Electronics Manufacturing Technical Articles

Electronics Manufacturing Technical Articles

Papers and articles related to SMT, PCB & EMS industry.


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1397 SMT / PCB Assembly Related Technical Articles

Size Matters - The Effects of Solder Powder Size on Solder Paste Performance

Oct 27, 2020 | Tony Lentz

Solder powder size is a popular topic in the electronics industry due to the continuing trend of miniaturization of electronics. The question commonly asked is "when should we switch from Type 3 to a smaller solder powder?" Solder powder size is usually chosen based on the printing requirements for the solder paste. It is common practice to use IPC Type 4 or 5 solder powders for stencil designs that include area ratios below the recommended IPC limit of 0.66. The effects of solder powder size on printability of solder paste have been well documented. The size of the solder powder affects the performance of the solder paste in other ways. Shelf life, stencil life, reflow performance, voiding behavior, and reactivity / stability are all affected by solder powder size. Testing was conducted to measure each of these solder paste performance attributes for IPC Type 3, Type 4, Type 5 and Type 6 SAC305 solder powders in both water soluble and no clean solder pastes. The performance data for each size of solder powder in each solder paste flux was quantified and summarized. Guidance for choosing the optimal size of solder powder is given based on the results of this study....

Publisher: FCT ASSEMBLY, INC.

FCT ASSEMBLY, INC.

With numerous facilities in the United States, we are one of the electronics industry's leading manufacturers of lead-free solder products, superior quality stencils, and precision cut parts.

Greeley, Colorado, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Soldering

Interconnect Reliability Correlation with System Design and Transportation Stress

Oct 18, 2020 | Dr. Paul Wang, Vincent Weng, and Dr. Kim Sang Chim

Interconnect reliability especially in BGA solder joints and compliant pins are subjected to design parameters which are very critical to ensure product performance at pre-defined shipping condition and user environment. Plating thickness of compliant pin and damping mechanism of electronic system design are key successful factors for this purpose. In additional transportation and material handling process of a computer server system will be affected by shock under certain conditions. Many accessories devices in the server computer system tend to become loose resulting in poor contact or solder intermittent interconnect problems due to the shock load from the transportation and material handling processes....

Publisher: MiTAC International Corporation

MiTAC International Corporation

MiTAC Holdings Group has been developing into a multinational organization of JDM / ODM / OEM / OPM (Original Product Manufacture), design and R&D, manufacturing, testing, assembling, marketing, and servicing in around four decade

Taoyuan City, Taiwan

OEM

Realization of a New Concept for Power Chip Embedding

Oct 18, 2020 | H. Stahr, M. Morianz, I. Salkovic

Embedded components technology has launched its implementation in volume products demanding high levels of miniaturization. Small modules with embedded dies and passive components on the top side are mounted in hand held devices. Smartphones have been the enablers for this new technology using the capabilities of embedded components. With this technological background another business field became interesting for embedded components – the embedded power electronics. The roadmap of the automotive industry shows a clear demand for miniaturized power electronic applications. Drivers are the regulations for the international fleet emissions which are focusing on three major trends....

Publisher: AT & S Austria Technologie & Systemtechnik Aktiengesellschaft

AT & S Austria Technologie & Systemtechnik Aktiengesellschaft

Mission: First choice for advanced applications Mission: We set the highest quality standards in our industry. We industrialize leading-edge technology. We care about people. We reduce our ecological footprint. We create value.

Leoben, Austria

Manufacturer of Bare PCBs

Effect of Morphology of Calcium Carbonate on Toughness Behavior and Thermal Stability of Epoxy-Based Composites

Oct 14, 2020 | Guijun Yang, Young-Jung Heo and Soo-Jin Park

In this study, the modification of an epoxy matrix with different amounts of cube-like and rod-like CaCO3 nanoparticles was investigated. The effects of variations in the morphology of CaCO3 on the mechanical properties and thermal stability of the CaCO3/epoxy composites were studied. The rod-like CaCO3/epoxy composites (EP-rod) showed a higher degradation temperature (4.5 _C) than neat epoxy. The results showed that the mechanical properties, such as the flexural strength, flexural modulus, and fracture toughness of the epoxy composites with CaCO3 were enhanced by the addition of cube-like and rod-like CaCO3 nanoparticles. Moreover, the mechanical properties of the composites were enhanced by increasing the amount of CaCO3 added but decreased when the filler content reached 2%. The fracture toughness Kic and fracture energy release rate Gic of cube-like and rod-like CaCO3/epoxy composites (0.85/0.74 MPa m1/2 and 318.7/229.5 J m...

Publisher: Inha University

Inha University

Development of Character, Search for the Truth, and Service to Society Founded in 1954 to fulfill the dearest wish of empowering and bringing prosperity to the nation, Inha University stands for the Ideals of building students'

Incheon, South Korea

School

ADVANCED BORON NITRIDE EPOXY FORMULATIONS EXCEL IN THERMAL MANAGEMENT APPLICATIONS

Oct 14, 2020 | Michael J. Hodgin and Richard H. Estes

Epoxy based adhesives are prevalent interface materials for all levels of electronic packaging. One reason for their widespread success is their ability to accept fillers. Fillers allow the adhesive formulator to tailor the electrical and thermal properties of a given epoxy. Silver flake allow the adhesive to be both electrically conductive and thermally conductive. For potting applications, heat sinking, and general encapsulation where high electrical isolation is required, aluminum oxide has been the filler of choice. Today, advanced Boron Nitride filled epoxies challenge alternative thermal interface materials like silicones, greases, tapes, or pads. The paper discusses key attributes for designing and formulating advanced thermally conductive epoxies. Comparisons to other common fillers used in packaging are made. The filler size, shape and distribution, as well as concentration in the resin, will determine the adhesive viscosity and rheology. Correlation's between Thermal Resistance calculations and adhesive viscosity are made. Examples are shown that determination of thermal conductivity values in "bulk" form, do not translate into actual package thermal resistance. Four commercially available thermally conductive adhesives were obtained for the study. Adhesives were screened by shear strength measurements, Thermal Cycling ( -55 °C to 125 °C ) Resistance, and damp heat ( 85 °C / 85 %RH ) resistance. The results indicate that low modulus Boron Nitride filled epoxies are superior in formulation and design. Careful selection of stress relief agents, filler morphology, and concentration levels are critical choices the skilled formulator must make. The advantages and limitations of each are discussed and demonstrated....

Publisher: Epoxy Technology, Inc.

Epoxy Technology, Inc.

Epoxy Technology, Inc., founded in 1966, is a pioneer in the development and manufacture of Specialty Epoxy, UV & UV Hybrid adhesives to meet key performance standards needed in high-tech applications.

Billerica, Massachusetts, USA

Adhesives / Dispensing

FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF THERMALLY CONDUCTIVE ADHESIVES

Oct 14, 2020 | John Timmerman, Maria Salamon

Thermally conductive adhesives provide many advantages over traditional mechanical fastening techniques. Specifically, they use less material and space and are more amenable to automation than existing solutions. The thermal and mechanical properties of these materials are well understood but little work has been done to characterize and understand their toughness and fracture behavior. This paper presents the effects of filler loading as well as matrix composition on the fracture toughness of thermally conductive silicone adhesives. It was observed that the fracture toughness of these materials increased significantly with initial filler loading, and that the mechanical properties and fracture toughness depended on the molecular architecture of the matrix used....

Publisher: Henkel Electronic Materials

Henkel Electronic Materials

Henkel is a manufacturer of materials for PCB and component assembly. The materials include Loctite adhesives, Multicore soldering products, Hysol encaps and underfills, and Power Devices thermal phase change pads.

