ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Consultant / Service Provider, Standards Setting / Certification, Training Provider

ACI Technologies Inc. - Commercial Services - Engineering, Manufacturing, Analytical and Electronics Manufacturing Training (IPC Certification Training and Custom Electronics Manufacturing Courses)

ACI Technologies provides custom training in many technical areas including failure analysis, manufacturing engineering, IPC standards and many others.  With IPC Master Instructors and a factory equipped with state of the art equipment our students experience far exceeds that of basic certification classes.

ACI has the expert technical staff and state-of-the-art facilities to assist your company by providing a multitude of electronics manufacturing and production support services to complement your existing production capabilities. Whether you need a reliable second source for prototyping, materials and process evaluation, or assistance in setting up or operating an advanced packaging production line, ACI will work with you to identify the optimum solution for you manufacturing requirements.

ACI's analytical services are available in order to aid in solving a variety of industry issues. ACI's vast capabilities include materials testing, cleanliness analysis, solderability testing, solderability restoration, and environmental stress screening. In addition to routine analysis, ACI can investigate a problem in-depth, utilizing a team of experienced scientists and engineers with our state of the art analytical laboratories and demonstration factory floor. Because of this multidimensional approach, ACI can provide more than just data. We provide answers and recommendations in order to help you find the root cause of your problems. Through our product support services, improving your company's product reliability is our main focus.

One of the primary functions of ACI's analytical laboratory is failure analysis of printed wiring assemblies (PWAs) and electronic components. Once analyses are completed, ACI's technical staff proceeds by recommending and aiding in the implementation of a preventative course of action such as: incoming inspection, vendor qualification, process development, quality control improvement, and inspection

ACI Technologies, Inc. Postings

24 products »

Qualification of Bare Boards

Qualification of boards and assemblies is the comparison of the board or assembly to an industry standard. Specifically, we qualify printed circuit boards to IPC-6012 – Qualification and Performance Specificat...

Test Services

Qualification of Bare Boards

Reliability Testing Services

Environmental testing is a very useful tool in ensuring product reliability. We have an environmental laboratory that can assist with every aspect of this testing. Our capabilities begin with test planning with the custom...

Test Services

Reliability Testing Services

Counterfeit Component Screening

Counterfeit components screening is the investigation of components that are not performing as compared to the respective data sheet and/or have come from an unqualified or uncertified distributor. We can assist in the an...

Test Services

Counterfeit Component Screening

Cleanliness and Contamination Testing Services

Cleanliness and contamination refers to the analysis of residues and particulate that are present in electronics assemblies and components that could be harmful to the function and reliability of the system. Using our ROS...

Test Services

Cleanliness and Contamination Testing Services

Advanced Imaging Services

Imaging at ACIT assists our scientists with visualizing the failures that have been described. The application of advanced imaging has a wide range of uses in our laboratory. Imaging provides a permanent visual record of...

Test Services

Advanced Imaging Services

Failure Analysis Services

Failure analysis is a common term that is used in the electronics industry for the process of investigating variables that may have resulted in a defect or interruption in function. We can perform the investigation and su...

Test Services

Failure Analysis Services

Inspection Services - Visual and X-Ray

ACI Technologies employs personnel that are Master IPC Trainers and Certified IPC Trainers for all IPC inspection standards. Visual Inspection Services ACI Technologies e...


Inspection Services - Visual and X-Ray

Rework and Repair Services

In order to maintain the highest level of quality in electronics, most manufacturers will employ some form of process control methodology to identify faulty conditions or potential quality variances. The feedback provid...

Rework & Repair Services

Rework and Repair Services

Power Packaging Services

The manufacturing factory at ACI includes a clean room, power electronics assembly and packaging laboratory. This specialized facility aids in the development of manufacturing and assembly technologies that can exploit th...

Design Services

Power Packaging Services

Small Run Prototype Assembly Services

Our experienced engineers and technicians can craft processes that require a variety of surface mount technology (SMT) and plated through-hole (PTH) assembly techniques. ACI can assist manufacturers that require process d...


Small Run Prototype Assembly Services

See all products from ACI Technologies, Inc. »

63 technical articles »

A Non-destructive Approach to Identify Intermittent Failure Locations on Printed Circuit Cards (PCC) that have been Temperature Cycle Tested

Dec 07, 2020 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

Temperature cycling testing is a method of accelerated life testing done to PCCs that are exposed to normal operation temperature variations over its lifetime. During the testing, intermittent "open" failures can first occur at the hot and cold extremes of the test, exposing weaknesses in the design and assembly. A poor/weak solder joint fatigues, a via trace or barrel cracks, loose connections or a component fails all causing an intermittent open. When not at extreme temperatures, the PCC assembly relaxes, the "open" closes creating electrical connectivity. If you are monitoring the PCC under test in-situ you will know that an intermittent failure has occurred, and the test could be stopped for inspection. If in-situ monitoring was not implemented, you would not know if there were intermittent failures or not. The PCC gets powered up and works fine at room temperature....

Ball Grid Array (BGA) Voiding Affecting Functionality

Nov 09, 2020 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

A customer contacted ACI Technologies regarding a high failure rate of their assemblies. They provided assemblies to be X-rayed and inspected for the purpose of identifying any process related issues such as (but not limited to) solder and assembly workmanship and evidence of damage due to moisture related problems during reflow (a.k.a. "popcorning"). Moisture damage usually appears as physical damage to the component. The first indication of moisture damage would be externally observable changes to the package in the form of bulging or fractures to the outer surface of the component, an example of which is shown in Figure 1. Internally observable indicators of moisture damage typically include fractures to the die inside the package and lifted or fractured wire bonds. These conditions would be apparent during transmissive X-ray inspection. Another symptom of moisture related damage would be inconsistent solder joint sizes that result from package deformation during the liquidus phase of the reflow process. None of these indicators of moisture related damage were present on the customer samples....

