Electronics Manufacturing Technical Articles

Electronics Manufacturing Technical Articles

Papers and articles related to SMT, PCB & EMS industry.


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1175 SMT / PCB Assembly Related Technical Articles

Full Material Declarations: Removing Barriers to Environmental Data Reporting

Sep 04, 2019 | Roger L. Franz

Since the European Directives, RoHS (Restriction of Hazardous Substances) and REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals), entered into force in 2006-7, the number of regulated substances continues to grow. REACH adds new substances roughly twice a year, and more substances will be added to RoHS in 2019. While these open-ended regulations represent an ongoing burden for supply chain reporting, some ability to remain ahead of new substance restrictions can be achieved through full material declarations (FMD) specifically the IPC-1752A Class D Standard (the "Standard"), which was developed by the IPC - Association Connecting Electronic Industries. What is important to the supply chain is access to user-friendly, easily accessible or free, fully supported tools that allow suppliers to create and modify XML (Extensible Markup Language) files as specified in the Standard. Some tools will provide enhancements that validate required data entry and provide real-time interactive messages to facilitate the resolution of errors. In addition, validation and auto-population of substance CAS (Chemical Abstract Service) numbers, and Class D weight rollup validation ensure greater success in the acceptance of the declarations in customer systems that automate data gathering and reporting. A good tool should support importing existing IPC-1752A files for editing; this capability reduces the effort to update older declarations and greatly benefits suppliers of a family of products with similar composition. One of the problems with FMDs is the use of "wildcard" non-CAS numbers based on a declarable substance list (DSL). While the substances in different company's lists tend to have some overlap, no two DSL’s are the same. We provide an understanding of the commonality and differences between representative DSLs, and the ability to configure how much of a non-DSL substance percent is allowed. Case studies are discussed to show how supplier compliance data, can be automatically loaded into the customer's enterprise compliance system. Finally, we briefly discuss future enhancements and other developments like Once an Article, Always an Article (O5A) that will continue to require IPC standards and supporting tools to evolve....

Publisher: TE Connectivity

TE Connectivity

A technology leader in the world's fastest growing markets, helping connect power, data and signal in everything from automotive and aerospace to broadband communications, consumer, energy and industrial applications.

Schaffhausen, Switzerland

Manufacturer of Components, IPC Standards Certification Center, Training Provider

Microscopy in Failure Analysis

Sep 03, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

Both optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are powerful tools for failure analysis in electronics and are used for low and high magnification examination. This article will provide detailed, step by step information for examining solder joints....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

What is the difference between the carrier tape and the cover tape?

Sep 03, 2019 | James tong

The cover tape and the carrier tape are two different products, and many people cannot distinguish the difference between the cover tape and the carrier tape....

Publisher: Sewate Technology Co.,Ltd

Sewate Technology Co.,Ltd

Sewate professionally produce ESD protective packaging systems such as ic shipping tubes, plastic anti static ic tubes,, carrier tape, cover tape and reel for electronic component

Shenzhen, China

Antistatic, Component Packaging, Tape and Reel Services

Graphene electronic fibres with touch-sensing and light emitting functionalities for smart textiles

Aug 29, 2019 | Elias Torres Alonso, Daniela P. Rodrigues, Mukond Khetani, Dong-Wook Shin, Adolfo De Sanctis, Hugo Joulie, Isabel de Schrijver, Anna Baldycheva, Helena Alves, Ana I. S. Neves, Saverio Russo, Monica F. Craciun

The true integration of electronics into textiles requires the fabrication of devices directly on the fibre itself using high-performance materials that allow seamless incorporation into fabrics. Woven electronics and opto-electronics, attained by intertwined fibres with complementary functions are the emerging and most ambitious technological and scientific frontier. Here we demonstrate graphene-enabled functional devices directly fabricated on textile fibres and attained by weaving graphene electronic fibres in a fabric. Capacitive touch-sensors and light-emitting devices were produced using a roll-to-roll-compatible patterning technique, opening new avenues for woven textile electronics. Finally, the demonstration of fabric-enabled pixels for displays and position sensitive functions is a gateway for novel electronic skin, wearable electronic and smart textile applications....

Publisher: University of Exeter, College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences

University of Exeter, College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences

The College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences comprises seven unique subject areas: Computer Science, Engineering, Geology, Mathematics, Mining and Minerals Engineering, Physics and Astronomy and Renewable Energy.

Exeter, United Kingdom

School

What are the factors that affect the appearance of IC shipping tubes?

Aug 24, 2019 | James tong

Many customers looking for IC shipping tubes value the appearance of the packing tube. They will feel that if the appearance of the IC tube does not look good, the quality will not be very good, so the first impression of the appearance of the Antistatic ic tube is very important. So what are the factors that affect the appearance of IC tubes?...

Publisher: Sewate Technology Co.,Ltd

Sewate Technology Co.,Ltd

Sewate professionally produce ESD protective packaging systems such as ic shipping tubes, plastic anti static ic tubes,, carrier tape, cover tape and reel for electronic component

Shenzhen, China

Antistatic, Component Packaging, Tape and Reel Services

What is usage of Electronic dry cabinet?

