Electronics Manufacturing Technical Articles
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1363 SMT / PCB Assembly Related Technical Articles
Dec 06, 2021 | Fully Automatic Vacuum Chamber Glue Potting Solution
By potting under vacuum, components can be optimally protected from external influences. Before the potting process, air and moisture are removed from the components by vacuum. Components with geometries that are difficult to vent, coils, transformers or wound goods can be potting free of air bubbles. Potting under vacuum guarantees an even distribution of the potting material.Whatsapp 0086 134 2516 4065...
Dec 03, 2021 | markee
CNC machines is the abbreviation of "Computer Numerical Control" machines. It is an automatic machine tool with program control system. The control system can logically process the programs with control codes or other symbolic instructions, decode them and express them with coded numbers. Next, the coded numbers will be input into the numerical control device through the information carrier. After calculation and processing, the numerical control device sends out various control signals to control the action of the machine tool. CNC machine can automatically produce parts or other products according to the shape and size specified by the drawings....
Publisher: OKmarts Industrial Parts Mall
Dec 03, 2021 | markee
When adjusting the transmitter, please turn off the protection setting, which is usually the red switch in front of the meter and its status may be ON or OFF. If it is ON, you will not be able to make the calibration adjustment....
Publisher: OKmarts Industrial Parts Mall
Dec 02, 2021 | David Cemernek; Heimo Gursch; Roman Kern
The catchphrase "Industry 4.0" is widely regarded as a methodology for succeeding in modern manufacturing. This paper provides an overview of the history, technologies and concepts of Industry 4.0. One of the biggest challenges to implementing the Industry 4.0 paradigms in manufacturing are the heterogeneity of system landscapes and integrating data from various sources, such as different suppliers and different data formats. These issues have been addressed in the semiconductor industry since the early 1980s and some solutions have become well-established standards. Hence...
Publisher: Know-Center GmbH
From Industry 3.0 To Industry 4.0: Production Modernization And Creation Of Innovative Digital Companies
Dec 02, 2021 | D A Zakoldaev, A V Shukalov and I O Zharinov
Some mechanical and assembly productions of existing companies of the Industry 3.0 and mechanical and assembly productions of perspective companies of the Industry 4.0 are described. The basic components of a smart factory and their interconnection to organize a production activity using humanless and paperless technologies are defined. A comparison analysis of parts and blanks movement to complete route sheet of the item manufacturing (radio and electronic item designing) in the companies of the Industry 3.0 and Industry 4.0 is given. The components of a digital item designing company to be created and implemented in the industry at first hand are defined....
ITMO University is St. Petersburg's best university and one of the top universities in the world. With over 120 years of experience propelling it forward, ITMO is a trailblazer in all things IT, quantum science, and photonics.
St Petersburg, Russia
Dec 02, 2021 | Farshid Tavakolizadeh, José Ángel Carvajal Soto, Dávid Gyulai and Christian Beecks
With the advent of Industry 4.0, production processes have been endowed with intelligent cyber-physical systems generating massive amounts of streaming sensor data. Internet of Things technologies have enabled capturing, managing, and processing production data at a large scale in order to utilize this data as an asset for the optimization of production processes. In this work, we focus on the automatic detection of physical defects in the production of surfacemount devices. We show how to build a classification model based on random forests that efficiently detects defect products with a high degree of precision. In fact, the results of our preliminary experimental analysis indicate that our approach is able to correctly determine defects in a simulated production environment of surface-mount devices with a MCC score of 0.96. We investigate the feasibility of utilizing this approach in realistic settings. We believe that our approach will help to advance the production of surface-mount devices....
As a partner for digitization, Industry 4.0 and the Internet of Things, the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Information Technology FIT has been developing IT solutions tailored to people and seamlessly integrated into business
Sankt Augustin, Germany
Basics of ASHCROFT Pressure Transmitter - Performance Index, Wiring, Thread Type, Unavoidable Inaccuracies and Mounting
Nov 29, 2021 | markee
ASHCROFT pressure transmitter is one of the most commonly used transmitters in industrial applications. It is widely used in a variety of control environments, involving water conservancy and hydropower, railway transportation, intelligent building, production automation, aerospace, military, petrochemical, oil wells, electric power, ships, machine tools and pipelines. ASHCROFT pressure transmitter is an electronic device that senses the pressure signal and converts it into an available output electrical signal according to certain rules....