Irvine, California, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material

Keep Your Business Going Even In the Lockdown Through A CRM Solution

Oct 08, 2020 | Anchal Solanki

You are afraid of losing your business during this global COVID-19 crisis. But now, you got a ray of light to bring back your firm on track without breaking the bank. You must be thinking that how CRM software can provide you the juices that you require to sustain your business....

Publisher: FinCRM Technologies

FinCRM Technologies

FinCRM holds expertise in providing Customer Relationship Management (CRM) software and Full Stack Office Management solutions.

Pune, India

Software Manufacturer

Optimized Stress Testing for Flexible Hybrid Electronics Designs

Oct 08, 2020 | Hang Gao, Ganapati Bhat, Umit Y. Ogras, and Sule Ozev

Flexible hybrid electronics (FHE) is emerging as a promising solution to combine the benefits of printed electronics and silicon technology. FHE has many high-impact potential areas, such as wearable applications, health monitoring, and soft robotics, due to its physical advantages, which include light weight, low cost and the ability conform to different shapes. However, physical deformations in the field can lead to significant testing and validation challenges. For example, designers must ensure that FHE devices continue to meet their specs even when the components experience stress due to bending. Hence, physical deformation, which is hard to emulate, has to be part of the test procedures for FHE devices. This paper is the first to analyze stress experience at different parts of FHE devices under different bending conditions. We develop a novel methodology to maximize the test coverage with minimum number of text vectors with the help of a mixed integer linear programming formulation. We validate the proposed approach using an FHE prototype and COMSOL Multiphysics simulations...

Publisher: Arizona State University

Arizona State University

Continued strength Our faculty, students and staff have redoubled their collaborative efforts to strengthen, grow and broaden the programs in the School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering. The school's continued streng

Tempe, Arizona, USA

School

Design and Integration of aWireless Stretchable Multimodal Sensor Network in a Composite Wing

Oct 08, 2020 | Xiyuan Chen, Loic Maxwell, Franklin Li , Amrita Kumar, Elliot Ransom, Tanay Topac, Sera Lee, Mohammad Faisal Haider , Sameh Dardona and Fu-Kuo Chang

This article presents the development of a stretchable sensor network with high signal-to-noise ratio and measurement accuracy for real-time distributed sensing and remote monitoring. The described sensor network was designed as an island-and-serpentine type network comprising a grid of sensor "islands" connected by interconnecting "serpentines." A novel high-yield manufacturing process was developed to fabricate networks on recyclable 4-inch wafers at a low cost. The resulting stretched sensor network has 17 distributed and functionalized sensing nodes with low tolerance and high resolution. The sensor network includes Piezoelectric (PZT), Strain Gauge(SG), and Resistive Temperature Detector (RTD) sensors. The design and development of a flexible frame with signal conditioning, data acquisition, and wireless data transmission electronics for the stretchable sensor network are also presented. The primary purpose of the frame subsystem is to convert sensor signals into meaningful data, which are displayed in real-time for an end-user to view and analyze. The challenges and demonstrated successes in developing this new system are demonstrated, including (a) developing separate signal conditioning circuitry and components for all three sensor types (b) enabling simultaneous sampling for PZT sensors for impact detection and (c)configuration of firmware/software for correct system operation. The network was expanded with an in-house developed automated stretch machine to expand it to cover the desired area. The released and stretched network was laminated into an aerospace composite wing with edge-mount electronics for signal conditioning, processing, power, and wireless communication....

Publisher: Stanford University

Stanford University

Life. Energy. Environment. This triad of engineering priorities is perhaps unmatched in its potential for improving the quality of life for all inhabitants of planet Earth. And at the heart of all three is chemical engineering.

Stanford, California, USA

School

Silicone Thermally Conductive Grease: Improving Thermal Management of Electronic Assemblies

Sep 30, 2020 | Carlos Montemayor

Introduction •Market trend: Smaller, more efficient, more powerful, run faster •ICs and other sophisticated electronic components typically operate efficiently only under a certain range of temperatures •Operational temperatures must be kept within a suitable range • Excessive heat can damage performance and can even cause system failure...

Publisher: Dow Electronic Materials

Dow Electronic Materials

DEM develops and markets highly sophisticated materials used in the electronic materials segment of the global electronics value chain.

Marlborough, Massachusetts, USA

OEM

High and Matched Refractive Index Liquid Adhesives for Optical Device Assembly

Sep 30, 2020 | Taro Kenmochi

There is an increase in the number of optical sensors and cameras being integrated into electronics devices. These go beyond cell phone cameras into automotive sensors, wearables, and other smart devices. The applications can be lens bonding, waveguide imprinting, or other applications where the adhesive is in the optical pathway. To support these various optical applications, new materials with tailorable optical properties are required. There is often a mismatched refractive index between plastic lenses such as PC (Poly Carbonate), COP (Cyclo Olefin Polymer), COC (Cyclo Olefin Copolymer), PMMA (Poly Methyl Methacrylate), and UV curable liquid adhesive. A UV curable liquid adhesive is needed where you can alter the refractive index from 1.470 to 1.730, and maintain high optical performance as yellowness index, haze, and transmittance. This wide range of refractive index possibilities provides optimized optical design. Using particular plastic lens must consider how chemical attack is occurring during the process. Another consideration is that before the UV curable liquid adhesive is cured, chemical raw component can attack the plastic lens which then cracks and delaminates. We will also show engineering and reliability data which defined root cause and provided how optical performance is maintained under different reliability conditions....

Publisher: Kyoritsu Chemical & Co., Ltd

Kyoritsu Chemical & Co., Ltd

Research, development, manufacturing and marketing of sophisticated chemical products developed by applying fine chemicals and nano-technologies in cutting-edge fields such as home information appliances, IT, semiconductors, batte

Tokyo, Japan

Adhesives / Dispensing

Optimising Solder Paste Volume for Low Temperature Reflow of BGA Packages

Sep 23, 2020 | Keith Sweatman

The need to minimise thermal damage to components and laminates, to reduce warpage-induced defects to BGA packages, and to save energy, is driving the electronics industry towards lower process temperatures. For soldering processes the only way that temperatures can be substantially reduced is by using solders with lower melting points. Because of constraints of toxicity, cost and performance, the number of alloys that can be used for electronics assembly is limited and the best prospects appear to be those based around the eutectic in the Bi-Sn system, which has a melting point of about 139°C. Experience so far indicates that such Bi-Sn alloys do not have the mechanical properties and microstructural stability necessary to deliver the reliability required for the mounting of BGA packages. Options for improving mechanical properties with alloying additions that do not also push the process temperature back over 200°C are limited. An alternative approach that maintains a low process temperature is to form a hybrid joint with a conventional solder ball reflowed with a Bi-Sn alloy paste. During reflow there is mixing of the ball and paste alloys but it has been found that to achieve the best reliability a proportion of the ball alloy has to be retained in the joint, particular in the part of the joint that is subjected to maximum shear stress in service, which is usually the area near the component side. The challenge is then to find a reproducible method for controlling the fraction of the joint thickness that remains as the original solder ball alloy. Empirical evidence indicates that for a particular combination of ball and paste alloys and reflow temperature the extent to which the ball alloy is consumed by mixing with the paste alloy is dependent on the volume of paste deposited on the pad. If this promising method of achieving lower process temperatures is to be implemented in mass production without compromising reliability it would be necessary to have a method of ensuring the optimum proportion of ball alloy left in the joint after reflow can be consistently maintained. In this paper the author explains how the volume of low melting point alloy paste that delivers the optimum proportion of retained ball alloy for a particular reflow temperature can be determined by reference to the phase diagrams of the ball and paste alloys. The example presented is based on the equilibrium phase diagram of the binary Bi-Sn system but the method could be applied to any combination of ball and paste alloys for which at least a partial phase diagram is available or could be easily determined....