Aug 19, 2019 | climatest symor

Electronic dry cabinet for MSD storage Humidity is one of the key reasons for rejected products, many manufacturers are taking measures to control the humidity to increase production efficiency and save cost. In semiconductor and electronic industry, the key section of rejected products mostly happen during SMT heating process, Climatest Symor® auto dry cabinet is a superior solution to avoid the cracking. Warranty: two years with lifetime technical support...

Publisher: Symor Instrument Equipment Co.,Ltd

Symor Instrument Equipment Co.,Ltd

Climatest Symor® is the leading environmental simulation testing equipment manufacturer in China established in 2001, located at Dayang Industrial Park,Hefei,China.

Hefei, China

Manufacturer of Test Equipment

Automated Testing with Boundary Scan

Aug 19, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

Boundary scan is a method for testing interconnects on printed circuit boards (PCBs) or sub-blocks inside an integrated circuit. It has rapidly become the technology of choice for building reliable high technology electronic products with a high degree of testability. Due to the low-cost and integrated circuit (IC) level access capabilities of boundary scan, its use has expanded beyond traditional board test applications into product design and service....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Cracks: The Hidden Defect

Aug 15, 2019 | John Maxwell

Cracks in ceramic chip capacitors can be introduced at any process step during surface mount assembly. Thermal shock has become a "pat" answer for all of these cracks, but about 75 to 80% originate from other sources. These sources include pick and place machine centering jaws, vacuum pick up bit, board depanelization, unwarping boards after soldering, test fixtures, connector insulation, final assembly, as well as defective components. Each source has a unique signature in the type of crack that it develops so that each can be identified as the source of error....

Publisher: AVX Corporation

AVX Corporation

A leading international electronic supplier of components and connectors with worldwide manufacturing facilities, offering the world's broadest selection of passive electronic components.

Fountain Inn, South Carolina, USA

Cleaning Flux Residue under Leadless Components using Objective Evidence to Determine Cleaning Performance

Aug 14, 2019 | Mike Bixenman - KYZEN Corporation, Vladimir Sitko, Pavel Hub - PBT Works

Cleanliness is a product of design, including component density, standoff height and the cleaning equipment’s ability to deliver the cleaning agent to the source of residue. The presence of manufacturing process soil, such as flux residue, incompletely activated flux, incompletely cured solder masks, debris from handling and processing fixtures, and incomplete removal of cleaning fluids can hinder the functional lifetime of the product. Contaminates trapped under a component are more problematic to failure. Advanced test methods are needed to obtain "objective evidence" for removing flux residues under leadless components.</p><p>Cleaning process performance is a function of cleaning capacity and defined cleanliness. Cleaning performance can be influenced by the PCB design, cleaning material, cleaning machine, reflow conditions and a wide range of process parameters.</p><p>This research project is designed to study visual flux residues trapped under the bottom termination of leadless components. This paper will research a non-destructive visual method that can be used to study the cleanability of solder pastes, cleaning material effectiveness for the soil, cleaning machine effectiveness and process parameters needed to render a clean part....

Publisher: KYZEN Corporation

KYZEN Corporation

A leading supplier of precision cleaning chemistries to the worldwide electronics, metal finishing, medical, semiconductor, and optical industries.

Nashville, Tennessee, USA

Cleaning

How to deal with the carrier tape and the cover tape sealing crack

Aug 14, 2019 | James tong

There are five forms of carrier tape sealing cracking. In particular, it is more important to seal products such as IC components (IC tape carriers) and lighter and thinner LED components (LED tape carriers). ...

Publisher: Sewate Technology Co.,Ltd

Sewate Technology Co.,Ltd

Sewate professionally produce ESD protective packaging systems such as ic shipping tubes, plastic anti static ic tubes,, carrier tape, cover tape and reel for electronic component

Shenzhen, China

Antistatic, Component Packaging, Tape and Reel Services

How to select the best SCADA training

Aug 09, 2019 | Don Fitchett

Working with SCADA systems when not properly trained and qualified can be almost as dangerous as working with PLCs without proper PLC training. Some times it can be even more costly to a company. This article explains the best way to learn SCADA systems, also the most cost-effective way! Read to learn how to select the best, what to look for in a SCADA course....

Publisher: Business Industrial Network

Business Industrial Network

Offers training software and videos. Also, on-site training that qualify for CEUs to maintenance, engineering, and management professionals.