Publisher: OKmarts Industrial Parts Mall
Nov 26, 2021 | Vinny Nyugen
The use of desiccant bags filled with Silica Sand and or Clay beads used in conjunction with a Moisture Barrier Bag to control moisture for storage of printed circuit boards has long been an accepted practice and standard from both JEDEC and IPC organizations. Additionally, the use heated ovens for baking off moisture using the evaporation process has also been a longstanding practice from these organizations. This paper on alternative drying methods will be accompanied by completed independent, unbiased tests conducted by Vinny Nguyen, an engineering student (now graduated) from San Jose State University. The accompanied paper will examine the performance levels of different technologies of desiccant bags to control moisture in enclosed spaces. The tests and equipment set were reviewed by an engineer and consultant to the Lockheed Martin Aerospace Division and the IPC - TM-650 2.6.28 test method was review by engineer from pSemi. The tests were designed to mimic performance tests outlined in Mil Spec 3464, which both IPC and JEDEC have adopted for their respective standards. The test examined variables including absorption capacity rates, weight gain and release of moisture back into the enclosed area. The presentation will also address and highlight: • Similarities of PCBs and Heavy Equipment as it applies to Inspections, Causes of Failure, Types of Corrosion and Moisture Collection Points. • Performance Attributes of Different Desiccant Technologies as it applies to shape, texture, change outs, labeling and regeneration. • Venn Diagram of Electromechanical Failure with the circles 1. Current 2. Contamination 3. Humidity Presentation Available...
Publisher: Steel Camel
Nov 26, 2021 | markee
The components of industrial control system (ICS) can be roughly divided into two categories according to their location: control center equipment and remote site equipment....
Publisher: OKmarts Industrial Parts Mall
Nov 25, 2021 | markee
Pressure transmitter is a kind of pressure measuring instrument widely used in many transmitters. It is widely used in petroleum, chemical, metallurgy, food, electric power, medicine, papermaking, textile and other industries. It is mainly used to detect the differential pressure, pressure, absolute pressure and liquid level of fluid....
Publisher: OKmarts Industrial Parts Mall
Automated Optical Inspection Method for Light-Emitting Diode Defect Detection Using Unsupervised Generative Adversarial Neural Network
Nov 22, 2021 | Che-Hsuan Huang, Pei-Hsuan Lee, Shu-Hsiu Chang, Hao-Chung Kuo, Chia-Wei Sun, Chien-Chung Lin, Chun-Lin Tsai and Xinke Liu
Many automated optical inspection (AOI) companies use supervised object detection networks to inspect items, a technique which expends tremendous time and energy to mark defectives. Therefore, we propose an AOI system which uses an unsupervised learning network as the base algorithm to simultaneously generate anomaly alerts and reduce labeling costs. This AOI system works by deploying the GANomaly neural network and the supervised network to the manufacturing system. To improve the ability to distinguish anomaly items from normal items in industry and enhance the overall performance of the manufacturing process, the system uses the structural similarity index (SSIM) as part of the loss function as well as the scoring parameters. Thus, the proposed system will achieve the requirements of smart factories in the future (Industry 4.0)....
Publisher: Shenzhen University
Nov 22, 2021 | Jože M. Rožanec, Elena Trajkova, Paulien Dam, Blaž Fortuna, Dunja Mladenić
Quality control is a key activity performed by manufacturing companies to verify product conformance to the requirements and specifications. Standardized quality control ensures that all the products are evaluated under the same criteria. The decreased cost of sensors and connectivity enabled an increasing digitalization of manufacturing and provided greater data availability. Such data availability has spurred the development of artificial intelligence models, which allow higher degrees of automation and reduced bias when inspecting the products. Furthermore, the increased speed of inspection reduces overall costs and time required for defect inspection. In this research, we compare five streaming machine learning algorithms applied to visual defect inspection with real world data provided by Philips Consumer Lifestyle BV. Furthermore, we compare them in a streaming active learning context, which reduces the data labeling effort in a real-world context. Our results show that active learning reduces the data labeling effort by almost 15% on average for the worst case, while keeping an acceptable classification performance. The use of machine learning models for automated visual inspection are expected to speed up the quality inspection up to 40%....
Publisher: Jožef Stefan Institute
The Jožef Stefan Institute is the largest research institute in Slovenia. The main research areas are physics, chemistry, molecular biology, biotechnology, information technologies, reactor physics, energy and environment. ...
An Automatic Optical Inspection System for the Diagnosis of Printed Circuits Based on Neural Networks
Nov 22, 2021 | Ahmed Nabil Belbachir, Mario Lera, Alessandra Fanni, Augusto Montisci
The aim of this work is to define a procedure to develop diagnostic systems for Printed Circuit Boards, based on Automated Optical Inspection with low cost and easy adaptability to different features. A complete system to detect mounting defects in the circuits is presented in this paper. A low cost image acquisition system with high accuracy has been designed to fit this application. Afterward, the resulting images are processed using the Wavelet Transform and Neural Networks, for low computational cost and acceptable precision. The wavelet space represents a compact support for efficient feature extraction with the localization property. The proposed solution is demonstrated on several defects in different kind of circuits....
