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Technical Articles From Nihon Superior Co., Ltd.

Read technical articles about electronics manufacturing added by Nihon Superior Co., Ltd.

5 technical articles added by Nihon Superior Co., Ltd.

Company Information:

Nihon has been a leader in soldering and brazing since 1966. Nihon manufactures SMT solder joining materials e.g. lead-free solder (SN100C:Sn-Cu-Ni-Ge etc): solder paste, solder spheres, flux cored solder wire, solder bar, etc.

Osaka, Japan


  • Phone 81-(0)6-6380-1121
  • Fax 81-(0)6-6380-1262

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(7) products in the catalog

(5) technical library articles

(163) news releases

Dissolution in Service of the Copper Substrate of Solder Joints

Jun 20, 2019 | Nihon Superior Co., Ltd, Department of Materials, Imperial College London

It is well known that during service the layer of Cu6Sn5 intermetallic at the interface between the solder and a Cu substrate grows but the usual concern has been that if this layer gets too thick it will be the brittleness of this intermetallic that will compromise the reliability of the joint, particularly in impact loading. There is another level of concern when the Cu-rich Cu3Sn phase starts to develop at the Cu6Sn5/Cu interface and an imbalance in the diffusion of atomic species, Sn and Cu, across that interface results in the formation at the Cu3Sn/Cu interface of Kirkendall voids, which can also compromise reliability in impact loading. However, when, as is the case in some microelectronics, the copper substrate is thin in relation to the volume of solder in the joint an overriding concern is that all of the Cu will be consumed by reaction with Sn to form these intermetallics.<p><p>This paper reports an investigation into the kinetics of the growth of the interfacial intermetallic, and the consequent reduction in the thickness of the Cu substrate in solder joints made with three alloys, Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu, Sn-0.7Cu-0.05Ni and Sn-1.5Bi-0.7Cu-0.05Ni....

Controlling Voiding Mechanisms in the Reflow Soldering Process

Nov 15, 2017 | Keith Sweatman, Takatoshi Nishimura, Kenichiro Sugimoto, Akira Kita

While a significant level of voiding can be tolerated in solder joints where electrical conductivity is the main requirement, voiding at any level severely compromises thermal conductivity. For example, in LED lighting modules effective conduction of heat through the 1st level die attach to the substrate and then through the 2nd level attach to the heat sink is critical to performance so that voiding in the solder joints at both levels must be minimized. (...) In this paper, the authors will review the factors that influence the incidence of voids in small and large area solder joints that simulate, respectively, the 1st and 2nd level joints in LED modules and discuss mitigation strategies appropriate to each level. They will also report the results of a study on the effect on the incidence of voids of flux medium formulation and the optimization of the thermal profile to ensure that most of the volatiles are released early in the reflow process....

Effect of Cooling Rate on the Intermetallic Layer in Solder Joints

Feb 28, 2013 | Keith Sweatman, Tetsuro Nishimura, Stuart D. McDonald, Kazuhiro Nogita

While it has long been known that the Cu6Sn5 intermetallic that plays a critical role in the reliability of solder joints made with tin-containing alloys on copper substrates exists in two different crystal forms over the temperature range to which electronics circuitry is exposed during assembly and service, it has only recently been recognized that the change from one form to the other has implications for solder joint reliability. (..) In this paper the authors report a study of the effect of cooling rates on Cu6Sn5 crystals. Cooling rates from 200°C ranged from 10°C/minute to 100°C/minute and the effect of isothermal ageing at intermediate temperatures was also studied. The extent of the phase transformation after each regime was determined using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The findings have important implications for the manufacture of solder joints and their in-service performance... First published in the 2012 IPC APEX EXPO technical conference proceedings.......

Strength of Lead-free BGA Spheres in High Speed Loading

Apr 08, 2008 | Keith Sweatman, Shoichi Suenaga, Tetsuro Nishimura

Concern about the failure of lead-free BGA packages when portable devices such as cell phones are accidentally dropped and a general concern about the resistance of these packages under shock loading has prompted an interest in the impact strength of the soldered BGA connection. This paper reports the results of the measurement of the impact strength of lead-free 0.5±0.01mm diameter BGA spheres on 0.42mm solder mask defined pads on copper/OSP and ENIG substrates using recently developed equipment that can load individual BGA spheres at high strain rates in shear and tension....

High Reliability Lead-free Solder SN100C?Sn-0.7Cu-0.05Ni?Ge?

Mar 31, 2008 | Satoshi Mizuta

While the situation varies from country to country, nearly one year after the EU RoHS Directive came into force implementation of lead-free solder is progressing steadily. For lead-free soldering to be considered successful it is not sufficient just to have dealt with the challenges of mass production. It is also necessary to establish that the soldered joints produced are at least as reliable as those made with Sn-37Pb alloy. In this context "reliability" means the length of time in service that the initial functionality of the joint can be maintained. In this paper we will discuss some of the issues involved in solder joint reliability through a comparison of the properties of two alloys that are widely used for lead-free wave soldering, SAC305 (Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu) and the Sn, Cu, Ni, Ge alloy SN100C....

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