Reworking ALD Coatings

Sep 02, 2020 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a process of creating coatings on a molecular layer by layer basis. Using an iterated sequence of self-saturating deposition cycles that are self-terminating, a single layer can be deposited at a time, allowing for highly uniform films with complete conformality. The composition of the film typically used for coating printed wiring boards (PWBs) is a high alumina (Al2O3) sequential deposition of alumina and titania capped with a corrosion protective titanium aluminate layer, most notably ALD-Cap from Sundew Technologies, LLC. Rework is a process of restoring an electronics assembly to full functionality to prolong equipment life and reduce the amount of scrap. The process typically involves:...

ALD of Alumina Ceramic Films for Hermetic Protection

Aug 05, 2020 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

A primary issue in electronics reliability for military applications is the ability to ensure long term operability in harsh, extreme environments. This requires more rigid standards, such as the MIL-STD-883 (Department of Defense Test Method Standard for Microcircuits), which commercial grade electronics typically do not satisfy. A solution commonly employed is to package the critical electronic components in hermetically sealed metal or ceramic enclosures which are costly and labor intensive. Not only are the components more expensive, but the assembly process is more difficult to automate, resulting in a substantial cost premium for military grade electronics....

Lead-Free Risk Mitigation -- A Case Study

Jul 01, 2020 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

A company approached ACI Technologies (ACI) for assistance with a new product that was about to undergo its initial proof-of-concept prototype build. This product was an item that was being furnished to the Department of Defense for a program designed to increase the technical capabilities of computer equipment issued to the war fighter. The requirements for this item specified the use of tin-lead solder during assembly of production units. One of the main responsibilities for ACI during this project was to assist the client in mitigating the risk introduced using commercial off-the-shelf materials that may be lead-free....

Lead-Free Control Plan

Jun 02, 2020 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

A commercial systems manufacturer working on a major defense program contacted the Helpline for urgent assistance with an issue of failed parts during reliability testing. They were attempting to incorporate commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) computer-related hardware into a battlefield system and were experiencing reliability issues. It was noted that the parts were labeled by the vendor as "compliant to military (or MIL) standards" but not clearly identified as tin-lead or lead-free. ACI Technologies has supported a number of customers with lead-free issues and we assisted the customer in developing a short term and long-term solution to their problem....

Pad Cratering

May 08, 2020 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

A customer contacted the Helpline to perform analysis on a lead-free assembly which exhibited intermittent functionality. The lead-free assembly exhibiting intermittent functionality when pressure was applied to the ball grid array (BGA) packages. Industrial adaptation of a Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) compliant solder standard has created a new host of failure modes observed in lead-free assemblies. Pad cratering occurs when fractures propagate along the epoxy resin layer on the underside of the BGA connecting pads. While originating from process, design, and end use conditions, it is the combination of a rigid lead-free solder with inflexible printed circuit board (PCB) laminates that has advanced the prevalence of this condition. Pad cratering is simply the result of mechanical stress exceeding material limitations....

Product Design and Early Manufacturing Involvement

Apr 01, 2020 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

It happens much too often; manufacturing engineers are brought into a NEW product design phase at the very end of a design and are asked to provide input that should have been provided much earlier. One needs to understand how the circuit board design and quality of the manufacturing process not only effects assembly yield and product reliability, but how it could also affect the results of any testing that is done to circuit packs during prototyping. It is important that any circuit pack (including prototypes) that will be used in reliability, performance and functional testing be designed with the proper features and assembled with a manufacturing process that has been developed to produce a high-quality assembly. If not, the results of any testing might not represent the actual characteristics of the design and provide miss-guidance to future changes....

Cleaning No-Clean Fluxes Prior to Conformal Coating

Mar 09, 2020 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

A customer called the Helpline seeking advice for cleaning no-clean fluxes prior to applying a conformal coating. The customer's assemblies were manufactured with a no-clean rosin based solder paste (ROL0) and were cleaned with an isopropyl alcohol (IPA) wash. After cleaning, a white residue was sometimes found in areas with high paste concentrations and was interfering with the adhesion of the conformal coating (Figure 1). For conformal coatings to adhere properly, the printed circuit board (PCB) surface must be clean of fluxes and other residues. In addition, ionic contamination left by flux residues can lead to corrosion and dendrite growth, two common causes of electronic opens and shorts. Other residues can lead to unwanted impedance and physical interference with moving parts....

Mechanical Drop Shock Testing

Feb 03, 2020 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

Accurate impact testing is a key component to establishing that a product is not only reliable, but durable in an end-use environment. ACI Technologies tested a high-g circuit board to demonstrate component durability and ruggedization for guided munitions. The Lansmont Model 23 Shock Test System customized with a Dual Mass Shock Amplifier was used for this testing (Figure 1)....

53 more technical articles from ACI Technologies, Inc. »

2 news releases »

ACI Offers IPC Online Certification

May 08, 2020 | ACI Technologies is pleased to announce the addition of online certification training for the IPC A-610 "Acceptability of Electronic Assemblies" and the IPC/WHMA A-620 "Requirements and Acceptance for Cable and Wire Harness Assemblies" courses.

FREE Download of Failures Analysis Booklet from ACI Technologies

Nov 30, 2016 | ACI Technologies invites you to download a free copy of its very popular e-booklet, “Failure Analysis Techniques for Electronics” from its Website store, which is located at

2023 IPC Questions and answers

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