Publisher: Vienna University of Technology [TU Wien]
Nov 17, 2021 | Rita Mohanty Ph.D., S. Manian Ramkumar Ph.D., Chris Anglin, Toshitake Oda
The demand for product miniaturization, especially in the handheld device area, continues to challenge the board assembly industry. The desire to incorporate more functionality while making the product smaller continues to push board design to its limit. It is not uncommon to find boards with castle-like components right next to miniature components. This type of board poses a special challenge to the board assemblers as it requires a wide range of paste volume to satisfy both small and large components. One way to address the printing challenge is to use creative stencil design to meet the solder paste requirement for both large and small components. ... The most important attribute of a stencil is its release characteristic. In other words, how well the paste releases from the aperture. The paste release, in turn, depends on the surface characteristics of the aperture wall and stencil foil. The recent introduction of new technology, nano-coating for both stencil and squeegee blades, has drawn the attention of many researchers. As the name implies, nano-coated stencils and blades are made by a conventional method such as laser-cut or electroformed then coated with nano-functional material to alter the surface characteristics. This study will evaluate nano-coated stencils for passive component printing, including 01005....
Publisher: Speedline Technologies, Inc.
Speedline Technologies serves the electronics assembly and semiconductor packaging industries with class-leading equipment, responsive support and unparalleled process knowledge.
Franklin, Massachusetts, USA
Nov 16, 2021 | Richard S. Clouthier
Ultrasonics, coupled with an aqueous detergent process that cleans at below 43ºC, may be best suited for fine-pitch SMT screens and stencils. Aqueous detergents clean more effectively than solvents, with little or no environmental impact. Because of the environmental concerns driving today's technology decisions, the once simple decision of selecting a stencil cleaning process is now clouded with different chemicals, different cleaning machines and various types of solder paste, all with specific environmental, health and safety related issues and regulations....
manufacture of photocopiers
Nov 15, 2021 | pti
The audio comprehensive tester can test consumer audio, automotive electronics and other audio products, such as mobile phones, headphones, speakers, players, power amplifiers, home cinemas, televisions, set-top boxes, automotive multimedia hosts, etc. It is suitable for rapid testing of production line and R & D testing. It can realize fast audio, simple and convenient operation, and support automatic testing. Support analog / digital input and analog output, up to 192K digital sampling rate, and multiple test functions, including audio output, signal acquisition, audio file analysis, etc....
Publisher: Shenzhen PTI Technology CO.,LTD
Nov 10, 2021 | Debbie Carboni
Main Points * Technologies for the job * More than a flat piece of Stainless * Compatibility * Solubility in stencil cleaning * Influencing factors * Best Practices to reduce misprints and increase yields...
Publisher: KYZEN Corporation
Nov 10, 2021 | Ed Nauss
The automatic stencil wiper - first line of defense * The Printing process and why we need to focus on the wiping function * Frequency of wiping * Wiping options * Wiper profiles • Event driven wiping * Advanced options * Materials – Paper * Materials – Solvent * Preventive maintenance * Random stuff...
Publisher: ITW EAE
Nov 04, 2021 | markee
At present, the development of Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machines with each passing day, characteristics of high-speed, high-precision, complex, intelligent, open, parallel drive, network, extreme, green have become the trend and direction....
Publisher: OKmarts Industrial Parts Mall
Fabrication Of Solderable Intense Pulsed Light Sintered Hybrid Copper For Flexible Conductive Electrodes
Nov 03, 2021 | Yong‑Rae Jang, Robin Jeong, Hak‑Sung Kim & Simon S. Park
Additively printed circuits provide advantages in reduced waste, rapid prototyping, and versatile flexible substrate choices relative to conventional circuit printing. Copper (Cu) based inks along with intense pulsed light (IPL) sintering can be used in additive circuit printing. However, IPL sintered Cu typically suffer from poor solderability due to high roughness and porosity. To address this, hybrid Cu ink which consists of Cu precursor/nanoparticle was formulated to seed Cu species and fill voids in the sintered structure. Nickel (Ni) electroplating was utilized to further improve surface solderability. Simulations were performed at various electroplating conditions and Cu cathode surface roughness using the multi-physics finite element method. By utilizing a mask during IPL sintering, conductivity was induced in exposed regions; this was utilized to achieve selective Ni-electroplating. Surface morphology and cross section analysis of the electrodes were observed through scanning electron microscopy and a 3D optical profilometer. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis was conducted to investigate changes in surface compositions. ASTM D3359 adhesion testing was performed to examine the adhesion between the electrode and substrate. Solder-electrode shear tests were investigated with a tensile tester to observe the shear strength between solder and electrodes. By utilizing Cu precursors and novel multifaceted approach of IPL sintering, a robust and solderable Ni electroplated conductive Cu printed electrode was achieved....
Publisher: Hanyang University
Nov 03, 2021 | Sourav Das, Denis Cormier, and Scott Williams
This paper proposes the integration of pulsed photonic sintering into multi-material additive manufacturing processes in order to produce multifunctional components that would be nearly impossible to produce any other way. Pulsed photonic curing uses high power Xenon flash lamps to thermally fuse printed nanomaterials such as conductive metal inks. To determine the feasibility of the proposed integration, three different polymer additive manufacturing materials were exposed to typical flash curing conditions using a Novacentrix Pulseforge 3300 system. FTIR analysis revealed virtually no change in the polymer substrates, thus indicating that the curing energy did not damage the polymer. Next, copper traces were printed on the same substrate, dried, and photonically cured to establish the feasibility of thermally fusing copper metal on the polymer additive manufacturing substrates. Although drying defects were observed, electrical resistivity values ranging from 0.081 to 0.103 Ω/sq. indicated that high temperature and easily oxidized metals can be successfully printed and cured on several commonly used polymer additive manufacturing materials. These results indicate that pulsed photonic curing holds tremendous promise as an enabling technology for next generation multimaterial additive manufacturing processes....
