Electronics Manufacturing Technical Articles

Electronics Manufacturing Technical Articles

Papers and articles related to SMT, PCB & EMS industry.

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1341 SMT / PCB Assembly Related Technical Articles

How to Test a Mass Flow Sensor?

Oct 27, 2021 | markee

The mass flow sensor, or air flow sensor is one of the important sensors of the electronic fuel injection engine. It is installed between the air filter and the intake hose to measure the intake volume of the engine cylinder and adjust the fuel ratio according to it. The mass flow sensor converts the inhaled air flow into electrical signals and sends them to the electronic control unit (ECU). As one of the basic signals to determine the fuel injection, it is a sensor that measures the air flow of the suction engine. So if you want to test it, how should you do? Let's start it....

Publisher: OKmarts Industrial Parts Mall

OKmarts Industrial Parts Mall

OKmarts is an authorized and one-stop online mall for industrial parts covering refrigeration compressors, servo drives, servo motors, amplifiers, VFDs, HMIs, PLCs, encoders, sensors and more!

Hartford, Connecticut, USA

Equipment Dealer / Broker

Effects of PCB Substrate Surface Finish and Flux on Solderability of Lead-Free SAC305 Alloy

Oct 20, 2021 | A. Siewiorek, A. Kudyba, N. Sobczak, M. Homa, Z. Huber, Z. Adamek, and J. Wojewoda-Budka

The solderability of the SAC305 alloy in contact with printed circuit boards (PCB) having different surface finishes was examined using the wetting balance method. The study was performed at a temperature of 260 _C on three types of PCBs covered with (1) hot air solder leveling (HASL LF), (2) electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG), and (3) organic surface protectant (OSP), organic finish, all on Cu substrates and two types of fluxes (EF2202 and RF800). The results showed that the PCB substrate surface finish has a strong effect on the value of both the wetting time t0 and the contact angle h. The shortest wetting time was noted for the OSP finish (t0 = 0.6 s with EF2202 flux and t0 = 0.98 s with RF800 flux), while the ENIG finish showed the longest wetting time (t0 = 1.36 s with EF2202 flux and t0 = 1.55 s with RF800 flux). The h values calculated from the wetting balance tests were as follows: the lowest h of 45_ was formed on HASL LF (EF2202 flux), the highest h of 63_ was noted on the OSP finish, while on the ENIG finish, it was 58_ (EF2202 flux). After the solderability tests, the interface characterization of cross-sectional samples was performed by means of scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy....

Publisher: Foundry Research Institute

Foundry Research Institute

Łukasiewicz - Kraków Institute of Technology was established on April 1, 2020 as a result of the merger of two Kraków institutes that are part of the Łukasiewicz Research Network.

Cracow, Poland

Research Institute / Laboratory

PCB Surface Finishes & The Cleaning Process - A Compatibility Study

Oct 20, 2021 | Umut Tosun, Naveen Ravindran

All PCBs that are manufactured require a surface finish to protect exposed copper on the surface which if left unprotected, can oxidize, rendering the board unusable. To address this issue, it is common to surface treat the PCB prior to assembly and reflow. The surface finish not only prevents oxidation of the underlying copper, but guarantees a solderable surface. A cost effective and widely used approach to PCB surface finish is HASL (Hot Air Solder Leveling). However, as circuit complexity and component density have increased, HASL has reached its limitations, necessitating the need for thinner coatings. Thus, coatings such as Immersion Tin (ImSn), Immersion Silver (ImAg), Organic Solderability Preservatives (OSP), and Electroless Nickel Immersion Gold (ENIG) are becoming more widely used....

Publisher: ZESTRON Americas

ZESTRON Americas

The globally leading provider of high precision cleaning products, services and training solutions in the electronics and semiconductor manufacturing industries.

Manassas, Virginia, USA

Cleaning, Test Services, Training Provider

Counterfeit Detection Strategies: When to Do It / How to Do It

Oct 12, 2021 | Greg Caswell

Counterfeit components have been defined as a growing concern in recent years as demand increases for reducing costs. In fact the Department of Commerce has identified a 141% increase in the last three years alone. A counterfeit is any item that is not as it is represented with the intention to deceive its buyer or user. The misrepresentation is often driven by the known presence of defects or other inadequacies in regards to performance. Whether it is used for a commercial, medical or military application, a counterfeit component could cause catastrophic failure at a critical moment....

Publisher: DfR Solutions

DfR Solutions

DfR Solutions has world-renowned expertise in applying the science of Reliability Physics to electrical and electronics technologies, and is a leading provider of quality, reliability, and durability (QRD) research and consulting for the electronics industry.

College Park, Maryland, USA

Service Provider

Advanced Physical Inspection Methods for Counterfeit IC Detection

Oct 12, 2021 | Sina Shahbazmohamadi, Domenic Forte, and Mark Tehranipoor

The remarkable increase in counterfeit parts (a factor of 4 since 2009) [1] is a huge reliability and security concern in various industries ranging from automotive electronics to sensitive military applications increasing the possibility of premature failure in critical systems [2-5]. Counterfeit parts can also incur a great financial loss to legitimate electronics companies [6]. The issue is even more alarming as the counterfeiters use more sophisticated methods making counterfeit detection a much harder task [7-8]. Therefore, it is reasonable to develop more advanced counterfeit detection methods targeting a more efficient detection of sophisticated counterfeited parts....

Publisher: University of Connecticut

University of Connecticut

The University of Connecticut is a public land-grant research university in Storrs, Connecticut. It was founded in 1881. The primary 4,400-acre campus is in Storrs, Connecticut, approximately a half hour's drive from Hartford and

Storrs, Connecticut, USA


A Novel Authentication Methodology to Detect Counterfeit PCB Using PCB Trace-Based Ring Oscillator

Oct 12, 2021 | Dongrong Zhang, Qiang Ren, Donglin Su

The existence of counterfeit products, e.g., integrated circuits (ICs) and printed circuit boards (PCBs), in the modern semiconductor supply chain has seriously jeopardized the security and reliability of electronic systems, and has also caused the loss of suppliers' profit and reputation. Most of existing research papers prevent or detect counterfeit IC and PCB substrate separately, without testing the PCB as a whole, and often require the assistance of external equipment. In this article, a novel ring oscillator- based PCB authentication (ROPA) methodology to detect counterfeit PCB through supply chain is proposed, which ......