Las Vegas, Nevada, USA

Consultant, Publication or Online Resource, Service Provider, Software Manufacturer, Training Provider

Selective Soldering and the Modular Approach

Aug 08, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

High mix production is the mainstay of many electronics assembly plants. Lot sizes and board complexities vary and the boards are often mixed technology, comprising a blend of both surface mount and through-hole technology. Modularizing a production line enables a clear distinction between one type of assembly process and another. This article assumes a modern factory where a job can be routed to the selective soldering machine module, the hand assembly bench, or a combination of both. The decision rules of routing a circuit board through hand assembly versus automated selective soldering are discussed. Hand assembly soldering operations require no explanation....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Novel Approach to Void Reduction Using Microflux Coated Solder Preforms for QFN/BTC Packages that Generate Heat

Aug 07, 2019 | Anna Lifton, Paul Salerno, Jerry Sidone, Oskar Khasalev

The requirement to reconsider traditional soldering methods is becoming more relevant as the demand for bottom terminated components (QFN/BTC) increases. Thermal pads under said components are designed to enhance the thermal and electrical performance of the component and ultimately allow the component to run more efficiently. Additionally, low voiding is important in decreasing the current path of the circuit to maximize high speed and RF performances. The demand to develop smaller, more reliable, packages has seen voiding requirements decrease below 15 percent and in some instances, below 10 percent.</p><p>Earlier work has demonstrated the use of micro-fluxed solder preforms as a mechanism to reduce voiding. The current work builds upon these results to focus on developing an engineered approach to void reduction in leadless components (QFN) through increasing understanding of how processing parameters and a use of custom designed micro-fluxed preforms interact. Leveraging the use of a micro-fluxed solder preform in conjunction with low voiding solder paste, stencil design, and application knowhow are critical factors in determining voiding in QFN packages. The study presented seeks to understand the vectors that can contribute to voiding such as PCB pad finish, reflow profile, reflow atmosphere, via configuration, and ultimately solder design.</p><p>A collaboration between three companies consisting of solder materials supplier, a power semiconductor supplier, and an electronic assembly manufacturer worked together for an in-depth study into the effectiveness of solder preforms at reducing voiding under some of the most prevalent bottom terminated components packages. The effects of factors such as thermal pad size, finish on PCB, preform types, stencil design, reflow profile and atmosphere, have been evaluated using lead-free SAC305 low voiding solder paste and micro-fluxed preforms. Design and manufacturing rules developed from this work will be discussed....

Publisher: Alpha Assembly Solutions

Alpha Assembly Solutions

Alpha Assembly Solutions is a world leader in the development, manufacturing, and sales of innovative materials used in the assembly electronics, industrial joining and Photo Voltaic market places.

South Plainfield, New Jersey, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material

Attaching Fiber Optic Modules

Aug 01, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

Optical fibers transmit information in the form of pulses of light. The advantages of optical fibers over traditional copper wires include: higher throughput, greater signal distance and speed, smaller cable mass and diameter, greater pull tension limit, and resistance to electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio frequency interference(RFI). The disadvantages of fiber optics when compared to copper wires include: end-face defects, cleanliness, and the ease of attaching connectors to electronics assemblies (Figure 1)....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Design Parameters Influening Reliability of CCGA Assembly; a Sensitivity Analysis

Jul 30, 2019 | Amaneh Tasooji, Antonio Rinaldi - Arizona State University, Reza Ghaffarian - Jet Propulsion Laboratory

Area Array microelectronic packages with small pitch and large I/O counts are now widely used in microelectronics packaging. The impact of various package design and materials/process parameters on reliability has been studied through extensive literature review. Reliability of Ceramic Column Grid Array (CCGA) package assemblies has been evaluated using JPL thermal cycle test results (-50°/75°C, -55°/100°C, and -55°/125°C), as well as those reported by other investigators. A sensitivity analysis has been performed using the literature data to study the impact of design parameters and global/local stress conditions on assembly reliability. The applicability of various life-prediction models for CCGA design has been investigated by comparing model's predictions with the experimental thermal cycling data. Finite Element Method (FEM) analysis has been conducted to assess the state of the stress/strain in CCGA assembly under different thermal cycling, and to explain the different failure modes and locations observed in JPL test assemblies....

Publisher: Jet Propulsion Laboratory

Jet Propulsion Laboratory

The JPL is the lead U.S. center for robotic exploration of the solar system, and conducts major programs in space-based Earth sciences and astronomy.

Pasadena, California, USA

IPC Standards Certification Center, Training Provider

Conformal Coating Processes

Jul 29, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies can assist its users with process development and experimentation through the use of the conformal coating capabilities in the Demonstration Factory. Four types of coating processes are available at ACI Technologies: dip coating, manual spray coating, programmable spray coating, and manual brush application. (Manual brush application will not be discussed in this article.)...

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Carrier tape introduction and classification

Jul 27, 2019 | James tong

Carrier Tape refers to a strip product used in the field of electronic packaging, which has a specific thickness, and equidistantly distributes holes (also called pockets) for holding electronic components in the longitudinal direction thereof. Positioning hole for index positioning....