Publisher: Rochester Institute of Technology
Nov 03, 2021 | Gari Arutinov, Jeroen van den Brand, Rob Hendriks
Ultrathin bare die chips were soldered using a novel soldering technology. Using homogeneous flash light generated by high-power xenon flash lamp the dummy components and the bare die NFC chips were successfully soldered to copper tracks on polyimide (PI) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) flex foils by using industry standard Sn-Ag-Cu lead free alloys. Due to the selectivity of light absorption, a limited temperature increase was observed in the PET substrates while the chip and copper tracks were rapidly heated to a temperatures above the solder melting temperature. This allowed to successfully soldered components onto the delicate polyethylene foil substrates using lead-free alloys with liquidus temperatures above 200 °C. It was shown that by preheating components above the decomposition temperature of solder paste flux with a set of short low intensity pulses the processing window could be significantly extended compared to the process with direct illumination of chips with high intensity flash pulse. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that with localized tuning of pulse intensity components having different heat capacity could be simultaneously soldered using a single flash pulse....
Nov 03, 2021 | Yongqian Chen, Guangzhi Zhu,* Yebo Zhou, Mu Wang, Xianshi Jia, and Xiao Zhu
Laser reflow soldering is an important technology in electronic components processing. In this paper, we presented a simple but efficient method to achieve reflow soldering process with gradient energy band created by just two parallel mirrors. The detailed influence of the variety of optical parameters on the soldering process has been analyzed by using the finite element method. And the modulation of the optical parameters on reflow soldering parameters also has been demonstrated. In our experiment, one HR mirror and one-mirror with transmissivity of 10% have been used to create a gradient energy band with an incident laser power of 50W. In summary, both the simulations and the experiments show that the typical reflow soldering profile has been acquired by the optical system. The high quality joints on both the front and rear surface of the capacitor can be acquired by just one surface radiation of the optical system....
Huazhong University of Science and Technology is a public research university located in Guanshan Subdistrict, Hongshan District, Wuhan, Hubei province, China. As a national key university directly affiliated to the Ministry of ..
Wuhan, Hubei, China
Oct 27, 2021 | markee
The mass flow sensor, or air flow sensor is one of the important sensors of the electronic fuel injection engine. It is installed between the air filter and the intake hose to measure the intake volume of the engine cylinder and adjust the fuel ratio according to it. The mass flow sensor converts the inhaled air flow into electrical signals and sends them to the electronic control unit (ECU). As one of the basic signals to determine the fuel injection, it is a sensor that measures the air flow of the suction engine. So if you want to test it, how should you do? Let's start it....
Publisher: OKmarts Industrial Parts Mall
Oct 20, 2021 | A. Siewiorek, A. Kudyba, N. Sobczak, M. Homa, Z. Huber, Z. Adamek, and J. Wojewoda-Budka
The solderability of the SAC305 alloy in contact with printed circuit boards (PCB) having different surface finishes was examined using the wetting balance method. The study was performed at a temperature of 260 _C on three types of PCBs covered with (1) hot air solder leveling (HASL LF), (2) electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG), and (3) organic surface protectant (OSP), organic finish, all on Cu substrates and two types of fluxes (EF2202 and RF800). The results showed that the PCB substrate surface finish has a strong effect on the value of both the wetting time t0 and the contact angle h. The shortest wetting time was noted for the OSP finish (t0 = 0.6 s with EF2202 flux and t0 = 0.98 s with RF800 flux), while the ENIG finish showed the longest wetting time (t0 = 1.36 s with EF2202 flux and t0 = 1.55 s with RF800 flux). The h values calculated from the wetting balance tests were as follows: the lowest h of 45_ was formed on HASL LF (EF2202 flux), the highest h of 63_ was noted on the OSP finish, while on the ENIG finish, it was 58_ (EF2202 flux). After the solderability tests, the interface characterization of cross-sectional samples was performed by means of scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy....
Publisher: Foundry Research Institute
Oct 20, 2021 | Umut Tosun, Naveen Ravindran
All PCBs that are manufactured require a surface finish to protect exposed copper on the surface which if left unprotected, can oxidize, rendering the board unusable. To address this issue, it is common to surface treat the PCB prior to assembly and reflow. The surface finish not only prevents oxidation of the underlying copper, but guarantees a solderable surface. A cost effective and widely used approach to PCB surface finish is HASL (Hot Air Solder Leveling). However, as circuit complexity and component density have increased, HASL has reached its limitations, necessitating the need for thinner coatings. Thus, coatings such as Immersion Tin (ImSn), Immersion Silver (ImAg), Organic Solderability Preservatives (OSP), and Electroless Nickel Immersion Gold (ENIG) are becoming more widely used....
