Institute of High Pressure Physics (IHPP), also known as "Unipress", was founded in 1972 by Polish Academy of Sciences. Although, original focus of Unipress was on high-pressure studies of semiconductors, the present field of research activities covers also, ceramics, HTc superconductors biological materials (high-pressure studies of protein folding, and high pressure food processing) and plasticity of metals (hydroextrusion). The common axis of these studies is the use of high pressure, both as a research tool (a perturbation like temperature or magnetic field) and also as a technological method (high-pressure sintering, high-pressure growth of crystals).
As we mentioned above, high-pressure method has been always used in Unipress to investigate properties of semiconductors. By changing the interatomic distances in the crystalline solids we can infer the information about the nature of electronic band structure and defect levels in the material, induce high-pressure phase transitions, shed more light on their vibrational properties. From the application side, high-pressure gives an opportunity for a continuous change of the properties of semiconductor, making possible the fabrication of tunable devices like pressure tuned lasers.
Since more than 20 years, Unipress' scientists have worked intensively on the physics and technology of GaN and related semiconductors. This research led to the creation of a unique technology of high-pressure growth of GaN crystals with the dislocation density much lower than crystals grown at atmospheric pressure. This technology paved the way to construction of blue/violet laser diodes by using these crystals as substrates for growing epitaxial structures of (AlGaIn)N with exceptional structural and optical quality. Both the MBE and MOCVD nitride technology has been developed at UNIPRESS together with the laser-processing lab. The work on blue/violet laser diodes has been done within the Polish Government program "The development of the blue optoelectronics" coordinated by Unipress. In order to commercialize this technology,new high-tech company was founded.
Nanotechnology is a keyword of a modern physics and material sciences. Unipress is involved in nano-studies not only by exploring classical low-dimensional systems like quantum wells and quantum dots but also by working intensively on materials composed of nanograins (nanoceramics, nanopowders). High-pressure technology plays very important role in the process of sintering of nanopowders, enabling better control of grain size and uniformity, thus leading to the creation of new generation of advanced materials.
The technology to produce nanocrystalline materials is also becoming of increasing importance in the field of high Tc materials, where high pressure technology helps to obtain materials of improved performance.
High-pressure techniques have proved very revealing in biophysical studies leading to a number of successful biotechnological applications. The high-pressure tuning of kinetics of protein folding and misfolding allows one to explore protein structural states, which are otherwise experimentally inaccessible. As of recent, Unipress has opened a new laboratory devoted to high-pressure research on protein biophysics. A very important application of high-pressure is food processing. Therefore, high pressure steadily takes an increasing hold on the food industry.
Unipress pays a lot of attention to the development of high-pressure equipment . Unipress supplies high-pressure cells and high-pressure gas-compressors to the scientific laboratories all-over the world.
The election of our director, Prof. S. Porowski in 2001, for a President of the International Association for Advancement of High Pressure Science and Technology (AIRAPT) has been a proof of a recognition of our Institute by the international high-pressure community. A significant part of the Institute activity has been directed towards transferring the results of basic scientific research into practical applications. Within its history, IHPP Unipress has span off many companies, among others:
- Cynel Unipress - founded 1984 (solder wires)
- Hydron Unipress - founded 1988 (hydroextrusion equipment)
- KD Unipress - founded 1990 (micromechanics, wire saws)
- Wacer Ltd. - founded 1992 (advanced ceramics)
- TopGaN Ltd - founded 2001 (violet lasers)
The high level of research carried out in IHPP was recognized also by awarding it with two Center of Excellence grants of the European Commission. Besides of these projects we are engaged in many 5 th and 6th Framework EU projects, NATO projects (Science for Peace).
Unipress - Institute of High Pressure Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences Postings
Apr 15, 2008 | R. Barbucha, M. Kocik, J. Mizeraczyk , 2, G. Kozioł, and J. Borecki, Polish Academy of Sciences
The increasing demands for miniaturization and better functionality of electronic components and devices have a significant effect on the requirements facing the printed circuit board (PCB) industry. PCB manufactures are driving for producing high density interconnect (HDI) boards at significantly reduced cost and reduced implementation time. The interconnection complexity of the PCB is still growing and today calls for 50/50 μm or 25/25 μm technology are real. Existing technologies are unable to offer acceptable solution. Recently the Laser Direct Imaging (LDI) technology is considered as an answer for these challenges....
Feb 05, 2008 | Kisiel R., Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics; Bukat K. and Sitek J., Tele and Radio Research Institute; Gasior W., Moser Z. and Pstru_ J., Polish Academy of Sciences
This study investigates the technological properties of quaternary or quinary alloys made by addition Bi or Bi and Sb elements to the SnAgCu solders. The influence of added elements on the electrical and mechanical properties of solder joints created by these solders between PCB and electronic components were evaluated....