Publisher: Sewate Technology Co.,Ltd

Sewate Technology Co.,Ltd

Sewate professionally produce ESD protective packaging systems such as ic shipping tubes, plastic anti static ic tubes,, carrier tape, cover tape and reel for electronic component

Shenzhen, China

Antistatic, Component Packaging, Tape and Reel Services

Voiding Performance with Solder Pastes Containing Modified SAC Alloys for Automotive Applications in Bottom Terminated Component Assemblies

Jul 24, 2019 | Brook Sandy-Smith

Voiding is a key concern for components with thermal planes because interruptions in Z-axis continuity of the solder joint will hinder thermal transfer. When assembling components with solder paste, there is a high propensity for voiding due to the confined nature of the solder paste deposits under the component. Once reflowed, many factors contribute to the amount of voiding in a solder joint such as the reflow profile, designs of the component, board and stencil, and material factors. This study will focus on the solder paste alloy and flux combination as well as profile and board surface finishes....

Publisher: Indium Corporation

Indium Corporation

Solder pastes, solder preforms, solder spheres, soldering fluxes, electrically-conductive adhesives. All alloys: tin-lead, lead-free, indium alloys, and more.

Utica, New York, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Soldering

Common Process Defect Identification of QFN Packages

Jul 23, 2019 | David Bernard @ Dage Precision Industries, Bob Willis @ ASKbobwillis.com

The Quad Flat Pack No Leads (QFN) style of leadless packaging [also known as a Land Grid Array (LGA)] is rapidly increasing in us e for wireless, automotive, telecom and many other areas becaus e of its low cost, low stand-off height and excellent thermal and electri cal properties. With the implementation of any new package type, there is always a learning curve for its use in design and processing as well as for the Process and Quality Engineers who have to get to grips with the challenges that these packages bring. Therefore, this paper will provide examples of the common process defects that can be seen with QFNs /LGAs when using optical and x-ray inspection as part of manufacturing quality control. Results of trials conducted on four PCB finishes and using vapour phase and convection reflow will be discussed....

Publisher: Nordson DAGE

Nordson DAGE

The leading provider of award winning bond testing equipment and continues to invest significantly in research and development to remain at the cutting edge of bond tester technology.

Aylesbury. Buckinghamshire, United Kingdom

Inspection, Test Services

A Systematic Approach to RoHS Analysis

Jul 19, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

One of the most frequently asked questions of ACI Technologies (ACI) is how to qualify and verify that the electronic systems shipped by their respective companies are Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) compliant. The RoHS directive has been implemented since July of 2006, and the preoccupation with what constitutes a compliant product continues to confuse the electronic industry. ACI receives countless inquiries regarding how to qualify and verify that the electronic systems shipped by the irrespective companies are RoHS compliant. The approach to proving compliancy requires a sequential analytical process that utilizes a decision flow chart....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Via Fill and Through Hole Plating Process with Enhanced TH Microdistribution

Jul 17, 2019 | Maria Nikolova, Confesol Rodriguez, Kesheng Feng, Carmichael Gugliotti, William Bowerman, Jim Watkowski, Bob Wei

The increased demand for electronic devices in recent years has led to an extensive research in the field to meet the requirements of the industry. Electrolytic copper has been an important technology in the fabrication of PCBs and semiconductors. Aqueous sulfuric acid baths are explored for filling or building up with copper structures like blind micro vias (BMV), trenches, through holes (TH), and pillar bumps. As circuit miniaturization continues, developing a process that simultaneously fills vias and plates TH with various sizes and aspect ratios, while minimizing the surface copper thickness is critical. Filling BMV and plating TH at the same time, presents great difficulties for the PCB manufactures. The conventional copper plating processes that provide good via fill and leveling of the deposit tend to worsen the throwing power (TP) of the electroplating bath. TP is defined as the ratio of the deposit copper thickness in the center of the through hole to its thickness at the surface.</p> <p>In this paper an optimization of recently developed innovative, one step acid copper plating technology for filling vias with a minimal surface thickness and plating through holes is presented....

Publisher: MacDermid Inc.

MacDermid Inc.

MacDermid is a global provider of specialty chemicals for the most complex printed circuit board designs. We specialize in the areas of final finishes, through-hole metallization, and circuit formation.

Waterbury, Connecticut, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Antistatic

Design of Experimentation for Affordability

Jul 11, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

Affordability is not exactly the primary word which comes to mind when discussing the use of design of experiments (DOE) principles, but is generally accepted as a necessary part of the engineering activities required in the development of a product or process. However, a number of studies have indicated that the cost savings derived from a well deliberated experimental design can be substantial in the initial stages where the conditions or parameters of a process are determined. Some studies have shown a greater than 50% cost savings compared to the more conventional means of trial and error approaches to process development. At ACI Technologies (ACI), we have found the use of DOE techniques fundamental in eliminating extraneous costs otherwise spent on unnecessary testing....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Void Reduction in Bottom Terminated Components Using Vacuum Assisted Reflow

Jul 10, 2019 | M. Barnes, D.W. Lee, D. Heller - Heller Industries, M.Holtzer, T. Cucu - Alpha Assembly Solutions, J. Fudala, J. Renda - MacDermid Enthone Electronic Solutions

Pockets of gas, or voids, trapped in the solder interface between discrete power management devices and circuit assemblies are, unfortunately, excellent insulators, or barriers to thermal conductivity. This resistance to heat flow reduces the electrical efficiency of these devices, reducing battery life and expected functional life time of electronic assemblies. There is also a corresponding increase in current density (as the area for current conduction is reduced) that generates additional heat, further leading to performance degradation....

