Electronics Manufacturing Technical Articles

Electronics Manufacturing Technical Articles

Papers and articles related to SMT, PCB & EMS industry.


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1393 SMT / PCB Assembly Related Technical Articles

Tin Whiskers: Risks with Lead Free | Part I

Jun 19, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

Tin (Sn) metal displays the characteristic of growing “tin whiskers” from pure tin coatings (most actively on relatively thin, electrodeposited or immersion tin coatings), usually months or years from the initial deposition of the tin. Tin whiskers are electrically conductive, filamentary, single crystals of white (beta phase) tin. These filaments of single crystal tin are usually one to five microns in diameter, and a few microns up to several tens of millimeters long, that grow spontaneously from the tin coatings. Alloying additions of several percent (by weight) of lead (Pb) prevents these electrically conductive tin whiskers from growing. Pb alloyed into the Sn was discovered to prevent the occurrence of tin whiskers in electronic assemblies in the 1950s as the Bell Laboratories solution to the problem of tin whiskers. The alloying of the tin with lead has thus quietly averted incalculable losses from short circuits in electronic equipment for the last 60 years....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Use of Pelseal® 2078 Viton® Caulk in Decapsulation of Electronics Components

Jun 18, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies is tasked with decapsulation of electronics components for testing and investigative purposes. In the normal method of decapsulation, an analyst will drill a small indentation, with a rotary tool, in the hermetic sealant material and then apply Nitric acid to eat through the polymeric encapsulant....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

The climatic test chamber after-sale service

Jun 18, 2019 | climatest symor

After-sale service Climatest Symor® strictly controls every production procedure,our main after-sale service procedure is as follow: 1) Email Climatest Symor® about the fault description(Pictures or video is preferred) 2) Within 1 working days, Climatest Symor® gives feedback or solution (If Climatest Symor® needs customer to take pictures about some parts of the machine, customer should cooperate accordingly to settle issues. 3) If checked that some parts(except glass nozzle) is possible broken by non-artificial reason, If necessary, customer deliver the broken part to Climatest Symor®, later Climatest Symor® send the repaired part or new part to customer. If unnecessary, Climatest Symor® will make delivery for the new part to customer directly. Remark:During warranty, Climatest Symor® is responsible for delivery fees both ways and parts fees.After warranty, Customer is responsible for the delivery fees both ways,Climatest Symor® will provide the parts to customer by cost price....

Publisher: Symor Instrument Equipment Co.,Ltd

Symor Instrument Equipment Co.,Ltd

Climatest Symor® is the leading environmental simulation testing equipment manufacturer in China established in 2001, located at Dayang Industrial Park,Hefei,China.

Hefei, China

Manufacturer of Test Equipment

Fiducial Marks

Jun 17, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

Very often pick and place machines are programmed using CAD data. This data increases the accuracy, precision, and repeatability of its component placement objectives. CAD data makes fine pitch and small component assemblies repeatable, but cannot adjust to a particular board unless it is exactly the same size and shape of the original board used for programming. The process by which printed circuit boards (PCBs) are made only allows some minor changes inboard size and shape, but these small differences are enough for parts to be misplaced. For this reason we use fiducial marks to increase the chances of precise component alignment....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

IPX3 IPX4 IPX5 IPX6 IPX9K Water Spray Test Chamber

Jun 17, 2019 | climatest symor

Water spray test chamber dedicates to test and evaluate the protection degree to water resistance provided by product enclosure,the protection level against water ingress is called IP code....

Publisher: Symor Instrument Equipment Co.,Ltd

Symor Instrument Equipment Co.,Ltd

Climatest Symor® is the leading environmental simulation testing equipment manufacturer in China established in 2001, located at Dayang Industrial Park,Hefei,China.