Publisher: Beihang University

Beihang University

Beihang University is designated as an eminent key university ( literally a "first-rate university" of type-A[3] ) by China's Ministry of Education Class A . It was one of China's key universities subsidized by "Project 985" fundi

Beijing, China

Research Institute / Laboratory

The Effects of Plasma Treatment Prior to Conformal Coating

Oct 06, 2021 | John D. Vanderford, Ann E. Paxton, and Dave Selestak

The corrosion of Nickel-Palladium-Gold (Ni-Pd-Au) finish terminals in humid environments is known to be reduced with the application of a conformal coating such as acrylic. Corrosion has a higher rate of occurrence around the terminal 'knee' of a surface mount component, which may be reduced with the application of conformal coatings. Although radio frequency (RF) plasma processing is generally known to enhance conformity of conformal coating to surfaces through ionic bombardment, the effect on the functionality of assembled printed circuit boards (PCB) is not as well known. The purpose of this study is to assess whether RF plasma processing can enhance the adhesive and coverage qualities of an acrylic conformal coating on PCBs...

Publisher: MARCH Products | Nordson Electronics Solutions

MARCH Products | Nordson Electronics Solutions

MARCH Products is the global leader in plasma cleaning equipment and plasma processing technology for PCB manufacturing and semiconductor packaging. The company has designed and manufactured plasma equipment for 35+ years.

Concord, California, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Cleaning, Component Preparation

Cleaning Before Conformal Coating

Oct 06, 2021 | Naveen Ravindran

Cleaning PCBs before conformal coating removes potentially harmful and unknown contaminants from the board's surface resulting in better adhesion of the conformal coating and thereby preventing delamination. Cleaning PCBs can ultimately prevent issues like leakage current, electrochemical migration and coating failures. From a production standpoint, it can help to decrease the cost of labor and time needed for the re-work of the boards....

Publisher: ZESTRON Americas

ZESTRON Americas

The globally leading provider of high precision cleaning products, services and training solutions in the electronics and semiconductor manufacturing industries.

Manassas, Virginia, USA

Cleaning, Test Services, Training Provider

Selective soldering in an optimized nitrogen atmosphere

Sep 29, 2021 | Gerjan Diepstraten

In PCB circuit assemblies the trend is moving to more SMD components with finer pitch connections. The majority of the assemblies still have a small amount of through hole (THT) components. Some of them can't withstand high reflow temperatures, while others are there because of their mechanical robustness. In automotive applications these THT components are also present. Many products for cars, including steering units, radio and navigation, and air compressors also use THT technology to connect board-to-board, PCB's to metal shields or housings out of plastic or even aluminium. This is not a simple 2D plain soldering technology, as it requires handling, efficient thermal heating and handling of heavy (up to 10 kg) parts. Soldering technology becomes more 3D where connections have to be made on different levels. For this technology robots using solder wire fail because of the spattering of the flux in the wires and the long cycle time. In wave soldering using pallets the wave height is limited and pin in paste reflow is only a 2D application with space limitations. Selective soldering using dedicated plates with nozzles on the solder area is the preferred way to make these connections. All joints can be soldered in one dip resulting in short cycle times. Additional soldering on a small select nozzle can make the system even more flexible. The soldering can only be successful when there is enough thermal heat in the assembly before the solder touches the board. A forced convection preheat is a must for many applications to bring enough heat into the metal and board materials. The challenge in a dip soldering process is to get a sufficient hole fill without bridging and minimize the number of solder balls. A new cover was designed to improve the nitrogen environment. Reducing oxygen levels benefits the wetting, but increases the risk for solder balling. Previous investigations showed that solder balling can be minimized by selecting proper materials for solder resist and flux....

Publisher: Vitronics Soltec

Vitronics Soltec

Global manufacturer of XPM Reflow Ovens, ZEVA Selective Soldering and Delta Wave Soldering Equipment.

Camdenton, Missouri, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Soldering, Selective Soldering

Applying Microscopic Analytic Techniques For Failure Analysis In Electronic Assemblies

Sep 21, 2021 | Otto Grosshardt, Boldizsár Árpád Nagy and Anette Laetsch

The present paper gives an overview of surface failures, internal nonconformities and solders joint failures detected by microscopic analysis of electronic assemblies. Optical microscopy (stereomicroscopy) and Fourier-Transform- Infrared (FTIR) microscopy is used for documentation and failure localization on electronic samples surface. For internal observable conditions a metallographic cross-section analysis of the sample is required. The aim of this work is to present some internal and external observable nonconformities which frequently appear in electronic assemblies. In order to detect these nonconformities, optical microscopy, cross section analysis, FTIR-microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) were used as analytical techniques....



Headquartered in Germany and founded by Manfred Zollner in 1965, Zollner Elektronik AG has successfully grown to become one of the largest and most formidable Electronic Manufacturing & Engineering Services providers in the world today.

Sterling, Virginia, USA

Contract Manufacturer

Alternative Methods For Cross-Sectioning Of SMT And PCB Related Architectures

Sep 21, 2021 | Manuel J. Solis "Paco"

The electronics industry has been using the epoxy puck for the processing of the vast majority of electronics microsections since the 1970s. Minimal advancements have been seen in the methods used for precision micro-sections of PCBs, PCBAs, and device packages. This paper will discuss different techniques and approaches in performing precision and analytical micro-sections, which fuse the techniques and materials common in preparation of silicon wafers and bulk materials. These techniques have not only been found to produce excellent optical results, but transfer effectively to SEM for high magnification inspection and further analysis with minimal post-lapping preparation needed. Additionally, processing time is reduced primarily due to a significant reduction of bulk material removal earlier in the preparation, therefore needing less removal at later lapping steps compared to traditional sectioning methods. Additional techniques are introduced that mitigate some classic challenges experienced by technicians over the decades....

Publisher: Foresite Inc.

Foresite Inc.

Foresite is a process consulting house and analytial laboratory dedicated to solving product reliability challenges for electronics manufacturers.

Kokomo, Indiana, USA

Cleaning, Test Services, Consultant, Service Provider

Physics of Failure (PoF) Based Lifetime Prediction of Power Electronics at the Printed Circuit Board Level

Sep 15, 2021 | Andrew Wileman, Suresh Perinpanayagam and Sohaib Aslam

This paper presents the use of physics of failure (PoF) methodology to infer fast and accurate lifetime predictions for power electronics at the printed circuit board (PCB) level in early design stages. It is shown that the ability to accurately model silicon–metal layers, semiconductor packaging, printed circuit boards (PCBs), and assemblies allows, for instance, the prediction of solder fatigue failure due to thermal, mechanical, and manufacturing conditions. The technique allows a lifecycle prognosis of the PCB, taking into account the environmental stresses it will encounter during the period of operation. Primarily, it involves converting an electronic computer aided design (eCAD) circuit layout into computational fluid dynamic (CFD) and finite element analysis (FEA) models with accurate geometries. From this, stressors, such as thermal cycling, mechanical shock, natural frequency, and harmonic and random vibrations, are applied to understand PCB degradation, and semiconductor and capacitor wear, and accordingly provide a method for high-fidelity power PCB modelling, which can be subsequently used to facilitate virtual testing and digital twinning for aircraft systems and sub-systems....