Publisher: ZESTRON Americas
Oct 12, 2021 | Greg Caswell
Counterfeit components have been defined as a growing concern in recent years as demand increases for reducing costs. In fact the Department of Commerce has identified a 141% increase in the last three years alone. A counterfeit is any item that is not as it is represented with the intention to deceive its buyer or user. The misrepresentation is often driven by the known presence of defects or other inadequacies in regards to performance. Whether it is used for a commercial, medical or military application, a counterfeit component could cause catastrophic failure at a critical moment....
Publisher: DfR Solutions
DfR Solutions has world-renowned expertise in applying the science of Reliability Physics to electrical and electronics technologies, and is a leading provider of quality, reliability, and durability (QRD) research and consulting for the electronics industry.
College Park, Maryland, USA
Oct 12, 2021 | Sina Shahbazmohamadi, Domenic Forte, and Mark Tehranipoor
The remarkable increase in counterfeit parts (a factor of 4 since 2009)  is a huge reliability and security concern in various industries ranging from automotive electronics to sensitive military applications increasing the possibility of premature failure in critical systems [2-5]. Counterfeit parts can also incur a great financial loss to legitimate electronics companies . The issue is even more alarming as the counterfeiters use more sophisticated methods making counterfeit detection a much harder task [7-8]. Therefore, it is reasonable to develop more advanced counterfeit detection methods targeting a more efficient detection of sophisticated counterfeited parts....
Publisher: University of Connecticut
Oct 12, 2021 | Dongrong Zhang, Qiang Ren, Donglin Su
The existence of counterfeit products, e.g., integrated circuits (ICs) and printed circuit boards (PCBs), in the modern semiconductor supply chain has seriously jeopardized the security and reliability of electronic systems, and has also caused the loss of suppliers' profit and reputation. Most of existing research papers prevent or detect counterfeit IC and PCB substrate separately, without testing the PCB as a whole, and often require the assistance of external equipment. In this article, a novel ring oscillator- based PCB authentication (ROPA) methodology to detect counterfeit PCB through supply chain is proposed, which ......
Publisher: Beihang University
Oct 06, 2021 | John D. Vanderford, Ann E. Paxton, and Dave Selestak
The corrosion of Nickel-Palladium-Gold (Ni-Pd-Au) finish terminals in humid environments is known to be reduced with the application of a conformal coating such as acrylic. Corrosion has a higher rate of occurrence around the terminal 'knee' of a surface mount component, which may be reduced with the application of conformal coatings. Although radio frequency (RF) plasma processing is generally known to enhance conformity of conformal coating to surfaces through ionic bombardment, the effect on the functionality of assembled printed circuit boards (PCB) is not as well known. The purpose of this study is to assess whether RF plasma processing can enhance the adhesive and coverage qualities of an acrylic conformal coating on PCBs...
MARCH Products is the global leader in plasma cleaning equipment and plasma processing technology for PCB manufacturing and semiconductor packaging. The company has designed and manufactured plasma equipment for 35+ years.
Concord, California, USA
Oct 06, 2021 | Naveen Ravindran
Cleaning PCBs before conformal coating removes potentially harmful and unknown contaminants from the board's surface resulting in better adhesion of the conformal coating and thereby preventing delamination. Cleaning PCBs can ultimately prevent issues like leakage current, electrochemical migration and coating failures. From a production standpoint, it can help to decrease the cost of labor and time needed for the re-work of the boards....
Publisher: ZESTRON Americas
Sep 29, 2021 | Gerjan Diepstraten
In PCB circuit assemblies the trend is moving to more SMD components with finer pitch connections. The majority of the assemblies still have a small amount of through hole (THT) components. Some of them can't withstand high reflow temperatures, while others are there because of their mechanical robustness. In automotive applications these THT components are also present. Many products for cars, including steering units, radio and navigation, and air compressors also use THT technology to connect board-to-board, PCB's to metal shields or housings out of plastic or even aluminium. This is not a simple 2D plain soldering technology, as it requires handling, efficient thermal heating and handling of heavy (up to 10 kg) parts. Soldering technology becomes more 3D where connections have to be made on different levels. For this technology robots using solder wire fail because of the spattering of the flux in the wires and the long cycle time. In wave soldering using pallets the wave height is limited and pin in paste reflow is only a 2D application with space limitations. Selective soldering using dedicated plates with nozzles on the solder area is the preferred way to make these connections. All joints can be soldered in one dip resulting in short cycle times. Additional soldering on a small select nozzle can make the system even more flexible. The soldering can only be successful when there is enough thermal heat in the assembly before the solder touches the board. A forced convection preheat is a must for many applications to bring enough heat into the metal and board materials. The challenge in a dip soldering process is to get a sufficient hole fill without bridging and minimize the number of solder balls. A new cover was designed to improve the nitrogen environment. Reducing oxygen levels benefits the wetting, but increases the risk for solder balling. Previous investigations showed that solder balling can be minimized by selecting proper materials for solder resist and flux....