Hefei, China

Manufacturer of Test Equipment

BGA Placement on Rework Station

Jun 12, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

The success of ball grid array (BGA) placement on electronic assemblies is as much a matter of proper preparation and planning, as it is technique. In some designs, it is more appropriate to apply BGAs using a rework station that isolates the placement of the device, without subjecting the entire assembly to thermal reflow. This is especially beneficial in board constructions where the number of BGAs is limited, and the application of the solder paste is difficult, due to small pitch features that stretch the limitation of the stencil construction. Another application for rework stations, involves very large and thermally conductive BGAs, which will not uniformly reflow with other components on the assembly, and may require special process parameters for their proper placement. The most common use of BGA rework stations are for assemblies requiring BGA removal and replacements due to failures in the initial assembly stage....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Reflow Experiment

Jun 11, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

An experiment was recently performed ACI Technologies for a customer that was interested in comparing the wetting of lead-free solders with varying temperature profiles and atmospheric conditions. In order to deliver an objective measurement of solder wetting (in addition to subjective inspection analysis), a simple wetting indicator pattern was added to the solder stencil in an area on the test vehicle that had exposed and unused copper....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Component Failure Analysis - Hermetic Packaging

Jun 11, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

Recently ACI Technologies was asked to perform failure analysis on a hermetically sealed transistor for potential electrostatic discharge (ESD) or electrostatic overstress (EOS). ACI was asked to determine if the field-failed transistor was damaged by ESD or EOS. In order to properly assess the failure, additional samples were requested....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

What is UV weathering test chamber

Jun 10, 2019 | climatest symor

UV-Lamp Weathering Test Chamber takes fluorescent UV lamps as light source to simulate the UV irradiation in natural light and condensation to conduct accelerated weathering test on the materials, It simulates UV, rain, high temperature, humidity, condensation, darkness and other environmental conditions, combine them together, and carry them out automatically. ...

Publisher: Symor Instrument Equipment Co.,Ltd

Symor Instrument Equipment Co.,Ltd

Climatest Symor® is the leading environmental simulation testing equipment manufacturer in China established in 2001, located at Dayang Industrial Park,Hefei,China.

Hefei, China

Manufacturer of Test Equipment

Surface Finish Issues Affecting Solderability and Reliability

Jun 07, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies was contacted in regards to poor solder joint reliability. The customer submitted an assembly that was exhibiting intermittent opens at multiple locations on a ball grid array (BGA) component. The assembly’s functionality did not survive international shipping, essentially shock and vibration failures, immediately making the quality of the solder joints suspect. The customer was asked about the contract manufacturer and the reflow oven profile as well as the solder paste and surface finish used. The ACI engineering staff evaluated the contract manufacturer’s technique and determined that they were competent in the methods they used for placing thermocouples in the proper locations and developing the reflow oven profile. The surface finish was unusual, but not unheard of, in that it was hard gold over hard nickel, rather than electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG). The customer was able to supply boundary scan testing data which showed a diagonal row of troublesome BGA pins....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Advanced Packaging of SMT Assemblies for Greater Cost Reduction

Jun 06, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

Legacy electronics assemblies, such as through-hole (Figure 1) and connectorized component packages, are robust and prevalent throughout industry. However, each of these assembly methods have reached their limits in terms of weight, volume, reliability, and most importantly cost. With cost reduction of assemblies now the primary focus area throughout the electronics industry, there is more of a need than ever to implement the latest advancements in surface mount technology (SMT) into electronics assembly designs. Although SMT has been utilized in the electronics industry for many years, implementation of the technology is still in the ever-evolving process of reducing component footprint size, component spacing, and component I/O pitch. Implementation of the most up-to-date SMT processes provides optimal weight, volume, and cost savings, for any type of assembly....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Rework of New High Speed Press Fit Connectors

Jun 06, 2019 | Lars Bruno, Ericsson AB

More and more people and things are using electronic devices to communicate. Subsequently, many electronic products, in particular mobile base stations and core network nodes, need to handle enormous amounts of data per second. One important link in this communication chain is high speed pressfit connectors that are often used to connect mother boards and back planes in core network nodes. These new high speed pressfit connectors have several hundreds of thin, short and weak pins that are prone to damage. Small variations in via hole dimensions or hole plating thickness affect the connections; if the holes are too small, the pins may be bentor permanently deformed and if the holes are too large they will not form gas tight connections.</p><p>The goal of this project was to understand how rework of these new high speed pressfit connectors affects connection strengths, hole wall deformations and plating cracks....

