Technical Library | 2010-04-15 22:06:32.0
As electronic products increase in functionality and complexity, there is an emphasis on affordability, miniaturization, and energy efficiency. The telecommunications, automotive, and commercial electronic markets are the leading drivers for these trends. These markets see high volume manufacturing with millions of units priced to the fraction of the cent. The choice of the packaging material for the electrical components for these markets can have a substantial effect on the cost of the final product. Therefore plastic encapsulated components are almost universally used in non-military applications over the conventional ceramic or metal electronic packages.
Technical Library | 2017-11-22 12:38:51.0
The use of copper foils laminated to polyimide (PI) as flexible printed circuit board precursor is a standard practice in the PCB industry. We have previously described an approach to very thin copper laminates of coating uniform layers of nano copper inks and converting them into conductive foils via photonic sintering with a multibulb conveyor system, which is consistent with roll-to-roll manufacturing. The copper thickness of these foils can be augmented by electroplating. Very thin copper layers enable etching fine lines in the flexible circuit. These films must adhere tenaciously to the polyimide substrate.In this paper, we investigate the factors which improve and inhibit adhesion. It was found that the ink composition, photonic sintering conditions, substrate pretreatment, and the inclusion of layers (metal and organic) intermediate between the copper and the polyimide are important.
Technical Library | 2020-10-08 00:55:22.0
This article presents the development of a stretchable sensor network with high signal-to-noise ratio and measurement accuracy for real-time distributed sensing and remote monitoring. The described sensor network was designed as an island-and-serpentine type network comprising a grid of sensor "islands" connected by interconnecting "serpentines." A novel high-yield manufacturing process was developed to fabricate networks on recyclable 4-inch wafers at a low cost. The resulting stretched sensor network has 17 distributed and functionalized sensing nodes with low tolerance and high resolution. The sensor network includes Piezoelectric (PZT), Strain Gauge(SG), and Resistive Temperature Detector (RTD) sensors. The design and development of a flexible frame with signal conditioning, data acquisition, and wireless data transmission electronics for the stretchable sensor network are also presented. The primary purpose of the frame subsystem is to convert sensor signals into meaningful data, which are displayed in real-time for an end-user to view and analyze. The challenges and demonstrated successes in developing this new system are demonstrated, including (a) developing separate signal conditioning circuitry and components for all three sensor types (b) enabling simultaneous sampling for PZT sensors for impact detection and (c)configuration of firmware/software for correct system operation. The network was expanded with an in-house developed automated stretch machine to expand it to cover the desired area. The released and stretched network was laminated into an aerospace composite wing with edge-mount electronics for signal conditioning, processing, power, and wireless communication.
Technical Library | 2017-10-12 15:45:25.0
The risk associated with whisker growth from pure tin solderable terminations is fully mitigated when all of the pure tin is dissolved into tin-lead solder during SMT reflow. In order to take full advantage of this phenomenon, it is necessary to understand the conditions under which such coverage can be assured. A round robin study has been performed by IPC Task group 8-81f, during which identical sets of test vehicles were assembled at multiple locations, in accordance with IPC J-STD-001, Class 3. All of the test vehicles were analyzed to determine the extent of complete tin dissolution on a variety of component types. Results of this study are presented together with relevant conclusions and recommendations to guide high reliability end-users on the applicability and limitations of this mitigation strategy.
Technical Library | 2007-04-18 19:23:22.0
Recent investigations have revealed that Pb-free solder joints may be fragile, prone to premature interfacial failure particularly under shock loading, as initially formed or tend to become so under moderate thermal aging. Depending on the solder pad surface finish, different mechanisms are clearly involved, but none of the commonly used surface finishes appear to be consistently immune to embrittlement processes. This is of obvious concern for products facing relatively high operating temperatures for protracted times and/or mechanical shock or strong vibrations in service.
Technical Library | 2011-08-18 19:12:04.0
Overview of ESD, Associated Risks and Prevention Measures
Technical Library | 2011-08-04 19:29:53.0
This work covers two major projects aimed at increasing quality and efficiency on a high mix, low volume surface mount electronics production line. Specifically the installation of a ten zone reflow oven and an enhanced changeover method for SMT pick and
Technical Library | 2008-04-29 15:50:45.0
The electronics industry is undergoing a materials evolution due to the pending Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) European Directive. Printed wiring board laminate suppliers, component fabricators, and printed wiring assembly operations are engaged in a multitude of investigations to determine what leadfree (Pbfree) material choices best fit their needs. The size and complexity of Pbfree implementation insures a transition period in which Pbfree and tin/lead solder finishes will be present on printed wiring assemblies
Technical Library | 2019-08-29 13:04:55.0
The true integration of electronics into textiles requires the fabrication of devices directly on the fibre itself using high-performance materials that allow seamless incorporation into fabrics. Woven electronics and opto-electronics, attained by intertwined fibres with complementary functions are the emerging and most ambitious technological and scientific frontier. Here we demonstrate graphene-enabled functional devices directly fabricated on textile fibres and attained by weaving graphene electronic fibres in a fabric. Capacitive touch-sensors and light-emitting devices were produced using a roll-to-roll-compatible patterning technique, opening new avenues for woven textile electronics. Finally, the demonstration of fabric-enabled pixels for displays and position sensitive functions is a gateway for novel electronic skin, wearable electronic and smart textile applications.
Technical Library | 2016-11-03 17:53:56.0
We present a novel method for fabricating a high-density carbon nanotube microelectrode array (MEA) chip. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) were synthesized by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and thermal chemical vapor deposition. The device was characterized using electrochemical experiments such as cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy and potential transient measurements. Through-silicon vias (TSVs) were fabricated and partially filled with polycrystalline silicon to allow electrical connection from the high-density electrodes to a stimulator microchip.In response to the demand for higher resolution implants, we have developed a unique process to obtain a high-density electrode array by making the microelectrodes smaller in size and designing new ways of routing the electrodes to current sources.