Publisher: Nihon Superior Co. Ltd

Nihon Superior Co. Ltd

Production and distribution of metal jointing materials for electronics (solder, flux, brazing alloys, etc) Sales of nonferrous metal Export-import business

Osaka, Japan

Manufacturer of Assembly Material

Low Temperature SMT Solder Evaluation

Sep 23, 2020 | Howard "Rusty" Osgood, David Geiger, Robert Pennings, Christian Biederman, Jie Jiang, Jon Bernal

The electronics industry could benefit greatly from using a reliable, manufacturable, reduced temperature, SMT solder material (alloy-composition) which is cost competitive with traditional Sn3Ag0.5Cu (SAC305) solder. The many possible advantages and some disadvantages / challenges are discussed. Until recently, the use of Sn/Bi based materials has been investigated with negative consequences for high strain rate (drop-shock) applications and thus, these alloys have been avoided. Recent advances in alloy "doping" have opened the door to revisit Sn/Bi alloys as a possible alternative to SAC-305 for many applications. We tested the manufacturability and reliability of three low-temperature and one SAC-305 (used as a control) solder paste materials. Two of these materials are doped Sn/Bi/Ag and one is just Sn/Bi/Ag1%. We will discuss the tests and related results. And lastly, we will discuss the prospects, applications and possible implications (based on this evaluation) of these materials together with future actions....

Publisher: Flextronics International

Flextronics International

Flex Ltd. is an American Singaporean-domiciled multinational electronics contract manufacturer. It is the third-largest global electronics manufacturing services, original design manufacturer company by revenue, behind only ...

Milpitas, California, USA

Contract Manufacturer

Approaches for additive manufacturing of 3D electronic applications

Sep 16, 2020 | Hoerber, J.; Glasschroeder, J.; Pfeffer, M.; Schilp, J.; Zaeh, M.; Franke, J.

Additive manufacturing processes typically used for mechanical parts can be combined with enhanced technologies for electronics production to enable a highly flexible manufacturing of personalized 3D electronic devices. To illustrate different approaches for implementing electrical and electronic functionality, conductive paths and electronic components were embedded in a powder bed printed substrate using an enhanced 3D printer. In addition, a modified Aerosol Jet printing process and assembly technologies adapted from the technology of Molded Interconnect Devices were applied to print circuit patterns and to electrically interconnect components on the surface of the 3D substrates....

Publisher: Institute for Factory Automation and Production Systems (FAPS)

Institute for Factory Automation and Production Systems (FAPS)

At the Technical Faculty (TF) of the Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) more than 20 engineering and computer science courses are offered. The TF has an excellent reputation in science and business.

Nuremberg, Germany

Research Institute / Laboratory

Additive manufacturing frontier: 3D printing electronics

Sep 16, 2020 | Bingheng Lu, Hongbo Lan and Hongzhong Liu

3D printing is disrupting the design and manufacture of electronic products. 3D printing electronics offers great potential to build complex object with multiple functionalities. Particularly, it has shown the unique ability to make embedded electronics, 3D structural electronics, conformal electronics, stretchable electronics, etc. 3D printing electronics has been considered as the next frontier in additive manufacturing and printed electronics. Over the past five years, a large number of studies and efforts regarding 3D printing electronics have been carried out by both academia and industries. In this paper, a comprehensive review of recent advances and significant achievements in 3D printing electronics is provided. Furthermore, the prospects, challenges and trends of 3D printing electronics are discussed. Finally, some promising solutions for producing electronics with 3D printing are presented....

Publisher: Xian Jiaotong University

Xian Jiaotong University

Xi'an Jiaotong University is a C9 League university with strengths in engineering, technology, management, and life sciences located in Xi'an, Shaanxi, China. It is a Chinese Ministry of Education Class A Double First Class Univ.

Xi'an, Shaanxi, China

School

New development of atomic layer deposition: processes, methods and applications

Sep 08, 2020 | Peter Ozaveshe Oviroh, Rokhsareh Akbarzadeh, Dongqing Pan, Rigardt Alfred Maarten Coetzee and Tien-Chien Jen

Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is an ultra-thin film deposition technique that has found many applications owing to its distinct abilities. They include uniform deposition of conformal films with controllable thickness, even on complex three-dimensional surfaces, and can improve the efficiency of electronic devices. This technology has attracted significant interest both for fundamental understanding how the new functional materials can be synthesized by ALD and for numerous practical applications, particularly in advanced nanopatterning for microelectronics, energy storage systems, desalinations, catalysis and medical fields. This review introduces the progress made in ALD, both for computational and experimental methodologies, and provides an outlook of this emerging technology in comparison with other film deposition methods. It discusses experimental approaches and factors that affect the deposition and presents simulation methods, such as molecular dynamics and computational fluid dynamics, which help determine and predict effective ways to optimize ALD processes, hence enabling the reduction in cost, energy waste and adverse environmental impacts. Specific examples are chosen to illustrate the progress in ALD processes and applications that showed a considerable impact on other technologies....

Publisher: University of Johannesburg

University of Johannesburg

The Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment (FEBE) is one of the seven faculties in the University of Johannesburg. It offers both Engineering Technology and Engineering Science undergraduate and postgraduate programmes..

Johannesburg, South Africa

School

Semi-Additive Process (SAP) Utilizing Very Uniform Ultrathin Copper by A Novel Catalyst

Sep 02, 2020 | Steve Iketani, Mike Vinson

The demand for miniaturization and higher density electronic products has continued steadily for years, and this trend is expected to continue, according to various semiconductor technology and applications roadmaps. The printed circuit board (PCB) must support this trend as the central interconnection of the system. There are several options for fine line circuitry. A typical fine line circuit PCB product using copper foil technology, such as the modified semi-additive process (mSAP), uses a thin base copper layer made by pre-etching. The ultrathin copper foil process (SAP with ultrathin copper foil) is facing a technology limit for the miniaturization due to copper roughness and thickness control. The SAP process using sputtered copper is a solution, but the sputtering process is expensive and has issues with via plating. SAP using electroless copper deposition is another solution, but the process involved is challenged to achieve adequate adhesion and insulation between fine-pitch circuitries. A novel catalyst system--liquid metal ink (LMI)--has been developed that avoids these concerns and promotes a very controlled copper thickness over the substrate, targeting next generation high density interconnect (HDI) to wafer-level packaging substrates and enabling 5-micron level feature sizes. This novel catalyst has a unique feature, high density, and atomic-level deposition. Whereas conventional tin-palladium catalyst systems provide sporadic coverage over the substrate surface, the deposited catalyst covers the entire substrate surface. As a result, the catalyst enables improved uniformity of the copper deposition starting from the initial stage while providing higher adhesion and higher insulation resistance compared to the traditional catalysts used in SAP processes. This article discusses this new catalyst process, which both proposes a typical SAP process using the new catalyst and demonstrates the reliability improvements through a comparison between a new SAP PCB process and a conventional SAP PCB process....