Publisher: Cranfield University

Cranfield University

Cranfield University is a British postgraduate public research university specialising in science, engineering, design, technology and management. Cranfield was founded as the College of Aeronautics in 1946.

Bedford, United Kingdom


Mathematical Model For Dynamic Force Analysis Of Printed Circuit Boards

Sep 15, 2021 | I.I. Kovtun, J.M. Boiko, S.A. Petrashchuk

Mathematical model for dynamic force analysis of printed circuit boards has been designed to calculate dynamic deformations and stresses in printed circuit boards and assess their dynamic strength and rigidity. The represented model describes a printed circuit board as a separate oscillatory system, which is simulated as prismatic beam set on two oscillating supports. Simulation and assessment of stress and deflection in printed circuit boards and obtaining their amplitude frequency responses provided recommendations, which ensure strength and stiffness of printed circuit boards subjected to dynamic loads.....

Publisher: Khmelnytsky National University

Khmelnytsky National University

Established in 1962, Khmelnytskyi National University is a non-profit public higher-education institution located in the urban setting of the medium city of Khmelnitsky (population range of 250,000-499,999 inhabitants), Khmelnytsk

Khmelnytskyi Oblast, Ukraine


Failure Mechanisms Of Electromechanical Relays On PCBAs: Part I

Sep 15, 2021 | Gert Vogel

Many printed circuit board assemblies (PCBAs) have relays that are soldered to the PCB. If such an electromechanical component fails, it can cause the whole device to fail, just like any other electronic component. The spectrum of root causes that lead to an increased contact resistance or a complete contact failure is totally different from what usually occurs in the electronics domain. This article provides a detailed analysis of these failures and the corresponding root causes, many of them self-centering....

Publisher: Siemens Process Industries and Drives

Siemens Process Industries and Drives

Siemens industrial manufacturing software, process automation, and automation and drives technology increases flexibility, cuts market launch lead time, and significantly reduces energy for manufacturing companies.

Alpharetta, Georgia, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Inspection, Consultant, Software Manufacturer, Training Provider

Failure Analysis

Sep 15, 2021 | ASM International®

Analyzing failures is a critical process in determining the physical root causes of problems. The process is complex, draws upon many different technical disciplines, and uses a variety of observation, inspection, and laboratory techniques. One of the key factors in properly performing a failure analysis is keeping an open mind while examining and analyzing the evidence to foster a clear, unbiased perspective of the failure....

Publisher: ASM International

ASM International

ASM International, formerly known as the American Society for Metals, an association of materials-centric engineers and scientists. ASM is dedicated to informing, educating, & connecting the materials community to solve problems.

Materials Park, Ohio, USA

Association / Non-Profit

Auto Electronic ICT+ Programming Automation Solution

Sep 09, 2021 | pti

Auto Electronic ICT+ Programming Automation Solution...

Publisher: Shenzhen PTI Technology CO.,LTD

Shenzhen PTI Technology CO.,LTD

Our company was established in 2004, Main products: ICT on-line tester, ICT, functional testing machine 、FCT、 TSI、 automatic test and control system (ATE), test automation solutions, etc.

深圳, China

Manufacturer of Test Equipment

The Great SAC Debate: Comparing The Reliability Of SAC305 And SAC405 Solders In A Variety Of Applications

Sep 08, 2021 | Heather McCormick, Polina Snugovsky, Craig Hamilton, Zohreh Bagheri, and Simin Bagheri

Although the electronics industry has largely settled on the use of SAC alloys for the assembly of the majority of lead free products, debate continues to exist over which SAC alloy – SAC305 (Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu) or SAC405 (Sn3.8Ag0.8Cu) – to use. The North American industry generally favours SAC405, while the Asian industry favours SAC305. SAC305 has the significant benefit of being less expensive than SAC405 owing to its lower silver content. However, there are lingering questions about whether the reliability of SAC305 is comparable to that of SAC405. Recent studies have concluded that no significant difference exists, but many potential applications were not studied. This paper compares the results of reliability testing of SAC305 and SAC405 in three different cases on a test vehicle representative of a mid-complexity server-type product which included a range of component types from CBGAs to discrete resistors....

Publisher: Celestica Corporation

Celestica Corporation

A multinational electronics manufacturing services (EMS) company.

Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Manufacturer of Assembled PCBs, IPC Standards Certification Center, Training Provider

iNEMI Pb-Free Alloy Characterization Project Report: Part II - Thermal Fatigue Results For Two Common Temperature Cycles

Sep 08, 2021 | Richard Parker, Richard Coyle, Gregory Henshall, Joe Smetana, Elizabeth Benedetto

The Pb-Free Alloy Characterization Program sponsored by International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative (iNEMI) is conducting an extensive investigation using accelerated temperature cycling (ATC) to evaluate ball grid array (BGA) thermal fatigue performance of 12 commercial or developmental Sn based Pb-free solder alloys. This paper presents the initial findings from a specific subset of the temperature cycling test matrix. The focus is on comparing alloy performance for two of the most commonly specified temperature cycles, 0 to 100 °C and -40 to 125 °C....

Publisher: iNEMI (International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative)

iNEMI (International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative)

iNEMI is an industry-led consortium focused on identifying and closing technology gaps, which includes the development and integration of the electronics industry supply infrastructure.

Herndon, Virginia, USA

Effect Of Silver In Common Lead-Free Alloys

Sep 08, 2021 | Ranjit Pandher, Tom Lawlor

There is need in the industry to understand the effects of silver presence in solders from various applications perspective. This article will attempt to present a review of the key published results on the silver containing alloys along with results of our internal studies on wave soldering, surface mount and BGA/CSP applications. Advantages and disadvantages of silver at different levels will be discussed. Specifically this report will focus on the effect of silver on process conditions, drop shock resistance, solder joint survivability in high strain rate situations, thermal fatigue resistance, Cu dissolution and effects of silver in combination with other alloy additives. Specific application problems demanding high silver level and other requiring silver level to the minimum will be discussed....