Publisher: HDP User Group

HDP User Group

HDP User Group is a non-profit trade organization that offers memberships to companies involved in the supply chain of manufacturing products that utilize high-density electronic packages.

Cave Creek, Arizona, USA

Association / Non-Profit

Ceramic to Plastic Packaging

Jun 05, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

As electronic products increase in functionality and complexity, there is an emphasis on affordability, miniaturization, and energy efficiency. The telecommunications, automotive, and commercial electronic markets are the leading drivers for these trends. These markets see high volume manufacturing with millions of units priced to the fraction of the cent. The choice of the packaging material for the electrical components for these markets can have a substantial effect on the cost of the final product. Therefore plastic encapsulated components are almost universally used in non-military applications over the conventional ceramic or metal electronic packages....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Platings for Interconnections

Jun 04, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

Interconnection technology relies very heavily on the ability of the conductors on a printed wiring assembly to maintain reliable signal integrity. Harsh environmental factors can precipitate a loss of conductivity due to oxidation and corrosion. Connections are typically soldered or inserted using pressure fitted connectors to obtain enough surface contact to meet the electrical conductivity requirements. In pressure contacts, surface integrity is especially critical where the abrasive effects of retraction and insertion can wear off the metallic finish from the contact area. This can expose the underlying copper or nickel and lead to increased resistance at the contact points. These types of conductors are frequently found in card edge connectors where the terminations are plated with a layer of nickel and gold (frequently referred to as gold fingers). A hard gold is typically used containing very small amounts of nickel and cobalt to increase the wear resistance....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

SMT Under Stencil Wiper Rolls

Jun 03, 2019 | Dennis H. O'Brien

The objective of this White Paper is to provide users of the above products in the electronics industry a clear understanding of the different types of stencil cleaning paper/fabrics that are currently available. Fine pitch applications are more the norm now and so the performance of stencil cleaning rolls is more critical than ever before. This White Paper will give solder paste stencil printing engineers and purchasing professionals an insight into the main products on the market, thereby enabling them to make informed decisions....

Publisher: Swiftmode Malaysia (Penang) Sdn Bhd

Swiftmode Malaysia (Penang) Sdn Bhd

Swiftmode's Brand New Website went live 28th February 2020. The new site is so easy to navigate and find the information you want. You will learn about Swiftmode's longevity as a stable company.

Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

Antistatic, Cleaning, Component Packaging

Corrosion Analysis

Jun 03, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies was pleased to assist a customer by conducting elemental analysis on several assemblies displaying severe corrosion. Several board assemblies had failed in the field and exhibited areas of corrosion in close proximity to onboard components. The most common source of corrosion on electronic assemblies is residual flux. Fluxes are specific chemistries applied during the soldering process which improve the wetting of the solder to both the pad and component when forming the solder joint. They can be highly reactive chemicals that, if left on the assemblies, can lead to corrosion, electrical degradation, and decreased reliability. In the presence of moisture and electrical bias, flux residue can enable dendritic growth as a result of electrochemical migration (ECM)....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

The Power Packaging Laboratory at ACI Technologies

May 31, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

Microelectronics is the manufacture of systems built from extremely small electronic components. In today’s electronic world, devices must be portable, equipped with wireless technology and are driven by size, weight, power, and cost (SWaP-C). These system level drivers are crucial to all current and future electronic applications from personal computers and cellular telephones to military-fielded hardware, biomedical instrumentation, and space-flight hardware....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