Publisher: Heller Industries Inc.

Heller Industries Inc.

Reflow ovens for automated SMT PCB assembly, specializing in lead free processing and nitrogen reflow. The best convection reflow ovens on the market.

Florham Park, New Jersey, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Soldering, OEM

Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

Jul 05, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy exists as one of the most powerful techniques for chemical identification and the most practical for “first step” analysis. Analytical instrumentation such as GC-MS and LC-MS are commonly used for identifying organic compounds. However, these techniques are costly and often require extensive set up time, method development, and sample alteration. Reliance upon FTIR as a robust and versatile tool can be based on its attributes of simplicity, speed, sensitivity, and affordability....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Reduce Pollution of Process Gasses in an Air Reflow Oven

Jul 02, 2019 | Gerjan Diepstraten

The introduction of lead-free solders resulted in a selection of different chemistries for solder pastes. The higher melting points of lead-free alloys required thermal heat resistant rosin systems and activators that are active at elevated temperatures. As a result, more frequent maintenance of the filtration systems is required and machine downtime is increased.</p><p>Last year a different method of cleaning reflow ovens was introduced. Instead of cooling down the process gasses to condensate the residues, a catalyst was used to maintain the clean oven. Catalytic thermal oxidation of residues in the nitrogen atmosphere resulted in cleaner heating zones. The residues were transformed into carbon dioxide. This remaining small amount of char was collected in the catalyst. In air ovens the catalyst was not seen as a beneficial option because the air extracted out of the oven was immediately exhausted into the environment. When a catalyst is used in an air environment there is not only the carbon dioxide residues, but also water. When a catalyst is used in an air reflow oven the question is where the water is going to. Will it condensate in the process part of the oven or is the gas temperature high enough to keep it out of the process area? A major benefit of using a catalyst to clean the air before it is exhausted into the environment is that the air pollution is reduced dramatically. This will make environmental engineers happy and result in less pollution of our nature. Apart from this, the exhaust tubes remain clean which reduces the maintenance of air ovens.</p><p>This paper will give more detailed information of catalyst systems during development and performance in production lines....

Publisher: Vitronics Soltec

Vitronics Soltec

Global manufacturer of XPM Reflow Ovens, ZEVA Selective Soldering and Delta Wave Soldering Equipment.

Camdenton, Missouri, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Soldering, Selective Soldering

Computer Aided Design, Manufacturing, and Engineering

Jul 01, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

In the electronics industry of today, companies emphasize better quality, lower cost, and shorter lead time on their products in order to keep up with their competitors. ACI Technologies (ACI) has been utilizing Computer Aided Design (CAD), Computer Aided Manufacturing(CAM), and Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) in its development of advanced electronics systems. CAD utilizes computer systems to assist in the creation, modification, analysis, and optimization of a design [1]....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Advanced Cu Electroplating Process for Any Layer Via Fill Applications with Thin Surface Copper

Jun 26, 2019 | Saminda Dharmarathna, Christian Rietmann, William Bowerman, Kesheng Feng, Jim Watkowski

Copper-filled micro-vias are a key technology in high density interconnect (HDI) designs that have enabled increasing miniaturization and densification of printed circuit boards for the next generation of electronic products. Compared with standard plated through holes (PTHs) copper filled vias provide greater design flexibility, improved signal performance, and can potentially help reduce layer count, thus reducing cost. Considering these advantages, there are strong incentives to optimize the via filling process. This paper presents an innovative DC acid copper via fill formulation, for VCP (Vertical Continues Plating) applications which rapidly fills vias while minimizing surface plating....

Publisher: MacDermid Inc.

MacDermid Inc.

MacDermid is a global provider of specialty chemicals for the most complex printed circuit board designs. We specialize in the areas of final finishes, through-hole metallization, and circuit formation.

Waterbury, Connecticut, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Antistatic

Manufacturing Cost Reduction through Automation

Jun 24, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

Defense systems and its manufacturers are often blamed for not embracing new and innovative technologies to manufacture products compared to its commercial counterparts. Commercial product manufacturers are known to think “outside the box” in coming up with new products which are cheaper, have fewer parts, and easier to manufacture using automation. Automation leads to consistent quality products which are reliable and reproducible. Implementing some of these producibility design practices into defense systems will greatly reduce the cost and insertion time for new products....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Investigation of Through-Hole Capacitor Parts Failures Following Vibration and Stress Testing