Publisher: Cookson Electronics

Cookson Electronics

Leading materials science company that provides high performance materials, chemistry and technology solutions to the electronics and surface finishing industries worldwide.

Lakeville, Minnesota, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material

Modeling Temperature Cycle Fatigue Life of Select SAC Solders

Sep 08, 2021 | Michael Osterman

While the presence of silver in SAC solder provided excellent temperature cycling durability, the silver in high silver SAC alloy also made the solders susceptible to failures under drop/shock loading. To improve the drop/shock reliability, the silver content in SAC alloys was reduced from three percent, to as low as no silver. Solder dopants, also known as microalloy additions, are elements (typically 0.1% or lower) other than the main constituents of the alloy that have been shown to improve solder performance. Commonly used microalloy additions include nickel (Ni), bismuth (Bi), manganese (Mn), and antimony (Sb)....

Publisher: CALCE Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering

CALCE Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering

The largest electronic products research center focused on electronics reliability, is dedicated to providing a knowledge and resource base to support the development of competitive electronic components, products and systems.

College Park, Maryland, USA

Service Provider, Training Provider

Investigation of the Mechanical Properties of Mn-Alloyed Tin-Silver-Copper Solder Solidified with Different Cooling Rates

Sep 08, 2021 | Tamás Hurtony, Oliver Krammer, Balázs Illés, Gábor Harsányi, David Bušek and Karel Dušek

Manganese can be an optimal alloying addition in lead-free SAC (SnAgCu) solder alloys because of its low price and harmless nature. In this research, the mechanical properties of the novel SAC0307 (Sn/Ag0.3/Cu0.7) alloyed with 0.7 wt.% Mn (designated as SAC0307-Mn07) and those of the traditionally used SAC305 (Sn96.5/Ag3/Cu0.5) solder alloys were investigated by analyzing the shear force and Vickers hardness of reflowed solder balls. During the preparation of the reflowed solder balls, different cooling rates were used in the range from 2.7 K/s to 14.7 K/s....

Publisher: Budapest University of Technology and Economics

Budapest University of Technology and Economics

BME is considered the world's oldest Institute of Technology which has university rank and structure. It was the first institute in Europe to train engineers at university level.

Budapest, Hungary


Utsource is a global online store of electronic components.

Sep 07, 2021 | Utsource

Utsource grows from a child to an adult serving the global 30W + customers. UTSOURCE.net is a professional purchasing B2B & B2C tools in electronic components field. UTSOURCE.net provides different types such as IC, Modules, RF transistors etc., and various product type's PDF parameter form as well as the related photographs, we also provide satisfying one-stop package service for customers. We fell honored to serve the global 30W + customers.We spent 15 years touching the needs of customers from all over the world.So we know better that our customers need their packages to arrive safely.After-sales service need at your fingertips and intimate service should be to customers' satisfaction...

Publisher: utsource


UTSOURCE.net is a professional purchasing B2B & B2C tools in electronic components field. UTSOURCE.net provides different types such as IC, Modules, RF transistors etc.,

Alhambra, California, USA

Component Preparation

UV Laser PCB Depaneling Machine Improve Cutting Effect

Sep 02, 2021 | Winsmart

We are a professional manufacturer of PCB depaneling machines, which is workable for all boards, including flex and regid boards, v-scored boards and routed boards. Laser pcb depaneling is non-contact way without mechanical stress,this solution is good for modern precision PCB depaneling. It has below advantages: 1. No dust The production environment of the circuit board industry is carried out in the dust-free workshop. The traditional pcb depaneling equipment, such as blade moving type machine, will inevitably produce residues and micro powder, which will pollute the 10000 and 1000 class dust-free workshops and affect the conductivity of products. The UV laser PCB cutting machine is a vaporization processing process, which will not produce dust and is conducive to the conductivity of the product. 2. High cutting precision The processing gap of high-precision traditional processing equipment can not reach the gap width of less than 100 microns, which will cause certain damage to the lines on the edge or PCBA circuit board containing components. The focus spot of the laser cutting machine is small, and the ultraviolet cold processing mode has little thermal impact on the edge of the circuit board. The cutting position accuracy is less than 50 microns, and the cutting size accuracy is less than 30 microns, which will not affect the edge of the circuit board, and the precision is high. 3. No stress Traditional processing methods generally have V-grooves, which will cause certain damage to the board in the manufacturing process. The UV laser PCB cutting machine can directly cut the bare board without making V-grooves. In addition, the traditional processing methods directly use tools to act on the circuit board, especially the stamping method has a great impact on the circuit board, which is easy to cause board deformation. The laser cutting machine is a non-contact processing mode, which acts on the surface of the material through the high-energy beam, which will not cause the influence of stress and the deformation and damage of the circuit board. 4. For special-shaped cutting, it is easy to automate The UV laser PCB cutting machine can cut for any shape without replacing any props and fixtures, and without steel mesh. The same equipment can meet special-shaped and straight-line cutting, which is easy to realize assembly line automatic production and high flexibility. It is easy to improve production efficiency and save production process and production cycle. In particular, it can quickly and efficiently meet the needs of rapid proofing, directly import the drawing, and then locate the cutting. 5. High compatibility The UV laser PCB cutting machine can process the materials around the circuit board, such as PCB, FPC, covering film, pet, reinforcing board, IC, ultra-thin metal cutting, etc. it has strong practicability, is compatible with the processing of a variety of materials, is easy to operate, can be imported into the drawing, does not need to adjust any mechanical parts, and is easy to operate and maintain. 6. Good cutting edge effect The cutting edge is smooth and neat without burr. It can be processed and formed directly according to the size of the drawing, which is conducive to improving the yield of the product. It can be directly installed into the subsequent process without further processing. For more details about UV laser depaneling, please feel free to contact us. www.pcbdepanelingrouter.com...

Publisher: Winsmart Electronic Co.,Ltd

Winsmart Electronic Co.,Ltd

Manufacturer of PCB depaneling and PCB soldering machines since 2005, products include CE approval V-groove PCB depanelizer, PCB router, PCB punching machine, laser depaneling, hot bar soldering machines and soldering robots.

Huizhou, China

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment

Tombstoning Of 0402 And 0201 Components: "A Study Examining The Effects Of Various Process And Design Parameters On Ultra-Small Passive Devices"

Sep 01, 2021 | Michael Yuen, Heather Benedict, Kris Havlovitz, Tim Pitsch, Andy C. Mackie

The long-standing trend in the electronics industry has been the miniaturization of electronic components. It is projected that this trend will continue as Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) and Electronic Manufacturing Service (EMS) providers strive to reduce "real estate" on printed circuit boards. Typically, the miniaturization of components can be achieved by integration or size reduction. At present, size reduction is considered to be more cost effective and flexible than integration. Passive components, which are used in limiting current, terminating transmission lines and de-coupling switching noise, are the primary focus in size reduction due to their variety of uses....