SMT Component Reliability for RF Applications

May 31, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies (ACI) characterized the reliability of surface mount RF components. The RF frequency band of interest was the X band (10.7 to 11.7GHz). A two pronged test for reliability of circuit card assemblies (CCA) was designed for both extreme thermal cycling and vibration. The rapid thermal cycling and extreme vibration testing simulates the total stress encountered by the assembly over the life of the product but accomplishes it in a relatively short period of time. In order to perform the reliability testing, a test vehicle consisting of a printed circuit board with test structures and components, was designed, fabricated, and assembled at ACI....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

COTS Cooling

May 31, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies (ACI) is working on a project where one of the challenges is removing a large quantity of heat from audio amplifier circuits. This challenge is further complicated in that the heat generating circuits are located in a rack mounted box that needs to be shielded from electro-magnetic interference (EMI). Mechanically, this means that there cannot be open passages into the rack mounted box. We will first review the basic types of cooling available as commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) systems for the electronics industry, then discuss the pros and cons of each for different applications, and finally reveal the criteria and solution for the ACI project....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Thermal Interface Materials Testing

May 30, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

There exists a need to efficiently remove heat from power electronics within power systems to enhance performance. Thermal management is a critical function to that operation. Reducing the junction temperature of semiconductor power electronic devices enables them to operate at higher currents. Lowering operating temperatures reduces the thermal stress on electronic devices, which improves efficiency and reduces failures. To improve the heat removal process, the current heat transfer design of a power system has been analyzed and a variety of thermal interface materials (TIMs) and cold plate technologies have been evaluated. This paper will review some of these results....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Identifying Battery Load Qualification Test Parameters

May 30, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

In a previous Tech Tip (see Battery Selection for Electronic Systems), considerations were discussed for selecting an appropriate battery for an application. After selection, testing should be performed to confirm that the battery can provide the power required for the specific application. Some battery definitions should be understood when discussing power load qualification testing of batteries....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

BGA Reballing

May 30, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

In the current economic environment, the ability to reuse ball grid array(BGA) components that have failed due to solder defects may be an efficient way for electronics manufacturers to reduce costs. Cost may not be the only driving factor in the decision to engage in this recycling practice. The increasing demands placed upon the complexity of microprocessors and integrated circuits (ICs) has decreased the availability of some components, and increased their lead time. Because of this, reballing may provide a means to meet schedule, reduce rework turn-around time, and give a manufacturer a decisive advantage over other companies in an ever increasingly competitive market. This article will discuss the process of reballing BGA components (Figure 1), examining preparation (the preform method, the screen method), and cleaning and bake-out....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Hand Printing using Nanocoated and other High End Stencil Materials

May 29, 2019 | Bob Wettermann

There are times when a PCB prototype needs to be built quickly to test out a design. In such cases where it is known early on that there will be multiple iterations or that a "one and done" assembly will be made that there will be some SMT assemblers who choose to hand print solder paste onto the board using a "frameless" stencil. In such cases where hand printing is used, the consistency of the printing technique has typically been in question. Furthermore, the effectiveness of both the nanocoatings as well as the higher end stainless steel materials, which have been heretofore studied in controlled printing environments, will be evaluated for their impact on the hand printing process.</p><p>The purpose of the study was to determine the effectiveness of select nanocoating materials as well as certain high end stainless steel stencil materials as they relate to the manual SMT printing process. A variety of nanocoatings were applied to SMT metal stencils and solder paste volume measurements were taken to compare the effectiveness....

Publisher: BEST Inc.

BEST Inc.

BEST offers professional rework, repair and prototype builds of PCBs. Our expertise is on BGA rework and QFN rework. Our experienced instructors teach professional soldering classes as we are an IPC certified training center

Rolling Meadows, Illinois, USA

Repair / Rework, Soldering, Service Provider

The prerequisites for tomorrow's technologies

May 29, 2019 | Scheugenpflug

Scheugenpflug focuses on e-mobility and autonomous driving and, with its high-quality dispensing solutions, is accompanying an imminent turn of events in the growth field of mobility....

Publisher: Scheugenpflug Inc.

Scheugenpflug Inc.