Publisher: Averatek Corporation

Averatek Corporation

Averatek Corporation is a high tech company based in Santa Clara, CA that provides custom design services and patterned circuit board materials manufactured through the use of an innovative, proprietary process.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Components / Substrates

Developments in Electroless Copper Processes to Improve Performance in amSAP Mobile Applications

Sep 02, 2020 | Stefanie Bremmert, Laurence Gregoriades, Kay Wurdinger, Thomas Vágó, Tobias Bernhard, Frank Bruning, Roger Massey

With the adoption of Wafer Level Packages (WLP) in the latest generation mobile handsets, the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) industry has also seen the initial steps of High Density Interconnect (HDI) products migrating away from the current subtractive processes towards a more technically adept technique, based on an advanced modified Semi Additive Process (amSAP). This pattern plate process enables line and space features in the region of 20um to be produced, in combination with fully filled, laser formed microvias. However, in order to achieve these process demands, a step change in the performance of the chemical processes used for metallization of the microvia is essential. In the electroless Copper process, the critical activator step often risks cross contamination by the preceding chemistries. Such events can lead to uncontrolled buildup of Palladium rich residues on the panel surface, which can subsequently inhibit etching and lead to short circuits between the final traces. In addition, with more demands being placed on the microvia, the need for a high uniformity Copper layer has become paramount, unfortunately, as microvia shape is often far from ideal, the deposition or "throw" characteristics of the Copper bath itself are also of critical importance. This "high throwing power" is influential elsewhere in the amSAP technique, as it leads to a thinner surface Copper layer, which aids the etching process and enables the ultra-fine features being demanded by today's high end PCB applications. This paper discusses the performance of an electroless Copper plating process that has been developed to satisfy the needs of challenging amSAP applications. Through the use of a radical predip chemistry, the formation, build up and deposition of uncontrolled Pd residues arising from activator contamination has been virtually eradicated. With the adoption of a high throwing power Copper bath, sub 30um features are enabled and microvia coverage is shown to be greatly improved, even in complex via shapes which would otherwise suffer from uneven coverage and risk premature failure in service. Through a mixture of development and production data, this paper aims to highlight the benefits and robust performance of the new electroless Copper process for amSAP applications...

Publisher: Atotech

Atotech

One of the world's leading suppliers of integrated production systems, chemistry, equipment, know-how and service for electroplating, semiconductor and printed circuit board manufacturing.

Berlin, Germany

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Manufacturer of Components, Components / Substrates

Reworking ALD Coatings

Sep 02, 2020 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a process of creating coatings on a molecular layer by layer basis. Using an iterated sequence of self-saturating deposition cycles that are self-terminating, a single layer can be deposited at a time, allowing for highly uniform films with complete conformality. The composition of the film typically used for coating printed wiring boards (PWBs) is a high alumina (Al2O3) sequential deposition of alumina and titania capped with a corrosion protective titanium aluminate layer, most notably ALD-Cap from Sundew Technologies, LLC. Rework is a process of restoring an electronics assembly to full functionality to prolong equipment life and reduce the amount of scrap. The process typically involves:...

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Approaches to Overcome Nodules and Scratches on Wire Bondable Plating on PCBs

Aug 27, 2020 | Young K. Song and Vanja Bukva and Ryan Wong

Initially adopted internal specifications for acceptance of printed circuit boards (PCBs) used for wire bonding was that there were no nodules or scratches allowed on the wirebond pads when inspected under 20X magnification. The nodules and scratches were not defined by measurable dimensions and were considered to be unacceptable if there was any sign of a visual blemish on wire-bondable features. Analysis of the yield at a PCB manufacturer monitored monthly for over two years indicated that the target yield could not be achieved, and the main reasons for yield loss were due to nodules and scratches on the wirebonding pads. The PCB manufacturer attempted to eliminate nodules and scratches. First, a light-scrubbing step was added after electroless copper plating to remove any co-deposited fine particles that acted as a seed for nodules at the time of copper plating. Then, the electrolytic copper plating tank was emptied, fully cleaned, and filtered to eliminate the possibility of co-deposited particles in the electroplating process. Both actions greatly reduced the density of the nodules but did not fully eliminate them. Even though there was only one nodule on any wire-bonding pad, the board was still considered a reject. To reduce scratches on wirebonding pads, the PCB manufacturer utilized foam trays after routing the boards so that they did not make direct contact with other boards. This action significantly reduced the scratches on wire-bonding pads, even though some isolated scratches still appeared from time to time, which caused the boards to be rejected. Even with these significant improvements, the target yield remained unachievable. Another approach was then taken to consider if wire bonding could be successfully performed over nodules and scratches and if there was a dimensional threshold where wire bonding could be successful. A gold ball bonding process called either stand-off-stitch bonding (SSB) or ball-stitch-on-ball bonding (BSOB) was used to determine the effects of nodules and scratches on wire bonds. The dimension of nodules, including height, and the size of scratches, including width, were measured before wire bonding. Wire bonding was then performed directly on various sizes of nodules and scratches on the bonding pad, and the evaluation of wire bonds was conducted using wire pull tests before and after reliability testing. Based on the results of the wire-bonding evaluation, the internal specification for nodules and scratches for wirebondable PCBs was modified to allow nodules and scratches with a certain height and a width limitation compared to initially adopted internal specifications of no nodules and no scratches. Such an approach resulted in improved yield at the PCB manufacturer....

Publisher: Teledyne DALSA

Teledyne DALSA

Established in 1980 and acquired by Teledyne Technologies in 2011, Teledyne DALSA designs, develops, manufactures, and markets digital imaging products and solutions, in addition to providing semiconductor products and services.

Waterloo, Ontario, Canada

Other

An Automatic Surface Defect Inspection System for Automobiles Using Machine Vision Methods

Aug 27, 2020 | Qinbang Zhou , Renwen Chen, Bin Huang, Chuan Liu, Jie Yu and Xiaoqing Yu

Automobile surface defects like scratches or dents occur during the process of manufacturing and cross-border transportation. This will affect consumers' first impression and the service life of the car itself. In most worldwide automobile industries, the inspection process is mainly performed by human vision, which is unstable and insufficient. The combination of artificial intelligence and the automobile industry shows promise nowadays. However, it is a challenge to inspect such defects in a computer system because of imbalanced illumination, specular highlight reflection, various reflection modes and limited defect features. This paper presents the design and implementation of a novel automatic inspection system (AIS) for automobile surface defects which are the located in or close to style lines, edges and handles. The system consists of image acquisition and image processing devices, operating in a closed environment and noncontact way with four LED light sources. Specifically, we use five plane-array Charge Coupled Device (CCD) cameras to collect images of the five sides of the automobile synchronously. Then the AIS extracts candidate defect regions from the vehicle body image by a multi-scale Hessian matrix fusion method. Finally, candidate defect regions are classified into pseudo-defects, dents and scratches by feature extraction (shape, size, statistics and divergence features) and a support vector machine algorithm. Experimental results demonstrate that automatic inspection system can effectively reduce false detection of pseudo-defects produced by image noise and achieve accuracies of 95.6% in dent defects and 97.1% in scratch defects, which is suitable for customs inspection of imported vehicles....

Publisher: Nanjing University

Nanjing University

Located in the ancient capital of Nanjing, Nanjing University and its predecessors have taken responsibility for the country and the nation during its development of over 100 years. Committed to the prosperity of the nation ...

Nanjing, Jiangsu, China

School

All-in-One, Wireless, Stretchable Hybrid Electronics for Smart, Connected, and Ambulatory Physiological Monitoring

Aug 19, 2020 | Yun-Soung Kim, Musa Mahmood, Yongkuk Lee, Nam Kyun Kim, Shinjae Kwon, Robert Herbert, Donghyun Kim, Hee Cheol Cho,* and Woon-Hong Yeo*

Commercially available health monitors rely on rigid electronic housing coupled with aggressive adhesives and conductive gels, causing discomfort and inducing skin damage. Also, research-level skin-wearable devices, while excelling in some aspects, fall short as concept-only presentations due to the fundamental challenges of active wireless communication and integration as a single device platform. Here, an all-in-one, wireless, stretchable hybrid electronics with key capabilities for real-time physiological monitoring, automatic detection of signal abnormality via deep-learning, and a long-range wireless connectivity (up to 15 m) is introduced. The strategic integration of thin-film electronic layers with hyperelastic elastomers allows the overall device to adhere and deform naturally with the human body while maintaining the functionalities of the on-board electronics. The stretchable electrodes with optimized structures for intimate skin contact are capable of generating clinical-grade electrocardiograms and accurate analysis of heart and respiratory rates while the motion sensor assesses physical activities. Implementation of convolutional neural networks for real-time physiological classifications demonstrates the feasibility of multifaceted analysis with a high clinical relevance. Finally, in vivo demonstrations with animals and human subjects in various scenarios reveal the versatility of the device as both a health monitor and a viable research tool....