Publisher: Plexus Corporation

Plexus Corporation

Are you ready to experience the difference? Plexus Corp provides comprehensive product development and manufacturing services to Fortune 500 companies in the medical, networking/datacom, high-end computing, industrial and commercial electronics indus

Neenah, Wisconsin, USA

Manufacturer of Assembled PCBs

Solving Surface-Mount Assembly Challenges Presented by 0201mm Components

Sep 01, 2021 | Richard Vereijssen

The global electronics industry's ability to deliver seemingly limitless ongoing advancements in product capabilities has encouraged an insatiable consumer demand for more, better, and smaller. Demands for high functionality of mobile devices, smart watches, military, medical, audio, and wearable technology continue to drive requirements for miniaturisation....

Publisher: Yamaha Motor IM America, Inc.

Yamaha Motor IM America, Inc.

Yamaha Motor IM America offers Single and Dual Lane production Printers, Mounters and AOI.

Kennesaw, Georgia, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Inspection

Test plan for refrigerator main board

Aug 31, 2021 | pti

Test plan for refrigerator main board...

Publisher: Shenzhen PTI Technology CO.,LTD

Shenzhen PTI Technology CO.,LTD

Our company was established in 2004, Main products: ICT on-line tester, ICT, functional testing machine 、FCT、 TSI、 automatic test and control system (ATE), test automation solutions, etc.

深圳, China

Manufacturer of Test Equipment

A Study On Process, Strength And Microstructure Analysis Of Low Temperature SnBi Containing Solder Pastes Mixed With Lead-Free Solder Balls

Aug 25, 2021 | Sakthi Cibi Kannammal Palaniappan and Martin.K.Anselm, Ph.D.

As the traditional eutectic SnPb solder alloy has been outlawed, the electronic industry has almost completely transitioned to the lead-free solder alloys. The conventional SAC305 solder alloy used in lead-free electronic assembly has a high melting and processing temperature with a typical peak reflow temperature of 245ºC which is almost 30ºC higher than traditional eutectic SnPb reflow profile. Some of the drawbacks of this high melting and processing temperatures are yield loss due to component warpage which has an impact on solder joint formation like bridging, open defects, head on pillow....

Publisher: Rochester Institute of Technology

Rochester Institute of Technology

Rochester Institute of Technology is a private research university in the town of Henrietta in the Rochester, New York metropolitan area. The university offers undergraduate and graduate degrees, including doctoral and professiona

Rochester, New York, USA


Study on the Reliability of Sn–Bi Composite Solder Pastes with Thermosetting Epoxy under Thermal Cycling and Humidity Treatment

Aug 25, 2021 | Lu Liu, Songbai Xue, Ruiyang Ni, Peng Zhang and Jie Wu

In this study, a Sn–Bi composite solder paste with thermosetting epoxy (TSEP Sn–Bi) was prepared by mixing Sn–Bi solder powder, flux, and epoxy system. The melting characteristics of the Sn–Bi solder alloy and the curing reaction of the epoxy system were measured by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). A reflow profile was optimized based on the Sn–Bi reflow profile, and the Organic Solderability Preservative (OSP) Cu pad mounted 0603 chip resistor was chosen to reflow soldering and to prepare samples of the corresponding joint. The high temperature and humidity reliability of the solder joints at 85 C/85% RH (Relative Humidity) for 1000 h and the thermal cycle reliability of the solder joints from ...

Publisher: Nanjing University

Nanjing University

Located in the ancient capital of Nanjing, Nanjing University and its predecessors have taken responsibility for the country and the nation during its development of over 100 years. Committed to the prosperity of the nation ...

Nanjing, Jiangsu, China


Test Plan for Automotive Electronic Circuit Board

Aug 23, 2021 | pti

After the equipment was introduced, the production capacity was increased by 20%, and the number of operators was reduced by 50%. Employees' salary expenses have been reduced by RMB 120,000 per year, and the pass-through rate has increased by 10% ....

Publisher: Shenzhen PTI Technology CO.,LTD

Shenzhen PTI Technology CO.,LTD

Our company was established in 2004, Main products: ICT on-line tester, ICT, functional testing machine 、FCT、 TSI、 automatic test and control system (ATE), test automation solutions, etc.

深圳, China

Manufacturer of Test Equipment

Flexible Hybrid Electronics: Direct Interfacing of Soft and Hard Electronics for Wearable Health Monitoring

Aug 18, 2021 | Yasser Khan, Mohit Garg, Qiong Gui, Mark Schadt, Abhinav Gaikwad, Donggeon Han, Natasha A. D. Yamamoto, Paul Hart, Robert Welte, William Wilson, Steve Czarnecki, Mark Poliks, Zhanpeng Jin, Kanad Ghose, Frank Egitto, James Turner, and Ana C. Arias

The interfacing of soft and hard electronics is a key challenge for flexible hybrid electronics. Currently, a multisubstrate approach is employed, where soft and hard devices are fabricated or assembled on separate substrates, and bonded or interfaced using connectors; this hinders the flexibility of the device and is prone to interconnect issues. Here, a single substrate interfacing approach is reported, where soft devices, i.e., sensors, are directly printed on Kapton polyimide substrates that are widely used for fabricating flexible printed circuit boards (FPCBs)....

Publisher: University of California Berkeley

University of California Berkeley

From a group of academic pioneers in 1868 to the Free Speech Movement in 1964, Berkeley is a place where the brightest minds from across the globe come together to explore, ask questions and improve the world.

Berkeley, USA

Research Institute / Laboratory

Influence of Flexibility of the Interconnects on the Dynamic Bending Reliability of Flexible Hybrid Electronics

Aug 18, 2021 | Nagarajan Palavesam , Waltraud Hell, Andreas Drost, Christof Landesberger, Christoph Kutter and Karlheinz Bock

The growing interest towards thinner and conformable electronic systems has attracted significant attention towards flexible hybrid electronics (FHE). Thin chip-foil packages fabricated by integrating ultra-thin monocrystalline silicon integrated circuits (ICs) on/in flexible foils have the potential to deliver high performance electrical functionalities at very low power requirements while being mechanically flexible....