Jun 21, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

Recently, an ACI Technologies (ACI) customer called to discuss failures that they had observed with some through-hole capacitor parts. The components were experiencing failures following vibration and accelerated stress testing. Upon receipt of the samples, ACI performed three levels of inspection and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) testing to investigate the root cause of the failures. These analyses enabled ACI to verify the elements comprising the solder joints and make the following recommendations in order to prevent future occurrences. The first inspection was to investigate the capacitor leads using optical microscopy, and no anomalies were found that could indicate bad parts from the vendor or improper handling prior to assembly. However, vertical fill in the barrel of the plated through-holes was too close to the IPC-A-610 minimum specification of 75% to determine a pass/fail condition, and therefore required further investigation....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Tin Whiskers: Mitigation with Conformal Coatings | Part II

Jun 20, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

One of the two basic risks of employing the commercially accepted, Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) compliant, lead-free (Pb-free) electronics is the threat to the electronics reliability from the growth of tin whiskers. The other basic risk deals with Pb-free solder joint reliability....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Dissolution in Service of the Copper Substrate of Solder Joints

Jun 20, 2019 | Nihon Superior Co., Ltd, Department of Materials, Imperial College London

It is well known that during service the layer of Cu6Sn5 intermetallic at the interface between the solder and a Cu substrate grows but the usual concern has been that if this layer gets too thick it will be the brittleness of this intermetallic that will compromise the reliability of the joint, particularly in impact loading. There is another level of concern when the Cu-rich Cu3Sn phase starts to develop at the Cu6Sn5/Cu interface and an imbalance in the diffusion of atomic species, Sn and Cu, across that interface results in the formation at the Cu3Sn/Cu interface of Kirkendall voids, which can also compromise reliability in impact loading. However, when, as is the case in some microelectronics, the copper substrate is thin in relation to the volume of solder in the joint an overriding concern is that all of the Cu will be consumed by reaction with Sn to form these intermetallics.<p><p>This paper reports an investigation into the kinetics of the growth of the interfacial intermetallic, and the consequent reduction in the thickness of the Cu substrate in solder joints made with three alloys, Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu, Sn-0.7Cu-0.05Ni and Sn-1.5Bi-0.7Cu-0.05Ni....

Publisher: Nihon Superior Co., Ltd.

Nihon Superior Co., Ltd.

Nihon has been a leader in soldering and brazing since 1966. Nihon manufactures SMT solder joining materials e.g. lead-free solder (SN100C:Sn-Cu-Ni-Ge etc): solder paste, solder spheres, flux cored solder wire, solder bar, etc.

Osaka, Japan

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Soldering

Tin Whiskers: Risks with Lead Free | Part I

Jun 19, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

Tin (Sn) metal displays the characteristic of growing “tin whiskers” from pure tin coatings (most actively on relatively thin, electrodeposited or immersion tin coatings), usually months or years from the initial deposition of the tin. Tin whiskers are electrically conductive, filamentary, single crystals of white (beta phase) tin. These filaments of single crystal tin are usually one to five microns in diameter, and a few microns up to several tens of millimeters long, that grow spontaneously from the tin coatings. Alloying additions of several percent (by weight) of lead (Pb) prevents these electrically conductive tin whiskers from growing. Pb alloyed into the Sn was discovered to prevent the occurrence of tin whiskers in electronic assemblies in the 1950s as the Bell Laboratories solution to the problem of tin whiskers. The alloying of the tin with lead has thus quietly averted incalculable losses from short circuits in electronic equipment for the last 60 years....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Use of Pelseal® 2078 Viton® Caulk in Decapsulation of Electronics Components

Jun 18, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies is tasked with decapsulation of electronics components for testing and investigative purposes. In the normal method of decapsulation, an analyst will drill a small indentation, with a rotary tool, in the hermetic sealant material and then apply Nitric acid to eat through the polymeric encapsulant....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

The climatic test chamber after-sale service

Jun 18, 2019 | climatest symor

After-sale service Climatest Symor® strictly controls every production procedure,our main after-sale service procedure is as follow: 1) Email Climatest Symor® about the fault description(Pictures or video is preferred) 2) Within 1 working days, Climatest Symor® gives feedback or solution (If Climatest Symor® needs customer to take pictures about some parts of the machine, customer should cooperate accordingly to settle issues. 3) If checked that some parts(except glass nozzle) is possible broken by non-artificial reason, If necessary, customer deliver the broken part to Climatest Symor®, later Climatest Symor® send the repaired part or new part to customer. If unnecessary, Climatest Symor® will make delivery for the new part to customer directly. Remark:During warranty, Climatest Symor® is responsible for delivery fees both ways and parts fees.After warranty, Customer is responsible for the delivery fees both ways,Climatest Symor® will provide the parts to customer by cost price....

Publisher: Symor Instrument Equipment Co.,Ltd

Symor Instrument Equipment Co.,Ltd

Climatest Symor® is the leading environmental simulation testing equipment manufacturer in China established in 2001, located at Dayang Industrial Park,Hefei,China.