Publisher: Georgia Institute of Technology

Georgia Institute of Technology

Center for Board Assembly Research CBAR- advanced research on board assembly processes and systems

Atlanta, Georgia, USA

School

An Engineer's Guide to Testing and Evaluating The Performance of Desiccant Bags for the Protection of Critical Moisture Sensitive Devices

Aug 16, 2020 | Dan Jenkins

Not all desiccant bags are created or perform equally. Performance measures include: a) How long does desiccant last? b) How much are can be desiccated in a given area? c) How much moisture is retained, and or released back into the atmosphere? This article walks engineers through various test they can perform to determine efficacy. Additionally, the article highlight between adsorption vs adsorption....

Publisher: Steel Camel

Steel Camel

Super powerful expanding desiccant to keep boards & microelectronics moisture free.... Much different than Silica Sand Beads. Also supplier of corrosion prevention treatments that are alternatives to Conformal coatings.

Tampa, Florida, USA

Other

Best Practices in Selecting Coatings and Pottings for Solar Panel Systems; Junction Boxes and Inverters

Aug 13, 2020 | Greg Caswell [DfR], Matt Perry [H.B. Fuller], Haichuan Zhao [H.B. Fuller], Ralph Velazquez [H.B. Fuller]

The solar industry has driven solutions that result in electronics systems that are required to perform in outside environments for over 25 years. This industry expectation has resulted in solutions to protect the electronics from failure that can result from interaction with moisture, and various chemicals leading to corrosion and shorting of the systems. Potting and encapsulation compounds can impart the very high level of protection from environmental, thermal, chemical, mechanical, and electrical conditions that the solar applications demand....

Publisher: DfR Solutions

DfR Solutions

DfR Solutions has world-renowned expertise in applying the science of Reliability Physics to electrical and electronics technologies, and is a leading provider of quality, reliability, and durability (QRD) research and consulting for the electronics industry.

College Park, Maryland, USA

Service Provider

Additive Manufacturing for Next Generation Microwave Electronics and Antennas

Aug 13, 2020 | Xuanke He, Bijan K. Tehrani, Ryan A. Bahr, Manos Tentzeris

The paper will discuss the integration of 3D printing and inkjet printing fabrication technologies for microwave and millimeter-wave applications. With the recent advancements in 3D and inkjet printing technology, achieving resolution down to 50 um, it is feasible to fabricate electronic components and antennas operating in the millimeter-wave regime. The nature of additive manufacturing allows designers to create custom components and devices for specialized applications and provides an excellent and inexpensive way of prototyping electronic designs. The combination of multiple printable materials enables the vertical integration of conductive, dielectric, and semi-conductive materials which are the fundamental components of passive and active circuit elements such as inductors, capacitors, diodes, and transistors. Also, the on-demand manner of printing can eliminate the use of subtractive fabrication processes, which are necessary for conventional microfabrication processes such as photolithography, and drastically reduce the cost and material waste of fabrication....

Publisher: Georgia Institute of Technology

Georgia Institute of Technology

Center for Board Assembly Research CBAR- advanced research on board assembly processes and systems

Atlanta, Georgia, USA

School

RELIABLE NICKEL-FREE SURFACE FINISH SOLUTION FOR HIGHFREQUENCY-HDI PCB APPLICATIONS

Aug 05, 2020 | Kunal Shah, Ph.D.

The evolution of internet-enabled mobile devices has driven innovation in the manufacturing and design of technology capable of high-frequency electronic signal transfer. Among the primary factors affecting the integrity of high-frequency signals is the surface finish applied on PCB copper pads – a need commonly met through the electroless nickel immersion gold process, ENIG. However, there are well-documented limitations of ENIG due to the presence of nickel, the properties of which result in an overall reduced performance in high-frequency data transfer rate for ENIG-applied electronics, compared to bare copper. An innovation over traditional ENIG is a nickel-less approach involving a special nano-engineered barrier designed to coat copper contacts, finished with an outermost gold layer. In this paper, assemblies involving this nickel-less novel surface finish have been subjected to extended thermal exposure, then intermetallics analyses, contact/sheet resistance comparison after every reflow cycle (up to 6 reflow cycles) to assess the prevention of copper atoms diffusion into gold layer, solder ball pull and shear tests to evaluate the aging and long-term reliability of solder joints, and insertion loss testing to gauge whether this surface finish can be used for high-frequency, high density interconnect (HDI) applications....

Publisher: LiloTree

LiloTree

LiloTree is an advanced materials technology company, providing next-generation technology solutions through chemistry and materials innovations. Based in Seattle, Washington, we're an NSF funded company, manufacturer & distrib...

Redmond, Washington, USA

Manufacturer of Bare PCBs

Selection of PCB Materials for 5G

Aug 05, 2020 | John Coonrod

With the first 5G NR standard recently approved by the 3GPP at the end of 2017, many companies are racing to design 5G radio products that will demand wider bandwidths, higher frequencies, enhanced carrier aggregation and support of massive MIMO. AT&T and Samsung plan to launch 5G mobile services and Verizon plans to launch 5G Fixed Wireless Access in the US this year while South Korea will be demonstrating 5G at the upcoming Winter Olympics....

Publisher: Rogers Corporation

Rogers Corporation

Rogers' high performance laminates and bondplies are engineered to meet stringent customer requirements for 5G wireless communication, wired infrastructure, automotive radar sensors, aerospace, satellites and more.

Chandler, Arizona, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Laminates

ALD of Alumina Ceramic Films for Hermetic Protection

Aug 05, 2020 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

A primary issue in electronics reliability for military applications is the ability to ensure long term operability in harsh, extreme environments. This requires more rigid standards, such as the MIL-STD-883 (Department of Defense Test Method Standard for Microcircuits), which commercial grade electronics typically do not satisfy. A solution commonly employed is to package the critical electronic components in hermetically sealed metal or ceramic enclosures which are costly and labor intensive. Not only are the components more expensive, but the assembly process is more difficult to automate, resulting in a substantial cost premium for military grade electronics....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Aluminum Soldering - Product Guide

Jul 29, 2020 | Superior Flux and Mfg. Co.

Aluminum is a metal that it is hard to solder due to the high surface tension difference between it and molten solder alloy. This occurs because aluminum rapidly forms a tenacious oxide layer whenever it is exposed to oxygen in the air. The oxide layer is responsible for the high surface tension difference between the aluminum and the solder and impedes the solder from spreading evenly on an aluminum surface. There are hundreds of aluminum alloys available in the marketplace; it is important to identify the form of aluminum that is being soldered. Once this is done, an appropriate soldering technique can be chosen for soldering the specific aluminum alloy under consideration. Direct aluminum soldering eliminates using expensive plating techniques to prepare the aluminum surface for soldering....

Publisher: Superior Flux & Mfg. Co.

