Technical Library | 2014-07-10 17:37:18.0
This paper studies and compares the effects of pull–pull and 3-point bending cyclic loadings on the mechanical fatigue damage behaviors of a solder joint in a surface-mount electronic package.The comparisons are based on experimental investigations using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in-situ technology and nonlinear finite element modeling, respectively. The compared results indicate that there are different threshold levels of plastic strain for the initial damage of solder joints under two cyclic applied loads; meanwhile, fatigue crack initiation occurs at different locations, and the accumulation of equivalent plastic strain determines the trend and direction of fatigue crack propagation. In addition, simulation results of the fatigue damage process of solder joints considering a constitutive model of damage initiation criteria for ductile materials and damage evolution based on accumulating inelastic hysteresis energy are identical to the experimental results. The actual fatigue life of the solder joint is almost the same and demonstrates that the FE modeling used in this study can provide an accurate prediction of solder joint fatigue failure.
Technical Library | 2008-02-05 22:48:55.0
This study investigates the technological properties of quaternary or quinary alloys made by addition Bi or Bi and Sb elements to the SnAgCu solders. The influence of added elements on the electrical and mechanical properties of solder joints created by these solders between PCB and electronic components were evaluated.
Technical Library | 1999-08-05 10:45:36.0
In 1998, the International 300 mm Initiative (I300I) demonstration and characterization programs will focus on 180 nm technology capability. To support these activities, I300I and equipment supplier demonstration partners must use starting silicon wafers with key parameters specified at a level appropriate level for 180 nm processing, including contamination and lithographic patterning. This document describes I300I's silicon wafer specifications, as developed with the I300I Silicon Working Group (member company technical advisors) and SEMI Standards.
Technical Library | 2013-05-09 14:35:18.0
Atmospheric dust consists of solids suspended in air. Dust is well known for its complex nature. It normally includes inorganic mineral materials, water soluble salts, organic materials, and a small amount of water. The impact of dust on the reliability of printed circuit board assemblies (PCBAs) is ever-growing, driven by the miniaturization of technology and the increasing un-controlled operating conditions with more dust exposure in telecom and information industries... First published in the 2012 IPC APEX EXPO technical conference proceedings.
Technical Library | 2017-09-13 00:20:21.0
The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between energy-resource depletion, climate change, health resources and the Environmental Kuznets Curve(EKC) under the financial constraint environment in the panel of selected developed countries, over the period of 2000–2013.
Technical Library | 2011-03-16 20:09:11.0
The backplane is the key component in any system architecture. The sooner one considers the backplane’s physical architecture near the beginning of a project, the more successful the project will be. This white paper introduces the concept of a backplane
Technical Library | 2019-07-30 15:29:50.0
Area Array microelectronic packages with small pitch and large I/O counts are now widely used in microelectronics packaging. The impact of various package design and materials/process parameters on reliability has been studied through extensive literature review. Reliability of Ceramic Column Grid Array (CCGA) package assemblies has been evaluated using JPL thermal cycle test results (-50°/75°C, -55°/100°C, and -55°/125°C), as well as those reported by other investigators. A sensitivity analysis has been performed using the literature data to study the impact of design parameters and global/local stress conditions on assembly reliability. The applicability of various life-prediction models for CCGA design has been investigated by comparing model's predictions with the experimental thermal cycling data. Finite Element Method (FEM) analysis has been conducted to assess the state of the stress/strain in CCGA assembly under different thermal cycling, and to explain the different failure modes and locations observed in JPL test assemblies.
Technical Library | 2014-05-29 13:48:14.0
Electronics packaging based on stress-engineered spring interconnects has the potential to enable integrated IC testing, fine pitch, and compliance not readily available with other technologies. We describe new spring contacts which simultaneously achieve low resistance ( 30 μm) in dense 2-D arrays (180 ~ 180-µm pitch). Mechanical characterization shows that individual springs operate at approximately 150-µN force. Electrical measurements and simulations imply that the interface contact resistance contribution to a single contact resistance is This paper suggests that integrated testing and packaging can be performed with the springs, enabling new capabilities for markets such as multichip modules.
Technical Library | 2018-05-30 15:31:21.0
The aim of this research is to examine the relationship between green logistics operations and energy demand, economic growth and environmental sustainability need to make factors for relationship clearer in a panel data of 43 different countries around the globe. The study employed panel Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) estimates for robust inferences. The results have revealed that logistics operations consume energy and fossil fuel, while the amount of fossil fuel and non-green energy sources create significant harmful effect on the environmental sustainability and also have negative effect on economic growth. In addition, poor transport-related infrastructure and logistics service are a major contributor of CO2 and total greenhouse gas emissions. However, carbon emission damages fauna and flora, and reduces economic growth. The findings suggest that renewable energy sources and green practices can mitigate harmful effect of logistics operations on environmental sustainability and spur economic activities with greatly export opportunities in a region.
Technical Library | 1999-08-05 09:34:44.0
This document demonstrates a sequential process of evaluating automated wafer instruments and discusses why this approach is useful for studying instruments that have automation features such as loading and focusing mechanisms. The methodology specifies a series of experiments consisting of two or more capability studies followed by a stability study. Each experiment achieves a separate goal, yet combines with the others in providing information needed to assess the usefulness of the instrument.