Specializes in automated metering & dispensing solutions, supplier of resin metering systems, global expert in production and process automation, vacuum dispensing production systems, and systems for dispensing of abrasive media.

Kennesaw, Georgia, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Adhesives / Dispensing, Assembly, Component Preparation

Battery Selection for Electronic Systems

May 29, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

Battery selection should be considered early during the design phase of affordable electronic systems. The important choice of an appropriate battery can reduce system acquisition costs and keep logistics support costs down for the life of the system....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Design for Test

May 29, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

Design for Test or Design for Testability (DFT) can best be described as the techniques utilized to add testability features to an electronic hardware product design. These added features make it easier to develop and apply manufacturing tests to assure that the product functions correctly....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Decapsulation of Integrated Circuits

May 29, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

Decapsulation, or de-cap, is a failure analysis technique which involves the removal of material packaging from an integrated circuit (IC). After de-cap, visual inspection by optical microscopy of the internal circuitry may reveal areas where damage is most likely to have occurred. In addition, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) can identify the composition of any anomalies present after de-cap under higher magnification. The removal process of package material can be done either mechanically or chemically depending on the design of the integrated circuit. With ceramic packaging, de-cap is usually done mechanically by chiseling off the top with a fine razor and small hammer. For plastic packaging, de-cap requires chemical etching by strong acids. In this Tech Tips article, de-cap by chemical etching will be outlined step by step....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

PCB vias design recommendation

May 29, 2019 | PCBNPI

1.Vias near SMD pads: Solder can flow into the via after melted. As a result cold joint will appear in the end. Check the picture below. 2.Vias on SMD pads: Solder can flow into the via more easier after melted. Check the picture below. 3.Via opening without soldermask covered. When workers solder TH parts by hand, soldering iron can touch vias sometime, then tiny amounts molten solder will stay on vias. This can lead to electrical short easily. We recommend you make all vias tenting (covered by solder mask) if it is possible. ...

Publisher: PCBNPI-Professional PCB Fab/PCB Assembly Service Provider From China

PCBNPI-Professional PCB Fab/PCB Assembly Service Provider From China

Professional PCB Prototype & Assembly Turnkey Service For Low Volume Quantity With High Quality And Low Cost! Professional NPI Team Support & Quality Guarantee!Easy Quote online!No MOQ & hidden fee here.Just Have a Try

Hangzhou, China

Assembly, Component Preparation, Contract Manufacturer

Decapsulation of Integrated Circuits

May 24, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

Decapsulation, or de-cap, is a failure analysis technique which involves the removal of material packaging from an integrated circuit (IC). After de-cap, visual inspection by optical microscopy of the internal circuitry may reveal areas where damage is most likely to have occurred. In addition, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) can identify the composition of any anomalies present after de-cap under higher magnification. The removal process of package material can be done either mechanically or chemically depending on the design of the integrated circuit. With ceramic packaging, de-cap is usually done mechanically by chiseling off the top with a fine razor and small hammer. For plastic packaging, de-cap requires chemical etching by strong acids. In this Tech Tips article, de-cap by chemical etching will be outlined step by step....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Coating Application Methods

May 24, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

Conformal coatings are applied to Printed Circuit Board Assemblies(PCBAs) using a variety of different methods. There are six main methods of applying conformal coatings: manual spraying, automated spraying, dipping, brushing, selective coating, and vacuum deposition....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Preparation for Reflow Profiling

May 24, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

There is a smaller process window and a much narrower margin of error when creating and using lead-free reflow profiles for surface mount parts on printed circuit boards (PCBs). Solder balls, dewetting, tombstones, voids, and head-on-pillow problems will occur much more frequently because lead-free alloys behave differently than eutectic pastes. Problems are compounded due to the extra heat necessary for some lead-free pastes to reach their melting points....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

When the Soldering Specialist Bans Soldering Fume

May 24, 2019 | ULT

Soldering system vendor SEHO runs a Technology Center in its headquarters in Germany, in which all available machines are exhibited and demonstrated. Additionally, the SEHO Academy provides knowledge as a perfect balance of theory and practical application. In both facilities soldering fume occurs, which has damaging effects on human health, manufacturing equipment and products. That's why the company had installed several air cleaning solutions in terms of fume extraction technology. How and why they take care of clean air is the subject of this article....