Publisher: Vitronics Soltec
Sep 21, 2021 | Otto Grosshardt, Boldizsár Árpád Nagy and Anette Laetsch
The present paper gives an overview of surface failures, internal nonconformities and solders joint failures detected by microscopic analysis of electronic assemblies. Optical microscopy (stereomicroscopy) and Fourier-Transform- Infrared (FTIR) microscopy is used for documentation and failure localization on electronic samples surface. For internal observable conditions a metallographic cross-section analysis of the sample is required. The aim of this work is to present some internal and external observable nonconformities which frequently appear in electronic assemblies. In order to detect these nonconformities, optical microscopy, cross section analysis, FTIR-microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) were used as analytical techniques....
Publisher: ZOLLNER ELECTRONICS, INC.
Headquartered in Germany and founded by Manfred Zollner in 1965, Zollner Elektronik AG has successfully grown to become one of the largest and most formidable Electronic Manufacturing & Engineering Services providers in the world today.
Sterling, Virginia, USA
Sep 21, 2021 | Manuel J. Solis "Paco"
The electronics industry has been using the epoxy puck for the processing of the vast majority of electronics microsections since the 1970s. Minimal advancements have been seen in the methods used for precision micro-sections of PCBs, PCBAs, and device packages. This paper will discuss different techniques and approaches in performing precision and analytical micro-sections, which fuse the techniques and materials common in preparation of silicon wafers and bulk materials. These techniques have not only been found to produce excellent optical results, but transfer effectively to SEM for high magnification inspection and further analysis with minimal post-lapping preparation needed. Additionally, processing time is reduced primarily due to a significant reduction of bulk material removal earlier in the preparation, therefore needing less removal at later lapping steps compared to traditional sectioning methods. Additional techniques are introduced that mitigate some classic challenges experienced by technicians over the decades....
Publisher: Foresite Inc.
Physics of Failure (PoF) Based Lifetime Prediction of Power Electronics at the Printed Circuit Board Level
Sep 15, 2021 | Andrew Wileman, Suresh Perinpanayagam and Sohaib Aslam
This paper presents the use of physics of failure (PoF) methodology to infer fast and accurate lifetime predictions for power electronics at the printed circuit board (PCB) level in early design stages. It is shown that the ability to accurately model silicon–metal layers, semiconductor packaging, printed circuit boards (PCBs), and assemblies allows, for instance, the prediction of solder fatigue failure due to thermal, mechanical, and manufacturing conditions. The technique allows a lifecycle prognosis of the PCB, taking into account the environmental stresses it will encounter during the period of operation. Primarily, it involves converting an electronic computer aided design (eCAD) circuit layout into computational fluid dynamic (CFD) and finite element analysis (FEA) models with accurate geometries. From this, stressors, such as thermal cycling, mechanical shock, natural frequency, and harmonic and random vibrations, are applied to understand PCB degradation, and semiconductor and capacitor wear, and accordingly provide a method for high-fidelity power PCB modelling, which can be subsequently used to facilitate virtual testing and digital twinning for aircraft systems and sub-systems....
Publisher: Cranfield University
Sep 15, 2021 | I.I. Kovtun, J.M. Boiko, S.A. Petrashchuk
Mathematical model for dynamic force analysis of printed circuit boards has been designed to calculate dynamic deformations and stresses in printed circuit boards and assess their dynamic strength and rigidity. The represented model describes a printed circuit board as a separate oscillatory system, which is simulated as prismatic beam set on two oscillating supports. Simulation and assessment of stress and deflection in printed circuit boards and obtaining their amplitude frequency responses provided recommendations, which ensure strength and stiffness of printed circuit boards subjected to dynamic loads.....
Publisher: Khmelnytsky National University
Sep 15, 2021 | Gert Vogel
Many printed circuit board assemblies (PCBAs) have relays that are soldered to the PCB. If such an electromechanical component fails, it can cause the whole device to fail, just like any other electronic component. The spectrum of root causes that lead to an increased contact resistance or a complete contact failure is totally different from what usually occurs in the electronics domain. This article provides a detailed analysis of these failures and the corresponding root causes, many of them self-centering....
Publisher: Siemens Process Industries and Drives
Siemens industrial manufacturing software, process automation, and automation and drives technology increases flexibility, cuts market launch lead time, and significantly reduces energy for manufacturing companies.
Alpharetta, Georgia, USA
Sep 15, 2021 | ASM International®
Analyzing failures is a critical process in determining the physical root causes of problems. The process is complex, draws upon many different technical disciplines, and uses a variety of observation, inspection, and laboratory techniques. One of the key factors in properly performing a failure analysis is keeping an open mind while examining and analyzing the evidence to foster a clear, unbiased perspective of the failure....
Publisher: ASM International
Sep 09, 2021 | pti
Auto Electronic ICT+ Programming Automation Solution...