Surface Treatment Enabling Low Temperature Soldering to Aluminum

Jul 29, 2020 | Divyakant Kadiwala

The majority of flexible circuits are made by patterning copper metal that is laminated to a flexible substrate, which is usually polyimide film of varying thickness. An increasingly popular method to meet the need for lower cost circuitry is the use of aluminum on Polyester (Al-PET) substrates. This material is gaining popularity and has found wide use in RFID tags, low cost LED lighting and other single-layer circuits. However, both aluminum and PET have their own constraints and require special processing to make finished circuits. Aluminum is not easy to solder components to at low temperatures and PET cannot withstand high temperatures. Soldering to these materials requires either an additional surface treatment or the use of conductive epoxy to attach components. Surface treatment of aluminum includes the likes of Electroless Nickel Immersion Gold plating (ENIG), which is extensive wet-chemistry and cost-prohibitive for mass adoption. Conductive adhesives, including Anisotropic Conductive Paste (ACP), are another alternate to soldering components. These result in component substrate interfaces that are inferior to conventional solders in terms of performance and reliability. An advanced surface treatment technology will be presented that addresses all these constraints. Once applied on Aluminum surfaces using conventional printing techniques such as screen, stencil, etc., it is cured thermally in a convection oven at low temperatures. This surface treatment is non-conductive. To attach a component, a solder bump on the component or solder printed on the treated pad is needed before placing the component. The Aluminum circuit will pass through a reflow oven, as is commonly done in PCB manufacturing. This allows for the formation of a true metal to metal bond between the solder and the aluminum on the pads. This process paves the way for large scale, low cost manufacturing of Al-PET circuits. We will also discuss details of the process used to make functional aluminum circuits, study the resultant solder-aluminum bond, shear results and SEM/ EDS analysis....

Publisher: Averatek Corporation

Averatek Corporation

Averatek Corporation is a high tech company based in Santa Clara, CA that provides custom design services and patterned circuit board materials manufactured through the use of an innovative, proprietary process.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Components / Substrates

Impact of Assembly Cycles on Copper Wrap Plating

Jul 22, 2020 | Hardeep Heer, Ryan Wong, et al

The PWB industry needs to complete reliability testing in order to define the minimum copper wrap plating thickness requirement for confirming the reliability of PTH structures. Predicting reliability must ensure that the failure mechanism is demonstrated as a wear-out failure mode because a plating wrap failure is unpredictable. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of various copper wrap plating thicknesses through IST testing followed by micro sectioning to determine the failure mechanism and identify the minimum copper wrap thickness required for a reliable PWB. Minimum copper wrap plating thickness has become an even a bigger concern since designers started designing HDI products with buried vias, microvias and through filled vias all in one design. PWBs go through multiple plating cycles requiring planarization after each plating cycle to keep the surface copper to a manageable thickness for etching. The companies started a project to study the relationship between Copper wrap plating thickness and via reliability. The project had two phases. This paper will present findings from both Phase 1 and Phase 2....

Publisher: Firan Technology Group

Firan Technology Group

FTG is a leading North American manufacturer of high technology printed circuit boards and precision illuminated display systems.

Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Manufacturer of Assembled PCBs, Contract Manufacturer, Service Provider

Soft, Wireless Periocular Wearable Electronics For Real-Time Detection Of Eye Vergence In A Virtual Reality Toward Mobile Eye Therapies

Jul 22, 2020 | Saswat Mishra et al

Recent advancements in electronic packaging and image processing techniques have opened the possibility for optics-based portable eye tracking approaches, but technical and safety hurdles limit safe implementation toward wearable applications. Here, we introduce a fully wearable, wireless soft electronic system that offers a portable, highly sensitive tracking of eye movements (vergence) via the combination of skin-conformal sensors and a virtual reality system. Advancement of material processing and printing technologies based on aerosol jet printing enables reliable manufacturing of skin-like sensors, while the flexible hybrid circuit based on elastomer and chip integration allows comfortable integration with a user's head. Analytical and computational study of a data classification algorithm provides a highly accurate tool for real-time detection and classification of ocular motions. In vivo demonstration with 14 human subjects captures the potential of the wearable electronics as a portable therapy system, whose minimized form factor facilitates seamless interplay with traditional wearable hardware....

Publisher: Georgia Institute of Technology

Georgia Institute of Technology

Center for Board Assembly Research CBAR- advanced research on board assembly processes and systems

Atlanta, Georgia, USA

School

Via Filling Applications in Practice

Jul 15, 2020 | Stefan Keller

Via Filling • Through Hole Vias - IPC-4761 – Plugging – Filling – Filled & Capped • MicroviaFilling and Stacked Vias...

Publisher: Würth Elektronik GmbH & Co. KG

Würth Elektronik GmbH & Co. KG

We produce circuit boards from your specifications in various designs.

Niedernhall, Germany

Contract Manufacturer, Service Provider

Via In Pad - Conductive Fill or Non-Conductive Fill?

Jul 15, 2020 | Tech Talk for Techies

In the early 2000s the first fine-pitch ball grid array devices became popular with designers looking to pack as much horsepower into as small a space as possible. "Smaller is better" became the rule and with that the mechanical drilling world became severely impacted by available drill bit sizes, aspect ratios, and plating methodologies. First of all, the diameter of the drill needed to be in the 0.006" or smaller range due to the reduction of pad size and spacing pitch. Secondly, the aspect ratio (depth to diameter) became limited by drill flute length, positional accuracy, rigidity of the tools (to prevent breakage), and the throwing power of acid copper plating systems. And lastly, the plating needed to close up the hole as much as possible, which led to problems with voiding, incomplete fill, and gas/solution entrapment....

Publisher: Advanced Circuits

Advanced Circuits

One-Stop Solution for PCB & Prototype Assembly Expanded PCB manufacturing capabilities to support advanced designs with demanding requirements including laser-drilled microvias, cavity boards, heavy copper up to 20 oz., via-in-pad

Aurora, Colorado, USA

Manufacturer of Bare PCBs

Creating Reusable Manufacturing Tests for High-Speed I/O with Synthetic Instruments

Jul 08, 2020 | Louis Y. Ungar, Neil G. Jacobson, T.M. Mak

There is a compelling need for functional testing of high-speed input/output signals on circuit boards ranging from 1 gigabit per second (Gbps) to several hundred Gbps. While manufacturing tests such as Automatic Optical Inspection (AOI) and In-Circuit Test (ICT) are useful in identifying catastrophic defects, most high-speed signals require more scrutiny for failure modes that arise due to high-speed conditions, such as jitter. Functional ATE is seldom fast enough to measure high-speed signals and interpret results automatically. Additionally, to measure these adverse effects it is necessary to have the tester connections very close to the unit under test (UUT) as lead wires connecting the instruments can distort the signal. The solution we describe here involves the use of a field programmable gate array (FPGA) to implement the test instrument called a synthetic instrument (SI). SIs can be designed using VHDL or Verilog descriptions and "synthesized" into an FPGA. A variety of general-purpose instruments, such as signal generators, voltmeters, waveform analyzers can thus be synthesized, but the FPGA approach need not be limited to instruments with traditional instrument equivalents. Rather, more complex and peculiar test functions that pertain to high-speed I/O applications, such as bit error rate tests, SerDes tests, even USB 3.0 (running at 5 Gbps) protocol tests can be programmed and synthesized within an FPGA. By using specific-purpose test mechanisms for high-speed I/O the test engineer can reduce test development time. The synthetic instruments as well as the tests themselves can find applications in several UUTs. In some cases, the same test can be reused without any alteration. For example, a USB 3.0 bus is ubiquitous, and a test aimed at fault detection and diagnoses can be used as part of the test of any UUT that uses this bus. Additionally, parts of the test set may be reused for testing another high-speed I/O. It is reasonable to utilize some of the test routines used in a USB 3.0 test, in the development of a USB 3.1 (running at 10 Gbps), even if the latter has substantial differences in protocol. Many of the SI developed for one protocol can be reused as is, while other SIs may need to undergo modifications before reuse. The modifications will likely take less time and effort than starting from scratch. This paper illustrates an example of high-speed I/O testing, generalizes failure modes that are likely to occur in high-speed I/O, and offers a strategy for testing them with SIs within FPGAs. This strategy offers several advantages besides reusability, including tester proximity to the UUT, test modularization, standardization approaching an ATE-agnostic test development process, overcoming physical limitations of general-purpose test instruments, and utilization of specific-purpose test instruments. Additionally, test instrument obsolescence can be overcome by upgrading to ever-faster and larger FPGAs without losing any previously developed design effort. With SIs and tests scalable and upward compatible, the test engineer need not start test development for high-speed I/O from scratch, which will substantially reduce time and effort....

