....

Publisher: Rohm and Haas/Advanced Materials

Rohm and Haas/Advanced Materials

CVD SILICON CARBIDE� from Advanced Materials

Woburn, Massachusetts, USA


Test Fixture Design Presentation ICT & FCT Test Fixtures

May 20, 2021 | Greg Dorsey & Sven F. Nocher

Quality Control is essential in production processes. In the PCB Assembly process there are several Quality Control steps or options. The most popular tests are the electrical (In-Circuit or ICT) and the function (functional or FCT/FVT) test. ICT test fixtures are standardized and there are several major test platforms available which are industry standards. For FCT applications there are many more variations possible due to the vast number of testers and interface approaches unique to each customer; also due to an endless list of applications which fall under the category of Functional Test (RF, High Current, LED test, Leak test etc.) Test Probes are a very important part in ICT as well as in FCT applications. If the wrong test probe (type, spring force, tip style etc.) is used, the test fixture will not work as intended. In addition the test probe must be installed correctly in order to work properly. This presentation will show general information and some guidelines for a proper Test Fixture design to assure the most efficient production....

Publisher: INGUN Pruefmittelbau GmbH

INGUN Pruefmittelbau GmbH

We are a globally operating company for Testing Equipment Manufacturing and offer am unsurpassed choice of Test Probes and Test Fixtures.

Konstanz , Germany


iNEMI Project on Process Development of BiSn-Based Low Temperature Solder Pastes

May 13, 2021 | Haley Fu, Raiyo Aspandiar, Jimmy Chen, Shunfeng Cheng, Qin Chen, Richard Coyle, Sophia Feng, Mark Krmpotich, Ronald C. Lasky, Scott Mokler, Jagadeesh Radhakrishnan, Morgana Ribas, Brook Sandy-Smith, Kok Kwan Tang, Greg Wu, Anny Zhang, Wilson Zhen

The 2017 iNEMI Board and Assembly Roadmap forecasts that, due to economic, environmental and technical drivers, use of low temperature solder pastes will increase significantly and reach 10% of all solder paste used for board assembly by 2021....

Publisher: iNEMI (International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative)

iNEMI (International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative)

iNEMI is an industry-led consortium focused on identifying and closing technology gaps, which includes the development and integration of the electronics industry supply infrastructure.

Herndon, Virginia, USA

Low Melting Temperature Sn-Bi Solder: Effect of Alloying and Nanoparticle Addition on the Microstructural, Thermal, Interfacial Bonding, and Mechanical Characteristics

May 13, 2021 | Hyejun Kang, Sri Harini Rajendran and Jae Pil Jung

Sn-based lead-free solders such as Sn-Ag-Cu, Sn-Cu, and Sn-Bi have been used extensively for a long time in the electronic packaging field. Recently, low-temperature Sn-Bi solder alloys attract much attention from industries for flexible printed circuit board (FPCB) applications. Low melting temperatures of Sn-Bi solders avoid warpage wherein printed circuit board and electronic parts deform or deviate from the initial state due to their thermal mismatch during soldering. However, the addition of alloying elements and nanoparticles Sn-Bi solders improves the melting temperature, wettability, microstructure, and mechanical properties. Improving the brittleness of the eutecticSn-58wt%Bi solder alloy by grain refinement of the Bi-phase becomes a hot topic. In this paper, literature studies about melting temperature, microstructure, inter-metallic thickness, and mechanical properties of Sn-Bi solder alloys upon alloying and nanoparticle addition are reviewed...

Publisher: University of Seoul

University of Seoul

A public university located in Seoul, South Korea. UOS is famous in South Korea for a large number of alumni working as national or municipal government officials. UOS is specialized in urban science and has top-tier programs ...

Seoul, South Korea

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Bare PCB inspection for Track cut, Track Short and Pad Damage using simple Image Processing Operations

May 06, 2021 | Anitha D B, Mahesh Rao

In this paper most commonly occurring Bare PCB defects such as Track Cut, Track short and Pad Damages are detected by Image processing techniques. Reference PCB without having any defects is compared with test PCB having defects to identify the defects and x-y coordinates of the center of the defects along with radii are obtained using Difference of Gaussian method and location of the individual type of defects are marked either by similar color or different colors. Result Analysis includes time taken for the inspection of a single defect, multiple similar defects, and multiple different defects. Time taken is ranging from 1.674 to 1.714 seconds if the individual type of defects are marked by different colors and 0.670 to 0.709 seconds if all the identified defects are marked by the same colors....

Publisher: Vidya Vikas Institute Of Engineering And Technology

Vidya Vikas Institute Of Engineering And Technology

Vidya Vikas Institute of Engineering & Technology (V.V.I.E.T) was established in 1997. It is a Private University of Engineering and Technology and has been ranked as one of the top 10 engineering colleges in Mysore, Karnataka.

Alanahally, Mysuru, Karnataka, India

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Bare PCB Inspection By Mean Of ECT Technique With Spin-Valve GMR Sensor

May 06, 2021 | K. Chomsuwan, S. Yamada, M. Iwahara, H. Wakiwaka, T. Taniguchi, and S. Shoji

The high-sensitive micro eddy-current testing (ECT) probe composed of planar meander coil as an exciter and spin-valve giant magneto-resistance (SV-GMR) sensor as a magnetic sensor for bare printed circuit board (PCB) inspection is proposed in this paper. The high-sensitive micro ECT probe detects the magnetic field distribution on the bare PCB and the image processing technique analyzes output signal achieved from the ECT probe to exhibit and to identify the defects occurred on the PCB conductor. The inspection results of the bare PCB model show that the proposed ECT probe with the image processing technique can be applied to bare PCB inspection. Furthermore, the signal variations are investigated to prove the possibility of applying the proposed ECT probe to inspect the high-density PCB that PCB conductor width and gap are less than 100 μm....