Hefei, China

Manufacturer of Test Equipment

Fiducial Marks

Jun 17, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

Very often pick and place machines are programmed using CAD data. This data increases the accuracy, precision, and repeatability of its component placement objectives. CAD data makes fine pitch and small component assemblies repeatable, but cannot adjust to a particular board unless it is exactly the same size and shape of the original board used for programming. The process by which printed circuit boards (PCBs) are made only allows some minor changes inboard size and shape, but these small differences are enough for parts to be misplaced. For this reason we use fiducial marks to increase the chances of precise component alignment....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

IPX3 IPX4 IPX5 IPX6 IPX9K Water Spray Test Chamber

Jun 17, 2019 | climatest symor

Water spray test chamber dedicates to test and evaluate the protection degree to water resistance provided by product enclosure,the protection level against water ingress is called IP code....

Publisher: Symor Instrument Equipment Co.,Ltd

Symor Instrument Equipment Co.,Ltd

Climatest Symor® is the leading environmental simulation testing equipment manufacturer in China established in 2001, located at Dayang Industrial Park,Hefei,China.

Hefei, China

Manufacturer of Test Equipment

BGA Placement on Rework Station

Jun 12, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

The success of ball grid array (BGA) placement on electronic assemblies is as much a matter of proper preparation and planning, as it is technique. In some designs, it is more appropriate to apply BGAs using a rework station that isolates the placement of the device, without subjecting the entire assembly to thermal reflow. This is especially beneficial in board constructions where the number of BGAs is limited, and the application of the solder paste is difficult, due to small pitch features that stretch the limitation of the stencil construction. Another application for rework stations, involves very large and thermally conductive BGAs, which will not uniformly reflow with other components on the assembly, and may require special process parameters for their proper placement. The most common use of BGA rework stations are for assemblies requiring BGA removal and replacements due to failures in the initial assembly stage....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Reflow Experiment

Jun 11, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

An experiment was recently performed ACI Technologies for a customer that was interested in comparing the wetting of lead-free solders with varying temperature profiles and atmospheric conditions. In order to deliver an objective measurement of solder wetting (in addition to subjective inspection analysis), a simple wetting indicator pattern was added to the solder stencil in an area on the test vehicle that had exposed and unused copper....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Component Failure Analysis - Hermetic Packaging

Jun 11, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

Recently ACI Technologies was asked to perform failure analysis on a hermetically sealed transistor for potential electrostatic discharge (ESD) or electrostatic overstress (EOS). ACI was asked to determine if the field-failed transistor was damaged by ESD or EOS. In order to properly assess the failure, additional samples were requested....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

What is UV weathering test chamber

Jun 10, 2019 | climatest symor

UV-Lamp Weathering Test Chamber takes fluorescent UV lamps as light source to simulate the UV irradiation in natural light and condensation to conduct accelerated weathering test on the materials, It simulates UV, rain, high temperature, humidity, condensation, darkness and other environmental conditions, combine them together, and carry them out automatically. ...

Publisher: Symor Instrument Equipment Co.,Ltd

Symor Instrument Equipment Co.,Ltd

Climatest Symor® is the leading environmental simulation testing equipment manufacturer in China established in 2001, located at Dayang Industrial Park,Hefei,China.

Hefei, China

Manufacturer of Test Equipment

Surface Finish Issues Affecting Solderability and Reliability

Jun 07, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies was contacted in regards to poor solder joint reliability. The customer submitted an assembly that was exhibiting intermittent opens at multiple locations on a ball grid array (BGA) component. The assembly’s functionality did not survive international shipping, essentially shock and vibration failures, immediately making the quality of the solder joints suspect. The customer was asked about the contract manufacturer and the reflow oven profile as well as the solder paste and surface finish used. The ACI engineering staff evaluated the contract manufacturer’s technique and determined that they were competent in the methods they used for placing thermocouples in the proper locations and developing the reflow oven profile. The surface finish was unusual, but not unheard of, in that it was hard gold over hard nickel, rather than electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG). The customer was able to supply boundary scan testing data which showed a diagonal row of troublesome BGA pins....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Advanced Packaging of SMT Assemblies for Greater Cost Reduction

Jun 06, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

Legacy electronics assemblies, such as through-hole (Figure 1) and connectorized component packages, are robust and prevalent throughout industry. However, each of these assembly methods have reached their limits in terms of weight, volume, reliability, and most importantly cost. With cost reduction of assemblies now the primary focus area throughout the electronics industry, there is more of a need than ever to implement the latest advancements in surface mount technology (SMT) into electronics assembly designs. Although SMT has been utilized in the electronics industry for many years, implementation of the technology is still in the ever-evolving process of reducing component footprint size, component spacing, and component I/O pitch. Implementation of the most up-to-date SMT processes provides optimal weight, volume, and cost savings, for any type of assembly....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Rework of New High Speed Press Fit Connectors

Jun 06, 2019 | Lars Bruno, Ericsson AB

More and more people and things are using electronic devices to communicate. Subsequently, many electronic products, in particular mobile base stations and core network nodes, need to handle enormous amounts of data per second. One important link in this communication chain is high speed pressfit connectors that are often used to connect mother boards and back planes in core network nodes. These new high speed pressfit connectors have several hundreds of thin, short and weak pins that are prone to damage. Small variations in via hole dimensions or hole plating thickness affect the connections; if the holes are too small, the pins may be bentor permanently deformed and if the holes are too large they will not form gas tight connections.</p><p>The goal of this project was to understand how rework of these new high speed pressfit connectors affects connection strengths, hole wall deformations and plating cracks....