Publisher: A.T.E. Solutions, Inc.

A.T.E. Solutions, Inc.

The leading Test, ATE and Testability consulting and educational firm, offering various test related courses. Maintains the BestTest Directory, a test community knowledge base. Publishes The BestTest eNewsletter.

Los Angeles, California, USA

Repair / Rework, Test Services, Service Provider, Training Provider

Using Rheology Measurement As A Potentially Predictive Tool For Solder Paste Transfer Efficiency And Print Volume Consistency

Jul 02, 2020 | Mitch Holtzer, Karen Tellefsen and Westin Bent

Industry standards such as J-STD-005 and JIS Z 3284-1994 call for the use of viscosity measurement(s) as a quality assurance test method for solder paste. Almost all solder paste produced and sold use a viscosity range at a single shear rate as part of the pass-fail criteria for shipment and customer acceptance respectively. As had been reported many times, an estimated 80% of the defects associated with the surface mount technology process involve defects created during the printing process. Viscosity at a single shear rate could predict a fatal flaw in the printability of a solder paste sample. However, false positive single shear rate viscosity readings are not unknown....

Publisher: Alpha Assembly Solutions

Alpha Assembly Solutions

Alpha Assembly Solutions is a world leader in the development, manufacturing, and sales of innovative materials used in the assembly electronics, industrial joining and Photo Voltaic market places.

South Plainfield, New Jersey, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material

101 EMI Shielding Tips and Tricks

Jul 02, 2020 | Holland Shielding Systems BV

Principle of shielding 1 The principle of shielding is creating a conductive layer completely surrounding the object you want to shield. This was invented by Michael Faraday and this system is known as a Faraday Cage. 2 Ideally, the shielding layer will be made up of conductive sheets or layers of metal that are connected by means of welding or soldering, without any interruptions. The shielding is perfect when there is no difference in conductivity between the used materials. When dealing with frequencies below 30 MHz, the metal thickness affects shielding effectiveness. We also offer a range of shielding methods for plastic enclosures. A complete absence of interruptions is not a realistic goal since the Faraday cage will have to be opened from time to time so electronics, equipment or people can be moved in or out. Openings are also needed for displays, ventilation, cooling, power supply, signals etc. 3 Shielding works in both directions, items inside the shielded room are shielded from outside influences. (Fig. 3.1)...

Publisher: Holland Shielding Systems BV

Holland Shielding Systems BV

Worldwide leading manufacturer of EMC (electromagnetic compatibility), EMI (electromagnetic interference), RFI (radio frequency interference), & EMP (electromagnetic pulse) shielding solutions. Our EMC experts will work ...

Dordrecht, Netherlands

Other

A PROCEDURE TO DETERMINE HEAD-IN-PILLOW DEFECT AND ANALYSIS OF CONTRIBUTING FACTORS

Jul 02, 2020 | Ranjit Pandher, Rahul Raut, Michael Liberatore, Navendra Jodhan, and Karen Tellefsen

Head-in-Pillow (HIP) defects are a growing concern in the electronics industry. These defects are usually believed to be the result of several factors, individually or in combination. Some of the major contributing factors include: surface quality of the BGA spheres, activity of the paste flux, improper placement / misalignment of the components, a non-optimal reflow profile, and warpage of the components. To understand the role of each of these factors in producing head-in-pillow defects and to find ways to mitigate them, we have developed two in-house tests....

Publisher: Cookson Electronics

Cookson Electronics

Leading materials science company that provides high performance materials, chemistry and technology solutions to the electronics and surface finishing industries worldwide.

Lakeville, Minnesota, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material

Lead-Free Risk Mitigation -- A Case Study

Jul 01, 2020 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

A company approached ACI Technologies (ACI) for assistance with a new product that was about to undergo its initial proof-of-concept prototype build. This product was an item that was being furnished to the Department of Defense for a program designed to increase the technical capabilities of computer equipment issued to the war fighter. The requirements for this item specified the use of tin-lead solder during assembly of production units. One of the main responsibilities for ACI during this project was to assist the client in mitigating the risk introduced using commercial off-the-shelf materials that may be lead-free....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Using Metal Core Printed Circuit Board (MCPCB) as a Solution for Thermal Management

Jun 19, 2020 | Winco K.C. Yung, PhD

The designs of electronic devices and systems are being continuously improved by becoming smaller in size and faster in communication speed. The potential risk associated with these specific design improvements will be an increase in power density and, consequently, a greater risk of thermal problems and failures. At the same time, the prevailing use of circuit boards integrated with power devices such as motor controllers and drivers, light-emitting diode (LED) lighting modules, power supplies, and amplifiers, and regulators for TV, etc., drive to the use of a proper thermal management system while designing these kinds of printed circuit board (PCB)....

Publisher: Hong Kong Polytechnic University [The]

Hong Kong Polytechnic University [The]

With 80 years of proud tradition, PolyU is a world-class research university, ranking among the world's top 100 institutions. Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU) is a home for educating thinkers, communicators, and discovers.

Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong

School

COVID-19 - Managing Supply Chain Risk and Disruption

Jun 12, 2020 | Jim Kilpatrick and Lee Barter

Responding to the immediate challenge While COVID-19 may be the catalyst for companies to revisit their global supply chain strategy and accelerate the adoption of Digital Supply Network models and capabilities, short-term actions need to be made to respond to the immediate challenge....

Publisher: Deloitte

Deloitte

Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limited, commonly referred to as Deloitte, is a multinational professional services network. Deloitte is one of the "Big Four" accounting organizations and the largest professional services network in the

New York, New York, USA

Service Provider

Smart and Connected Bioelectronics for Seamless Health Monitoring and Persistent Human-Machine Interfaces

Jun 10, 2020 | Yun-Soung Kim and Woon-Hong Yeo

Recent advancement of flexible wearable electronics allows significant enhancement of portable, continuous health monitoring and persistent human-machine interfaces. Enabled by flexible electronic systems, smart and connected bioelectronics are accelerating the integration of innovative information science and engineering strategies, ultimately driving the rapid transformation of healthcare and medicine. Recent progress in the development and engineering of soft materials has provided various opportunities to design different types of mechanically deformable systems towards smart and connected bioelectronics....

Publisher: Georgia Institute of Technology

Georgia Institute of Technology

Center for Board Assembly Research CBAR- advanced research on board assembly processes and systems

Atlanta, Georgia, USA

School

Lead-Free Control Plan

Jun 02, 2020 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

A commercial systems manufacturer working on a major defense program contacted the Helpline for urgent assistance with an issue of failed parts during reliability testing. They were attempting to incorporate commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) computer-related hardware into a battlefield system and were experiencing reliability issues. It was noted that the parts were labeled by the vendor as "compliant to military (or MIL) standards" but not clearly identified as tin-lead or lead-free. ACI Technologies has supported a number of customers with lead-free issues and we assisted the customer in developing a short term and long-term solution to their problem....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