Publisher: Fraunhofer EMFT Research Institution for Microsystems and Solid State Technologies

Fraunhofer EMFT Research Institution for Microsystems and Solid State Technologies

Fraunhofer EMFT conducts cutting-edge applied research on sensors and actuators for people and the environment. The over hundred employees in the three locations in Munich, Oberpfaffenhofen and Regensburg possess impressive ...

Munich, Germany

Research Institute / Laboratory

Electromechanical Reliability Testing of Flexible Hybrid Electronics Incorporating FleX Silicon-on-Polymer ICs

Aug 18, 2021 | Darrell E. Leber, Brian N. Meek, Seth D. Leija, Dale G. Wilson, Richard L. Chaney, and Douglas R. Hackler

Flexible Hybrid Electronics combine the best characteristics of printed electronics and silicon ICs to create high performance, ultra-thin, physically flexible systems. New static and dynamic tests are being developed to evaluate the performance of these systems. Dynamic radius of curvature and torsional test results are presented for a flexible hybrid electronics system with a FleX Silicon-on-Polymer operational amplifier manufactured in an 180nm CMOS process with 4-levels of metal interconnect mounted on a PET substrate....

Publisher: American Semiconductor, Inc.

American Semiconductor, Inc.

American Semiconductor serves the semiconductor and related industries as the leading developer and manufacturer of ultra-thin chip technology and manufacturing. The company invented and supplies Semiconductor-on-Polymer (SoP) ...

Boise, Idaho, USA

Research Institute / Laboratory

Company X -Air conditioning display panel test plan

Aug 16, 2021 | pti

Air conditioning display panel test plan...

Publisher: Shenzhen PTI Technology CO.,LTD

Shenzhen PTI Technology CO.,LTD

Our company was established in 2004, Main products: ICT on-line tester, ICT, functional testing machine 、FCT、 TSI、 automatic test and control system (ATE), test automation solutions, etc.

深圳, China

Manufacturer of Test Equipment

Coatings and Pottings: A Critical Update

Aug 11, 2021 | Greg Caswell

Conformal coatings and potting materials continue to create issues for the electronics industry. This webinar will dig deeper into the failure modes of these materials, specifically issues with Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE), delamination, cracking, de-wetting, pinholes/bubbles and orange peel issues with conformal coatings and what mitigation techniques are available. Similarly, this webinar will look at the failure modes of potting materials, (e.g Glass Transition Temperature (Tg), PCB warpage, the effects of improper curing and potential methods for correcting these situations....

Publisher: DfR Solutions

DfR Solutions

DfR Solutions has world-renowned expertise in applying the science of Reliability Physics to electrical and electronics technologies, and is a leading provider of quality, reliability, and durability (QRD) research and consulting for the electronics industry.

College Park, Maryland, USA

Service Provider

Design, Development & Analysis of Vacuum Chamber of Potting Machine

Aug 11, 2021 | Mahesh S. Ghule, Dr.(Mrs.)R.S.Bindu

This paper shows the Design and Finite Element analysis of vacuum chamber of potting machine designed for electronic ignition coil applications. There are two types of potting methods 1) With Vacuum 2) Without Vacuum....

Publisher: D Y Patil College Of Engineering Akurdi, Pune

D Y Patil College Of Engineering Akurdi, Pune

The oldest campus of Dr. D. Y. Patil group of Institutions. This campus is started in year 1983 and further nurtured by our visionary Chairman Hon'ble Dr. P. D. Patil with the vision "Empowerment through knowledge" "Better ...

Akurdi, Pune, India

Research Institute / Laboratory

Analysis of the Influence of Shrinkage Tensile Stress in Potting Material on the Anti-Overload Performance of the Circuit Board

Aug 11, 2021 | Lei Sun and Wenjun Yi

In this article, the influence of shrinkage tensile stress in potting materials on the anti-overload performance of a circuit board was studied. Firstly, the phenomenon of shrinkage tensile stress in common potting materials was analyzed, and it was found that the commonly used potting adhesives displayed large shrinkage characteristics. Secondly, a small experiment was set up to verify that the shrinkage tensile stress of potting adhesives would lead to printed circuit board (PCB) deformation, and the shrinkage stress was contrary to the acceleration direction of overload. Thirdly, the influence of potting adhesives on the overload resistance of the PCB was analyzed....

Publisher: Nanjing University

Nanjing University

Located in the ancient capital of Nanjing, Nanjing University and its predecessors have taken responsibility for the country and the nation during its development of over 100 years. Committed to the prosperity of the nation ...

Nanjing, Jiangsu, China


Potting And Encapsulating – Avoiding Voids

Aug 11, 2021 | Paul Whitehead

Formulators of multi-component adhesives, potting and encapsulation materials are careful not to supply products with entrapped air. They do this by manufacturing under vacuum or degassing them before supplying to the end user. Consequently, entrapped air in a mixed material is usually a processing issue....

Publisher: Intertronics


INTERTRONICS supplies adhesives, coatings, sealants and equipment to customers with high technology, high performance assembly applications. Our customers are manufacturers in industries such as electronics, medical devices, plast

Oxfordshire, United Kingdom

Adhesives / Dispensing

An Intelligent Approach For Improving Printed Circuit Board Assembly Process Performance In Smart Manufacturing

Aug 04, 2021 | Vincent WC Fung and Kam Chuen Yung

The process of printed circuit board assembly (PCBA) involves several machines, such as a stencil printer, placement machine and reflow oven, to solder and assemble electronic components onto printed circuit boards (PCBs). In the production flow, some failure prevention mechanisms are deployed to ensure the designated quality of PCBA, including solder paste inspection (SPI), automated optical inspection (AOI) and in-circuit testing (ICT). However, such methods to locate the failures are reactive in nature, which may create waste and require additional effort to be spent re-manufacturing and inspecting the PCBs. Worse still, the process performance of the assembly process cannot be guaranteed at a high level. Therefore, there is a need to improve the performance of the PCBA process. To address the aforementioned challenges in the PCBA process, an intelligent assembly process improvement system (IAPIS) is proposed, which integrates the k-means clustering method and multi-response Taguchi method to formulate a pro-active approach to investigate and manage the process performance....

Publisher: Hong Kong Polytechnic University [The]

Hong Kong Polytechnic University [The]

With 80 years of proud tradition, PolyU is a world-class research university, ranking among the world's top 100 institutions. Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU) is a home for educating thinkers, communicators, and discovers.

Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong


What Does Industry 4.0 Actually Deliver Today? Example Reflow.

