Technical Library | 2011-03-03 16:54:47.0
Most of the electronics industry by now knows about tin whiskers. They know whiskers are slim metallic filaments that emanate from the surface of tin platings. They know these filaments are conductive and can cause shorts across adjacent conductors. And they know that these shorts can cause some really bad failures (see nepp.nasa.gov/whisker/ for a list longer than you need). But, with all of this knowledge, the industry is still struggling on how to predict and prevent these "Nefarious Needles of Pain".
Technical Library | 2013-12-11 23:24:32.0
Today's analyses of electronics reliability at the system level typically use a "black box approach", with relatively poor understanding of the behaviors and performances of such "black boxes" and how they physically and electrically interact (...) The incorporation of more rigorous and more informative approaches and techniques needs to better understand (...) Understanding the Physics of Failure (PoF) is imperative. It is a formalized and structured approach to Failure Analysis/Forensics Engineering that focuses on total learning and not only fixing a particular current problem (...) In this paper we will present an explanation of various physical models that could be deployed through this method, namely, wire bond failures; thermo-mechanical fatigue; and vibration.
Technical Library | 2015-12-31 15:19:28.0
Today's consumer electronic product are characterized by miniatuization, portability and light weight with high performance, especially for 3G mobile products. In the future more fine pitch CSPs (0.4mm) component will be required. However, the product reliability has been a big challenge with the fine pitch CSP. Firstly, the fine pitch CSPs are with smaller solder balls of 0.25mm diameter or even smaller. The small solder ball and pad size do weaken the solder connection and the adhesion of the pad and substrate, thus the pad will peel off easily from the PCB substrate. In addition, miniature solder joint reduce the strength during mechanical vibration, thermal shock, fatigue failure, etc. Secondly, applying sufficient solder paste evenly on the small pad of the CSP is difficult because stencil opening is only 0.25mm or less. This issue can be solved using the high end type of stencil such as Electroforming which will increase the cost.
Technical Library | 2009-12-14 20:24:19.0
In the lead-free era, thermal profiling has a critical role in the SMT assembly process. We discuss the profiling, tools, practical issues, and inspection methods of golden boards, and related tools. As the process window narrows, profiling equipment and/or thermocouple (TC) errors must be taken into consideration. In addition, the accuracy and attachment method of the thermocouple will significantly impact critical assemblies.
Technical Library | 2009-07-15 12:14:31.0
The increasing demand for smaller & smaller portable electrical devices is leading to the increasing usage of extremely small components in the SMT assembly lines. With the introduction of 01005 packages in mass production, all the different stages of the line are facing new challenges: from board design, through component placement to reflow process. Each stage introduces some specific types of defect which are considered impossible to repair due to the small size of the package. AOI has become an essential tool to enable good yield in the assembly of 01005.
Technical Library | 2006-12-18 14:55:35.0
Many solder users have preconceived notions and worries involving reflow profiling guidelines. Year after year of reading profiling recommendations in industry publications, from a litany of pundits, has made it clear that perfect profiles exist and should be sought after. They feel if the solder supplier gives them a tidy drawing on a piece of paper with times and temperatures that it will magically solve all their reflow problems. This is, unfortunately, an often incorrect assumption.
Technical Library | 2003-05-05 07:36:58.0
The stencil selection process can be confusing, particularly when creating a stencil for a new application. This tutorial, which covers stencils for SMT and advanced IC packaging applications, offers guidelines to assist users in stencil selection and print optimization.
Technical Library | 2015-07-09 17:44:11.0
50,000) number of short duration (
Technical Library | 2014-07-24 16:26:34.0
Wire bonding a die to a package has traditionally been performed using either aluminum or gold wire. Gold wire provides the ability to use a ball and stitch process. This technique provides more control over loop height and bond placement. The drawback has been the increasing cost of the gold wire. Lower cost Al wire has been used for wedge-wedge bonds but these are not as versatile for complex package assembly. The use of copper wire for ball-stitch bonding has been proposed and recently implemented in high volume to solve the cost issues with gold. As one would expect, bonding with copper is not as forgiving as with gold mainly due to oxide growth and hardness differences. This paper will examine the common failure mechanisms that one might experience when implementing this new technology.
Technical Library | 2020-09-23 21:37:25.0
The need to minimise thermal damage to components and laminates, to reduce warpage-induced defects to BGA packages, and to save energy, is driving the electronics industry towards lower process temperatures. For soldering processes the only way that temperatures can be substantially reduced is by using solders with lower melting points. Because of constraints of toxicity, cost and performance, the number of alloys that can be used for electronics assembly is limited and the best prospects appear to be those based around the eutectic in the Bi-Sn system, which has a melting point of about 139°C. Experience so far indicates that such Bi-Sn alloys do not have the mechanical properties and microstructural stability necessary to deliver the reliability required for the mounting of BGA packages. Options for improving mechanical properties with alloying additions that do not also push the process temperature back over 200°C are limited. An alternative approach that maintains a low process temperature is to form a hybrid joint with a conventional solder ball reflowed with a Bi-Sn alloy paste. During reflow there is mixing of the ball and paste alloys but it has been found that to achieve the best reliability a proportion of the ball alloy has to be retained in the joint, particular in the part of the joint that is subjected to maximum shear stress in service, which is usually the area near the component side. The challenge is then to find a reproducible method for controlling the fraction of the joint thickness that remains as the original solder ball alloy. Empirical evidence indicates that for a particular combination of ball and paste alloys and reflow temperature the extent to which the ball alloy is consumed by mixing with the paste alloy is dependent on the volume of paste deposited on the pad. If this promising method of achieving lower process temperatures is to be implemented in mass production without compromising reliability it would be necessary to have a method of ensuring the optimum proportion of ball alloy left in the joint after reflow can be consistently maintained. In this paper the author explains how the volume of low melting point alloy paste that delivers the optimum proportion of retained ball alloy for a particular reflow temperature can be determined by reference to the phase diagrams of the ball and paste alloys. The example presented is based on the equilibrium phase diagram of the binary Bi-Sn system but the method could be applied to any combination of ball and paste alloys for which at least a partial phase diagram is available or could be easily determined.