Publisher: Shenzhen PTI Technology CO.,LTD
The Great SAC Debate: Comparing The Reliability Of SAC305 And SAC405 Solders In A Variety Of Applications
Sep 08, 2021 | Heather McCormick, Polina Snugovsky, Craig Hamilton, Zohreh Bagheri, and Simin Bagheri
Although the electronics industry has largely settled on the use of SAC alloys for the assembly of the majority of lead free products, debate continues to exist over which SAC alloy – SAC305 (Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu) or SAC405 (Sn3.8Ag0.8Cu) – to use. The North American industry generally favours SAC405, while the Asian industry favours SAC305. SAC305 has the significant benefit of being less expensive than SAC405 owing to its lower silver content. However, there are lingering questions about whether the reliability of SAC305 is comparable to that of SAC405. Recent studies have concluded that no significant difference exists, but many potential applications were not studied. This paper compares the results of reliability testing of SAC305 and SAC405 in three different cases on a test vehicle representative of a mid-complexity server-type product which included a range of component types from CBGAs to discrete resistors....
Publisher: Celestica Corporation
iNEMI Pb-Free Alloy Characterization Project Report: Part II - Thermal Fatigue Results For Two Common Temperature Cycles
Sep 08, 2021 | Richard Parker, Richard Coyle, Gregory Henshall, Joe Smetana, Elizabeth Benedetto
The Pb-Free Alloy Characterization Program sponsored by International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative (iNEMI) is conducting an extensive investigation using accelerated temperature cycling (ATC) to evaluate ball grid array (BGA) thermal fatigue performance of 12 commercial or developmental Sn based Pb-free solder alloys. This paper presents the initial findings from a specific subset of the temperature cycling test matrix. The focus is on comparing alloy performance for two of the most commonly specified temperature cycles, 0 to 100 °C and -40 to 125 °C....
iNEMI is an industry-led consortium focused on identifying and closing technology gaps, which includes the development and integration of the electronics industry supply infrastructure.
Herndon, Virginia, USA
Sep 08, 2021 | Ranjit Pandher, Tom Lawlor
There is need in the industry to understand the effects of silver presence in solders from various applications perspective. This article will attempt to present a review of the key published results on the silver containing alloys along with results of our internal studies on wave soldering, surface mount and BGA/CSP applications. Advantages and disadvantages of silver at different levels will be discussed. Specifically this report will focus on the effect of silver on process conditions, drop shock resistance, solder joint survivability in high strain rate situations, thermal fatigue resistance, Cu dissolution and effects of silver in combination with other alloy additives. Specific application problems demanding high silver level and other requiring silver level to the minimum will be discussed....
Publisher: Cookson Electronics
Sep 08, 2021 | Michael Osterman
While the presence of silver in SAC solder provided excellent temperature cycling durability, the silver in high silver SAC alloy also made the solders susceptible to failures under drop/shock loading. To improve the drop/shock reliability, the silver content in SAC alloys was reduced from three percent, to as low as no silver. Solder dopants, also known as microalloy additions, are elements (typically 0.1% or lower) other than the main constituents of the alloy that have been shown to improve solder performance. Commonly used microalloy additions include nickel (Ni), bismuth (Bi), manganese (Mn), and antimony (Sb)....
The largest electronic products research center focused on electronics reliability, is dedicated to providing a knowledge and resource base to support the development of competitive electronic components, products and systems.
College Park, Maryland, USA
Investigation of the Mechanical Properties of Mn-Alloyed Tin-Silver-Copper Solder Solidified with Different Cooling Rates
Sep 08, 2021 | Tamás Hurtony, Oliver Krammer, Balázs Illés, Gábor Harsányi, David Bušek and Karel Dušek
Manganese can be an optimal alloying addition in lead-free SAC (SnAgCu) solder alloys because of its low price and harmless nature. In this research, the mechanical properties of the novel SAC0307 (Sn/Ag0.3/Cu0.7) alloyed with 0.7 wt.% Mn (designated as SAC0307-Mn07) and those of the traditionally used SAC305 (Sn96.5/Ag3/Cu0.5) solder alloys were investigated by analyzing the shear force and Vickers hardness of reflowed solder balls. During the preparation of the reflowed solder balls, different cooling rates were used in the range from 2.7 K/s to 14.7 K/s....
Sep 07, 2021 | Utsource
Utsource grows from a child to an adult serving the global 30W + customers. UTSOURCE.net is a professional purchasing B2B & B2C tools in electronic components field. UTSOURCE.net provides different types such as IC, Modules, RF transistors etc., and various product type's PDF parameter form as well as the related photographs, we also provide satisfying one-stop package service for customers. We fell honored to serve the global 30W + customers.We spent 15 years touching the needs of customers from all over the world.So we know better that our customers need their packages to arrive safely.After-sales service need at your fingertips and intimate service should be to customers' satisfaction...