Aug 04, 2021 | Vitor Barros

Industry 4.0 is one of the most exciting developments in the manufacturing industry in decades. It promises vast improvements for both manufacturers and their customers. For some companies, however, it can be overwhelming, and it can be difficult with the current available information to understand exactly what the benefits will be in the average factory, and to calculate the return on the investment. Therefore, it may be helpful to bring the discussion down to a tangible level and to isolate one little part of the whole smart electronic assembly factory, namely reflow....

Publisher: KIC Thermal

KIC Thermal

KIC's provides products and services designed to improve a variety of thermal monitoring, profiling and process control applications.

San Diego, California, USA

Software Manufacturer

Industry 4.0 For Inspection In The Electronics Industry

Aug 04, 2021 | Ragnar Vaga

The digital transformation with concepts like Industry 4.0, Smart Factory and the Internet of Things will change production, work processes and business models in electronics manufacturing radically and forever. It is all about connecting, gathering and exchanging big data. It is all about connectivity, and the gathering and exchange of big data....

Publisher: YXLON International

YXLON International

YXLON is the leading supplier of Industrial X-ray Inspection systems and Industrial Computed Tomography (CT) solutions for the non-destructive testing of materials. Markets served include Aerospace, Automotive, Electronics, etc.

Hudson, Ohio, USA

Inspection, Test Services, Manufacturer of Test Equipment

A Conceptual Framework Of Smart Manufacturing For PCB Industries

Aug 04, 2021 | M. Jabir1, G.Zailin, R.Mudassar, Y.Lei, H.Cong and W.Hao

In this paper, the existing status of PCB manufacturing environment and future development towards smart manufacturing system (SMS) are discussed. A cloud manufacturing system (CMS) paradigm is introduced in the existing PCB manufacturing environment to get easy access to resources, materials, manufacturing processes, planning problems and data sharing networks. The goal is to integrate the information sharing from planning problems, PCB assembly lines, retailer and shipment department to CMS for smart planning decisions to cope with the increasing demand and profit enhancement strategies. A conceptual framework is presented to introduce the smart manufacturing environment in the traditional PCB manufacturing system. The suggested framework of SMS helps to improve the performance of PCB manufacturing industries regarding smart planning and scheduling, intelligent monitoring of smart assembly lines for efficiency and production enhancement....

Publisher: Huazhong University of Science and Technology

Huazhong University of Science and Technology

Huazhong University of Science and Technology is a public research university located in Guanshan Subdistrict, Hongshan District, Wuhan, Hubei province, China. As a national key university directly affiliated to the Ministry of ..

Wuhan, Hubei, China

Research Institute / Laboratory

Maximal Performance Through Vacuum Potting

Jul 28, 2021 | Scheugenpflug

The performance of electronic components is compromised by factors such as bubbles in the potting medium. Increasing numbers of applications – particularly in the automotive and electronics industries – therefore require completely bubble-free dispensing methods. This is where potting in a vacuum comes into focus. The widespread school of thought about this technology is that it is too complicated, too expensive and too slow. But a closer look shows that this view is incorrect. This is a mastered technology. As for costs, the calculation basis is key, since usually the potting and vacuum method is only considered after the required potting quality cannot be achieved reliably any other way. Under total cost of ownership assessments, higher system costs no longer play a key role, since component failure would result in much higher subsequent costs. And now there are proven solutions for high production volumes and/or shorter cycle times. This whitepaper explains when potting in a vacuum is ideal for your projects and what to be aware of....

Publisher: Scheugenpflug Inc.

Scheugenpflug Inc.

Specializes in automated metering & dispensing solutions, supplier of resin metering systems, global expert in production and process automation, vacuum dispensing production systems, and systems for dispensing of abrasive media.

Kennesaw, Georgia, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Adhesives / Dispensing, Assembly, Component Preparation

Conductive Anodic Filament Growth Failure

Jul 27, 2021 | Tarun Amla

With increasing focus on reliability and miniaturized designs, Conductive Anodic Filament (CAF) as failure mechanism is gaining a lot of attention. Smaller geometries make the printed circuit board (PCB) susceptible to conductive anodic filament growth. Isola has carried out work to characterize the CAF susceptibility of various resin systems under different process and design conditions. Tests were carried out to determine the effect of various factors such as resin systems, glass finishes, voltage bias and hole and line spacings on the CAF resistance. This work was intended to provide information to the user on the suitability of various grades for specific end use applications. The focus of the work at Isola is to find the right combination of process and design conditions for improved CAF resistant products....

Publisher: Isola Group

Isola Group

Isola a global material sciences company focused on designing, developing, manufacturing and marketing copper-clad laminates and dielectric prepregs used to fabricate advanced multilayer PCBs.

Chandler, Arizona, USA


Dielectric Material Damage Vs. Conductive Anodic Filament Formation

Jul 27, 2021 | Paul Reid

It should be noted that this is an overview paper that represents the early stages of an ongoing investigation into the causes and effects between conductive anodic filament (CAF) formation and printed wiring board (PWB) material damage. Our belief is that certain or specific types of material damage can increase the propensity for CAF formation. The preliminary data collected suggests is that there is no statistical correlation between the general definition of material damage (cohesive failure) and CAF. The resulting dichotomy is that we find no CAF failures in some coupons that have obvious material damage and we find CAF failures in coupons that don't exhibit material damage....

Publisher: PWB Interconnect Solutions Inc.

PWB Interconnect Solutions Inc.

PWB designs and manufactures test equipment and provides services to test the reliability of Printed Circuit Boards.

Nepean, Ontario, Canada


ECM And IOT How To Predict, Quantify, And Mitigate ECM Failure Potential

Jul 27, 2021 | Mike Konrad

Fast forward to current time. Today, our society embraces cleanliness. We expect, demand, and evaluate cleanliness in almost every aspect of our lives. We wash our cars and pets. We maintain high cleanliness standards in our hotels and public spaces. We require cleanliness in our restaurants and hospitals. We sanitize our hands throughout the day to prevent illness. We live in a clean-centric culture. While we drive clean cars, stay in clean hotels and eat clean food, there is one part of our life where we actually abandoned cleanliness. Many of the circuit assemblies that affect almost every aspect of our daily lives are no longer required to be clean. Even though our life experience confirms the link between cleanliness and reliability, happiness, health, and safety, circuit assemblies no longer maintain that "cleanliness is next to Godliness" status. This was not always the case. There was a time when virtually all circuit assemblies were cleaned. The removal of flux and other process-related contamination was commonplace. Cleaning was as normal as soldering. As we bring history into current time, one may relate the fall of Rome and its adoption of personal hygiene and the subsequent decline in human health to the large-scale abandonment of cleanliness expectations of circuit assemblies and the subsequent reliability issues it has created. How did this happen? Has history repeated itself?...