Publisher: Kanazawa University, ,

Kanazawa University, ,

The Kanazawa University is a national university of Japan in the city of Kanazawa, the capital of Ishikawa prefecture. Kanazawa University is divided into two main campuses: Kakuma and Takaramachi. University enrollment is ...

Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Deep Learning Based Defect Detection for Solder Joints on Industrial X-Ray Circuit Board Images

May 06, 2021 | Qianru Zhang, Meng Zhang, Chinthaka Gamanayakey, Chau Yueny, Zehao Gengz, Hirunima Jayasekaray, Xuewen Zhangz, Chia-wei Woox, Jenny Lowx, Xiang Liuz

Quality control is of vital importance during electronics production. As the methods of producing electronic circuits improve, there is an increasing chance of solder defects during assembling the printed circuit board (PCB). Many technologies have been incorporated for inspecting failed soldering, such as X-ray imaging, optical imaging, and thermal imaging. With some advanced algorithms, the new technologies are expected to control the production quality based on the digital images. However, current algorithms sometimes are not accurate enough to meet the quality control. Specialists are needed to do a follow-up checking. For automated X-ray inspection, joint of interest on the X-ray image is located by region of interest (ROI) and inspected by some algorithms. Some incorrect ROIs deteriorate the inspection algorithm....

Publisher: Southeast University (SEU)

Southeast University (SEU)

Southeast University is one of only 32 universities directly administered by the Chinese Department of Education, which are considered the top class universities in China.

Nanjing, China

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Fundamentals of Capillary Ion Chromatography

Apr 29, 2021 | Peter Bodsky and Frank Hoefler

In this work, we highlight the fundamental differences between conventional IC (4 mm and 2 mm) and Capillary Ion Chromatography....

Publisher: Thermo Fisher Scientific

Thermo Fisher Scientific

Thermo Fisher Scientific is an American provisioner of scientific instrumentation, reagents and consumables, and software and services to healthcare, life science, and other laboratories in academia, government, and industry.

Sunnyvale, California, USA


Column Properties That Make An Impact On Ion Chromatography

Apr 29, 2021 | Carl Fisher and John Guajardo

For the separation of ionic species, ion chromatography (IC), a type of liquid chromatography, is the method of choice. The most critical component of this technique is the separation column, which is selected based on factors that include the specific analytes of interest, the sample type and the required detection levels. This article outlines the column parameters that impact the separation of charged species in solution using ion-exchange chromatography and the developments that have continued to redefine what is possible with an IC system....

Publisher: Thermo Fisher Scientific

Thermo Fisher Scientific

Thermo Fisher Scientific is an American provisioner of scientific instrumentation, reagents and consumables, and software and services to healthcare, life science, and other laboratories in academia, government, and industry.

Sunnyvale, California, USA


Failure Analysis – Using Ion Chromatography And Ion Chromatography/Mass Spec (IC/MS)

Apr 29, 2021 | Terry Munson

Since the 1980s the electronics industry has utilized ion chromatography (IC) analysis to understand the relationship of ions, and some organics, to product reliability. From component and board fabrication to complete electronic assemblies and their end-use environment, IC analysis has been the de facto method for evaluating ionic cleanliness of electronic hardware....

Publisher: Foresite Inc.

Foresite Inc.

Foresite is a process consulting house and analytial laboratory dedicated to solving product reliability challenges for electronics manufacturers.

Kokomo, Indiana, USA

Consultant / Service Provider, Manufacturer

Operation of a Vacuum Reflow Oven with Void Reduction Data

Apr 21, 2021 | Fred Dimock

Voids affect the thermal characteristics and mechanical properties of a solder joint, thereby affecting the reliability of the solder interconnect. The automotive sector in particular is requiring the mitigation of solder voids in various electronic control modules to the minimum possible level. Earlier research efforts performed to decrease voids involved varying the reflow profile, paste deposit, paste alloy composition, stencil aperture, and thickness....

Publisher: BTU International

BTU International

Global supplier of advanced thermal processing equipment and processes to the electronics assembly market.

North Billerica, Massachusetts, USA


Air purification and occupational health & safety in electronics production

Apr 16, 2021 | ULT

The overall process of manufacturing electronics assemblies is characterized by a number of very different procedures. Along the production chain, technologies for cutting, assembling, soldering, bonding, gluing, marking, potting, etc. are used, all of them have one thing in common: They produce airborne pollutants, some of which can have a significant impact on employees, manufacturing equipment and products - and for this reason need to be removed effectively and efficiently....

Publisher: ULT Canada Sales Incorporated

ULT Canada Sales Incorporated

ULT is a vendor of efficient fume extraction solutions for air purification. The company's systems are utilized for the removal of laser fumes, soldering fumes, odors, vapors, gases, dusts etc. in electronics production.

Okotoks, Alberta, Canada

Consultant / Service Provider, Manufacturer

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