The University of Toledo was established in 1872 and became a member of the state university system in 1967. The University of Toledo and the Medical University of Ohio merged July 2006 to form the third-largest public university operating budget in the state. The University is accredited by The Higher Learning Commission of the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools.
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Jul 31, 2014 | V. G. Karpov, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo.
Metal whiskers often grow across leads of electric equipment and electronic package causing current leakage or short circuits and raising significant reliability issues. The nature of metal whiskers remains a mystery after several decades of research. Here, the existence of metal whiskers is attributed to the energy gain due to electrostatic polarization of metal filaments in the electric field. The field is induced by surface imperfections: contaminations, oxide states, grain boundaries, etc. A proposed theory provides closed form expressions and quantitative estimates for the whisker nucleation and growth rates, explains the range of whisker parameters and effects of external biasing, and predicts statistical distribution of their lengths....