Publisher: Aqueous Technologies Corporation

Aqueous Technologies Corporation

Manufacturer of automated defluxing/cleaning equipment, cleanliness testing equipment, and stencil cleaning equipment.

Corona, California, USA

Cleaning, Inspection, Manufacturer of Test Equipment

Conductive Anodic Filament: Mechanisms and Affecting Factors

Jul 27, 2021 | Winco K.C. Yung

Conductive anodic filament (CAF) formation, a failure mode in printed wiring boards (PWBs) that are exposed to high humidity and voltage gradients, has caused catastrophic field failures. CAF is an electrochemical migration failure mechanism in PWBs. In this article, we discuss CAF, the factors that enhance it, and the necessary conditions for its occurrence. Published studies are discussed, and the results of historical mean time to failure models are summarized. Potential reasons for CAF enhancement solutions are discussed, and possible directions in which to develop anti-CAF materials are proposed....

Publisher: Hong Kong Polytechnic University [The]

Hong Kong Polytechnic University [The]

With 80 years of proud tradition, PolyU is a world-class research university, ranking among the world's top 100 institutions. Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU) is a home for educating thinkers, communicators, and discovers.

Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong


Global Connected Smart Thermostats Market to Record an Impressive Growth Rate during the Forecast Period 2021 to 2026

Jul 26, 2021 | David Wayne

Connected Smart Thermostats Market - Global Trends, Top Key Players, Industry Segments, Size, Development and Opportunities by Forecast 2021 to 2026...

Publisher: MarketsandResearch.biz


Marketsandresearch.biz is a leading global Market Research agency providing expert research solutions, trusted by the best.

Pune, India


Printed Circuit Board Quality: Copper Wrap

Jul 20, 2021 | Jeannette Plante, BhanuSood, Kelly Daniluk

Motivation: High reject rates for PCBs due to specification non-conformances Multiple rebuilds causing impactful schedule delays + Copper Wrap + Wicking + Etchback + Annular Ring Are rejected boards reliable? What are PCB quality requirements for? + Reliability: fewer cycles-to-failure? + Manufacturability: define threshold of modern manufacturing capability?...

Publisher: NASA Office Of Safety And Mission Assurance

NASA Office Of Safety And Mission Assurance

The Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (OSMA) assures the safety and enhances the success of all NASA activities through the development, implementation and oversight of agencywide safety, reliability, maintainability and ...

Washington, District of Columbia, USA

Research Institute / Laboratory

A Study on Effects of Copper Wrap Specifications on Printed Circuit Board Reliability

Jul 20, 2021 | Bhanu Sood, John Shue, Jesse Leitner, Kelly Daniluk, Lionel-Nobel Sindjui

During the manufacturing of printed circuit boards (PCBs) for a Flight Project, it was found that a European manufacturer was building its boards to a European standard that had no requirement for copper wrap on the vias. The amount of copper wrap that was measured on coupons from the panel containing the boards of interest was less than the amount specified in IPC-6012 Rev B, Class 3. To help determine the reliability and usability of the boards, three sets of tests and a simulation were run. The test results, along with results of simulation and destructive physical analysis, are presented in this paper. The first experiment involved subjecting coupons from the panels supplied by the European manufacturer to thermal cycling. After 17 000 cycles, the test was stopped with no failures. A second set of accelerated tests involved comparing the thermal fatigue life of test samples made from FR4 and polyimide with varying amounts of copper wrap. Again, the testing did not reveal any failures. The third test involved using interconnect stress test coupons with through-hole vias and blind vias that were subjected to elevated temperatures to accelerate fatigue failures. While there were failures, as expected, the failures were at barrel cracks. In addition to the experiments, this paper also discusses the results of finite-element analysis using simulation software that was used to model plated-through holes under thermal stress using a steady-state analysis, also showing the main failure mode was barrel cracking. The tests show that although copper wrap was sought as a better alternative to butt joints between barrel plating and copper foil layers, manufacturability remains challenging and attempts to meet the requirements often result in features that reduce the reliability of the boards. Experimental and simulation work discussed in this paper indicate that the standard requirements for copper wrap are not contributing to the overall board reliability, although it should be added that a design with a butt joint is going to be a higher risk than a reduced copper wrap design. The study further shows that procurement requirements for wrap plating thickness from Class 3 to Class 2 would pose little risk to reliability (minimum 5 μm/0.197 mil for all via types).Experimental results corroborated by modeling indicate that the stress maxima are internal to the barrels rather than at the wrap location. In fact, the existence of Cu wrap was determined to have no appreciable effect on reliability....

Publisher: NASA Office Of Safety And Mission Assurance

NASA Office Of Safety And Mission Assurance

The Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (OSMA) assures the safety and enhances the success of all NASA activities through the development, implementation and oversight of agencywide safety, reliability, maintainability and ...

Washington, District of Columbia, USA

Research Institute / Laboratory

Inkjet-Printing-Derived Lead-Zirconate-Titanate-Based Thick Films For Printed Electronics

Jul 13, 2021 | Danjela Kuscer, Silvo Drnovšek, Franck Levassort

We have investigated the processing of lead-zirconate-titanate-based thick films by inkjet printing Pb (Zr0.53Ti0.47)0.98Nb0.02O3 with a 6 mol% excess of PbO nanosized powder dispersed in water. Differentwaveforms were employed to determine the optimum size and shape of the drops. A uniform, defect-free pattern with dimensions of 4 mm × 4 mm can be printed using 20 V and a drop spacing of 20 μm. The inkjet-printed films were heated to 400 °C to remove the organics and subsequently sintered at 750 and 850 °C. The correlations between the density, grain size and electromechanical properties of the thick films and bulk ceramics are qualitatively discussed. A thickness coupling factor of 46% was obtained for a 15-μm-thick film sintered at low temperature of 850 °C, which is comparable to the value of the bulk ceramic with an identical nominal chemical composition. Our results are important for the economic and environmental-benign printing of piezoelectric materials applicable in variety of electronic devices, such as sensors, actuators, transformers, piezoelectric energy harvesters and transducers....

Publisher: Jožef Stefan Institute

Jožef Stefan Institute

The Jožef Stefan Institute is the largest research institute in Slovenia. The main research areas are physics, chemistry, molecular biology, biotechnology, information technologies, reactor physics, energy and environment. ...

Ljubljana, Slovenia

Research Institute / Laboratory

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