Publisher: HDP User Group

HDP User Group

HDP User Group is a non-profit trade organization that offers memberships to companies involved in the supply chain of manufacturing products that utilize high-density electronic packages.

Cave Creek, Arizona, USA

Association / Non-Profit

Ceramic to Plastic Packaging

Jun 05, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

As electronic products increase in functionality and complexity, there is an emphasis on affordability, miniaturization, and energy efficiency. The telecommunications, automotive, and commercial electronic markets are the leading drivers for these trends. These markets see high volume manufacturing with millions of units priced to the fraction of the cent. The choice of the packaging material for the electrical components for these markets can have a substantial effect on the cost of the final product. Therefore plastic encapsulated components are almost universally used in non-military applications over the conventional ceramic or metal electronic packages....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Platings for Interconnections

Jun 04, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

Interconnection technology relies very heavily on the ability of the conductors on a printed wiring assembly to maintain reliable signal integrity. Harsh environmental factors can precipitate a loss of conductivity due to oxidation and corrosion. Connections are typically soldered or inserted using pressure fitted connectors to obtain enough surface contact to meet the electrical conductivity requirements. In pressure contacts, surface integrity is especially critical where the abrasive effects of retraction and insertion can wear off the metallic finish from the contact area. This can expose the underlying copper or nickel and lead to increased resistance at the contact points. These types of conductors are frequently found in card edge connectors where the terminations are plated with a layer of nickel and gold (frequently referred to as gold fingers). A hard gold is typically used containing very small amounts of nickel and cobalt to increase the wear resistance....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

SMT Under Stencil Wiper Rolls

Jun 03, 2019 | Dennis H. O'Brien

The objective of this White Paper is to provide users of the above products in the electronics industry a clear understanding of the different types of stencil cleaning paper/fabrics that are currently available. Fine pitch applications are more the norm now and so the performance of stencil cleaning rolls is more critical than ever before. This White Paper will give solder paste stencil printing engineers and purchasing professionals an insight into the main products on the market, thereby enabling them to make informed decisions....

Publisher: Swiftmode Malaysia (Penang) Sdn Bhd

Swiftmode Malaysia (Penang) Sdn Bhd

Swiftmode's Brand New Website went live 28th February 2020. The new site is so easy to navigate and find the information you want. You will learn about Swiftmode's longevity as a stable company.

Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

Antistatic, Cleaning, Component Packaging

Corrosion Analysis

Jun 03, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies was pleased to assist a customer by conducting elemental analysis on several assemblies displaying severe corrosion. Several board assemblies had failed in the field and exhibited areas of corrosion in close proximity to onboard components. The most common source of corrosion on electronic assemblies is residual flux. Fluxes are specific chemistries applied during the soldering process which improve the wetting of the solder to both the pad and component when forming the solder joint. They can be highly reactive chemicals that, if left on the assemblies, can lead to corrosion, electrical degradation, and decreased reliability. In the presence of moisture and electrical bias, flux residue can enable dendritic growth as a result of electrochemical migration (ECM)....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

The Power Packaging Laboratory at ACI Technologies

May 31, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

Microelectronics is the manufacture of systems built from extremely small electronic components. In today’s electronic world, devices must be portable, equipped with wireless technology and are driven by size, weight, power, and cost (SWaP-C). These system level drivers are crucial to all current and future electronic applications from personal computers and cellular telephones to military-fielded hardware, biomedical instrumentation, and space-flight hardware....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

SMT Component Reliability for RF Applications

May 31, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies (ACI) characterized the reliability of surface mount RF components. The RF frequency band of interest was the X band (10.7 to 11.7GHz). A two pronged test for reliability of circuit card assemblies (CCA) was designed for both extreme thermal cycling and vibration. The rapid thermal cycling and extreme vibration testing simulates the total stress encountered by the assembly over the life of the product but accomplishes it in a relatively short period of time. In order to perform the reliability testing, a test vehicle consisting of a printed circuit board with test structures and components, was designed, fabricated, and assembled at ACI....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

COTS Cooling

May 31, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies (ACI) is working on a project where one of the challenges is removing a large quantity of heat from audio amplifier circuits. This challenge is further complicated in that the heat generating circuits are located in a rack mounted box that needs to be shielded from electro-magnetic interference (EMI). Mechanically, this means that there cannot be open passages into the rack mounted box. We will first review the basic types of cooling available as commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) systems for the electronics industry, then discuss the pros and cons of each for different applications, and finally reveal the criteria and solution for the ACI project....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

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Large PCB Dispensing System

conformal coating pcb - asymtek