7 Benefits of Choosing Professional PCB Manufacturers and Assemblers

May 28, 2020 | Allen

Properly functioning printed circuit boards are essential for both manufacturers of electronic devices and also the developers if the overall intent is for the electronic device to function at high capacity. From designing the schematics of the printed circuit boards to testing the products, there is no process of PCB manufacturing and/or assembly that can be taken for granted. While it's true that you can attempt this process on your own, especially if you are in possession of a large scale manufacturing facility, here are a few reasons why it would be a better option to opt for a professional company for PCB manufacturing and assembly. 1. Variety A professional printed circuit boards manufacturing company will be able to offer you a huge variety. You will be able to choose from rigid, flexible, or rigid-flex. What's more, the PCBs will be customized as per the need of the application. 2. Quality Professional and good printed circuit board manufacturing and assembling companies might cost you just a little bit extra but they also guarantee to produce the best results and offer very high quality products. In the end, it is quality that will make the difference between mediocre and a high functioning PCB. 3. Cost Efficiency Since you don't have to waste time or resources on buying equipment to produce the best PCBs or hiring staff to oversee the process, you can actually end up saving money. You can even save on PCB assembly cost by hiring this job out. All you have to do is to negotiate the quote and sit back, relax, and wait for the PCBs to be delivered to you. 4. Eliminate Design Flaws Design engineers hired by PCB manufacturing and assembling companies use the best graphic software to develop and test the schematics of PCBs. This increases the chances of eliminating flaws in the printed circuit boards during the initial design phase. 5. Multilayer PCB Manufacturing and Assembly The process of manufacturing and assembling multilayer PCBs is as intricate as it sounds. All processes of manufacturing and assembling multilayer PCBs require the best machines and trained technicians to pass the quality and functionality tests. Manufacturing and assembling multilayer printed circuit boards yourself is going to cost you a lot. Even the smallest of mistakes during the manufacturing and assembling process might render the entire PCB entirely useless. 6. Save Time PCBs are just a single part of the electronic device. To complete the device, many more pieces would be needed. The manufacturers of the electronic device can hire out the job of manufacturing or assembling the PCBs, which will mean they will have one less chore to do. This, in turn, will save you a lot of time which could be spent on elevating the quality of the product. 7. Experience Experience makes all the difference. It is what makes the name of any company reliable in the market. Long experience of manufacturing and assembling printed circuit boards makes the company well versed in the process and it also makes it an expert to identify design, manufacturing, assembling, and testing needs of certain applications We, at Asia Pacific Circuits, offer these benefits and so much more. For quick turn PCB assembly, PCB manufacturing and PCB designing, you can contact us anytime....

Publisher: Asia Pacific Circuits Co., Ltd

Asia Pacific Circuits Co., Ltd

Asia Pacific Circuits is one of Asia's leading Electronic Manufacturing Services companies, committed to providing high quality PCB and PCBA Contract Electronics Manufacturing Services.

Shenzhen, China

Manufacturer of Assembled PCBs, Assembly, Turnkey, Contract Manufacturer

Head-on-Pillow Defect Detection – X-ray Inspection Limitations

May 26, 2020 | Lars Bruno and Benny Gustafson

Both the number and the variants of Ball Grid Array packages (BGAs) are tending to increase on network Printed Board Assemblies (PBAs)with sizes ranging from a few mm die size Wafer Level Packages (WLPs) with low ball count up to large multi-die System-in-Package (SiP) BGAs with 60-70 mm side lengths and thousands of I/Os....

Publisher: Ericsson AB

Ericsson AB

Ericsson AB manufactures and markets radio and television communication equipment. The company was formerly known as Ericsson Radio Systems AB. Ericsson AB (Sweden) operates as a subsidiary of Ericsson.

Stockholm, Sweden

Other

1CLICKSMT Conformal Coating System -- Solution for photoelectric devices assembly

May 21, 2020 | 1clicksmt

1CLICKSMT has recently installed a conformal coating line for a photoelectric devices manufacturer in Thailand....

Publisher: 1 CLICK SMT TECHNOLOGY CO., Limited

1 CLICK SMT TECHNOLOGY CO., Limited

Manufacturer of selective soldering machine, soldering robot, reflow oven, wave solder machine, pcb handling machine. Distributing for Turnkey line include SMT line, conformal coating lines, through hole line.

Dongguan City, China

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Screen Printing, Turnkey, Distributor, Selective Soldering

Pad Cratering

May 08, 2020 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

A customer contacted the Helpline to perform analysis on a lead-free assembly which exhibited intermittent functionality. The lead-free assembly exhibiting intermittent functionality when pressure was applied to the ball grid array (BGA) packages. Industrial adaptation of a Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) compliant solder standard has created a new host of failure modes observed in lead-free assemblies. Pad cratering occurs when fractures propagate along the epoxy resin layer on the underside of the BGA connecting pads. While originating from process, design, and end use conditions, it is the combination of a rigid lead-free solder with inflexible printed circuit board (PCB) laminates that has advanced the prevalence of this condition. Pad cratering is simply the result of mechanical stress exceeding material limitations....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Solutions for Selective Soldering of High Thermal Mass and Fine-Pitch Components

May 07, 2020 | Bob Klenke, Technical Consultant, Nordson SELECT

The selective soldering process has evolved to become a standard production process within the electronics assembly industry, and now accommodates a wide variety of through-hole component formats in numerous applications. Most through-hole components can be easily soldered with the selective soldering process without difficulty, however some types of challenging components require additional attention to ensure optimum quality control is maintained.</p> <p>Several high thermal mass components can place demands on the selective soldering process, while the use of specialized solder fixtures and/or pallets often places an additional thermal demand on the preheating process. Fine-pitch through-hole components and connectors place a different set of demands on the selective soldering process and typically require special attention to lead projection and traverse speed to minimize bridging between adjacent pins.</p> <p>Dual in-line memory module (DIMM) connectors, compact peripheral component interface (cPCI) connectors, coax connectors and other high thermal mass components as well as fine-pitch microconnectors,can present challenges when soldered into backplanes or multilayer printed circuit board assemblies. Adding to this challenge, compact peripheral component interface connectors can present additional solderability issues due to their beryllium copper termination pins....

Publisher: SELECT Products | Nordson Electronics Solutions

SELECT Products | Nordson Electronics Solutions

Manufacturer of Selective Soldering equipment and solutions for printed circuit board assembly

Liberty Lake, Washington, USA

Soldering, Selective Soldering

1CLICKSMT Odd form Component inserting System -- Solution for security products assembly

Apr 29, 2020 | 1Clicksmt

1CLICKSMT has recently installed a odd form component inserting and wave soldering line for a security products manufacturer....

Publisher: 1 CLICK SMT TECHNOLOGY CO., Limited

1 CLICK SMT TECHNOLOGY CO., Limited

Manufacturer of selective soldering machine, soldering robot, reflow oven, wave solder machine, pcb handling machine. Distributing for Turnkey line include SMT line, conformal coating lines, through hole line.

Dongguan City, China

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Screen Printing, Turnkey, Distributor, Selective Soldering

Flexible Bioelectronics For Physiological Signals Sensing And Disease Treatment

Apr 22, 2020 | Guang Yao, Chenhui Yin, Qian Wang, Tianyao Zhang, Sihong Chen, Chang Lu, Taisong Pan, Min Gao, Yuan Lin

Flexible bioelectronics, including wearable and implantable electronics, have revolutionized the way of human-machine interaction due to the fact that they can provide natural and seamless interactions with humans and keep stable and durable at strained states. As sensor elements or biomimetic actuators, flexible bioelectronics can dynamically sense and monitor physiological signals, reveal real-time physical health information and provide timely precise stimulations or treatments. Thus, the flexible bioelectronics are playing increasingly important roles in human-health monitoring and disease treatment, which will significantly change the future of healthcare as well as our relationships with electronics. This review summarizes recent major progress in the development of flexible substrates or encapsulation materials, sensors, circuits and energy-autonomous powers toward digital healthcare monitoring, emphasizing its role in biomedical applications in vivo and problems in practical applications. A future perspective into the challenges and opportunities in emerging flexible bioelectronics designs for the next-generation healthcare monitoring systems is also presented....

Publisher: University of Electronic Science and Technology of China

University of Electronic Science and Technology of China

UESTC is a national key multidisciplinary university specialized in electronic engineering and information science and technology with a harmonious integration of science, engineering, management and liberal arts.

Chengdu, China

School

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