Sep 02, 2021 | Winsmart
We are a professional manufacturer of PCB depaneling machines, which is workable for all boards, including flex and regid boards, v-scored boards and routed boards. Laser pcb depaneling is non-contact way without mechanical stress,this solution is good for modern precision PCB depaneling. It has below advantages: 1. No dust The production environment of the circuit board industry is carried out in the dust-free workshop. The traditional pcb depaneling equipment, such as blade moving type machine, will inevitably produce residues and micro powder, which will pollute the 10000 and 1000 class dust-free workshops and affect the conductivity of products. The UV laser PCB cutting machine is a vaporization processing process, which will not produce dust and is conducive to the conductivity of the product. 2. High cutting precision The processing gap of high-precision traditional processing equipment can not reach the gap width of less than 100 microns, which will cause certain damage to the lines on the edge or PCBA circuit board containing components. The focus spot of the laser cutting machine is small, and the ultraviolet cold processing mode has little thermal impact on the edge of the circuit board. The cutting position accuracy is less than 50 microns, and the cutting size accuracy is less than 30 microns, which will not affect the edge of the circuit board, and the precision is high. 3. No stress Traditional processing methods generally have V-grooves, which will cause certain damage to the board in the manufacturing process. The UV laser PCB cutting machine can directly cut the bare board without making V-grooves. In addition, the traditional processing methods directly use tools to act on the circuit board, especially the stamping method has a great impact on the circuit board, which is easy to cause board deformation. The laser cutting machine is a non-contact processing mode, which acts on the surface of the material through the high-energy beam, which will not cause the influence of stress and the deformation and damage of the circuit board. 4. For special-shaped cutting, it is easy to automate The UV laser PCB cutting machine can cut for any shape without replacing any props and fixtures, and without steel mesh. The same equipment can meet special-shaped and straight-line cutting, which is easy to realize assembly line automatic production and high flexibility. It is easy to improve production efficiency and save production process and production cycle. In particular, it can quickly and efficiently meet the needs of rapid proofing, directly import the drawing, and then locate the cutting. 5. High compatibility The UV laser PCB cutting machine can process the materials around the circuit board, such as PCB, FPC, covering film, pet, reinforcing board, IC, ultra-thin metal cutting, etc. it has strong practicability, is compatible with the processing of a variety of materials, is easy to operate, can be imported into the drawing, does not need to adjust any mechanical parts, and is easy to operate and maintain. 6. Good cutting edge effect The cutting edge is smooth and neat without burr. It can be processed and formed directly according to the size of the drawing, which is conducive to improving the yield of the product. It can be directly installed into the subsequent process without further processing. For more details about UV laser depaneling, please feel free to contact us. www.pcbdepanelingrouter.com...
Publisher: Winsmart Electronic Co.,Ltd
Manufacturer of PCB depaneling and PCB soldering machines since 2005, products include CE approval V-groove PCB depanelizer, PCB router, PCB punching machine, laser depaneling, hot bar soldering machines and soldering robots.
Tombstoning Of 0402 And 0201 Components: "A Study Examining The Effects Of Various Process And Design Parameters On Ultra-Small Passive Devices"
Sep 01, 2021 | Michael Yuen, Heather Benedict, Kris Havlovitz, Tim Pitsch, Andy C. Mackie
The long-standing trend in the electronics industry has been the miniaturization of electronic components. It is projected that this trend will continue as Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) and Electronic Manufacturing Service (EMS) providers strive to reduce "real estate" on printed circuit boards. Typically, the miniaturization of components can be achieved by integration or size reduction. At present, size reduction is considered to be more cost effective and flexible than integration. Passive components, which are used in limiting current, terminating transmission lines and de-coupling switching noise, are the primary focus in size reduction due to their variety of uses....
Publisher: Plexus Corporation
Are you ready to experience the difference? Plexus Corp provides comprehensive product development and manufacturing services to Fortune 500 companies in the medical, networking/datacom, high-end computing, industrial and commercial electronics indus
Neenah, Wisconsin, USA
Sep 01, 2021 | Richard Vereijssen
The global electronics industry's ability to deliver seemingly limitless ongoing advancements in product capabilities has encouraged an insatiable consumer demand for more, better, and smaller. Demands for high functionality of mobile devices, smart watches, military, medical, audio, and wearable technology continue to drive requirements for miniaturisation....
Publisher: Yamaha Motor IM America, Inc.
Aug 31, 2021 | pti
Test plan for refrigerator main board...
Publisher: Shenzhen PTI Technology CO.,LTD
A Study On Process, Strength And Microstructure Analysis Of Low Temperature SnBi Containing Solder Pastes Mixed With Lead-Free Solder Balls
Aug 25, 2021 | Sakthi Cibi Kannammal Palaniappan and Martin.K.Anselm, Ph.D.
As the traditional eutectic SnPb solder alloy has been outlawed, the electronic industry has almost completely transitioned to the lead-free solder alloys. The conventional SAC305 solder alloy used in lead-free electronic assembly has a high melting and processing temperature with a typical peak reflow temperature of 245ºC which is almost 30ºC higher than traditional eutectic SnPb reflow profile. Some of the drawbacks of this high melting and processing temperatures are yield loss due to component warpage which has an impact on solder joint formation like bridging, open defects, head on pillow....
Publisher: Rochester Institute of Technology