Publisher: ULT Canada Sales Incorporated

ULT Canada Sales Incorporated

ULT is a vendor of efficient fume extraction solutions for air purification. The company's systems are utilized for the removal of laser fumes, soldering fumes, odors, vapors, gases, dusts etc. in electronics production.

Maple Ridge, British Columbia, Canada

Cleaning, Environmental Resources, OEM

Fully automatic online shoe sole and upper spraying robot

May 23, 2019 | Peter Chen

Automatic on-line shoe sole spraying system: automatic shoe sole spraying system, simple and convenient operation, using 3D vision positioning system. Automatic recognition and automatic generation of spraying trajectory. Robot non-contact spraying gun is used to complete the process of shoe sole spraying with maturity, stability, high speed and high precision along the predetermined trajectory. The automatic generation of spraying trajectory is the realization of shoe sole spraying technology. Shoe sole spraying characteristics: 1.Positioning System: 3D Visual Positioning 2.Components: Intelligent Robot, Laser Scanner, Industrial Computer, Gum Spraying System, Conveyor Belt, Electrical Control System, etc. 3.Spraying time: slightly different according to shoe size and spraying time Fully automatic sole spraying advantages: 1. Simple application: suitable for soles of different specifications, models and sizes 2. Faster speed: 6-8 seconds to complete sole scanning and spraying, superior to similar products at home and abroad. 3. Quality stability: gum spraying trajectory is scheduled, gum dosage is fixed, gum spraying quality is greatly improved. 4. High cost performance: the same performance, the price is only 1/3 of the same type of equipment of European brand. 5. Reduce wear and tear: glue is fully utilized and not wasted, reducing human contact with glue. Intelligent operation advantage manual only need general operation can be automated workshop, mechanical arm automatic spraying glue, accurate spraying, reduce glue waste. Environmental protection effect of long-term close contact with glue seriously affects human health and mechanical work, glue does not directly contact, do not harm the human body. Fully automatic spraying, shoe sole adhesion process for automatic spraying machine, will not cause great challenges! With the deepening of personalized shoemaking, higher requirements have been put forward for the spraying technology in shoemaking process. The method of creating spraying trajectory must be adapted to shoes of different sizes and styles. The automatic generation of spraying trajectory is one of the key technologies to realize the automation of shoe sole spraying process. The method of off-line programming and real-time generation of spraying trajectory for robots based on the three-dimensional CAD model of sole and the data of sole. A new method of generating spray trajectory by scanning the sole of shoe upper with linear structured light sensor is presented. The feasibility of the method is verified by industrial robots. Aiming at the need of generating shoe sole spray rubber trajectory based on line structured light, the format standard of IGES file of three-dimensional model of shoe sole was tested. The shoe sole contour line and the shoe sole surface were extracted, and then the offset curve of the shoe sole contour line on the shoe sole surface was calculated to obtain the spray rubber trajectory. Three-dimensional profilometer is to use structured light to obtain sole information, effectively improve the automatic shoemaking spraying process, which will help to improve the efficiency of shoemaking, improve the quality of footwear products, and promote the development of personalized shoemaking....

Publisher: YUSH Electronic Technology Co.,Ltd

YUSH Electronic Technology Co.,Ltd

YUSH Electronic Technology Co.,Ltd was founded in 2004,is located in the world manufacturing city Jiangsu,Guprofessional pcb separator/pcb depanelizer electronic equipment machinery. The company has

Suzhou, China

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment

Identifying Flux Residues

May 23, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

Why identify flux residues? The primary purpose of flux is to reduce species of metal oxides from solderable surfaces, and to act as a mechanism for lifting and removing debris. If the assembly is not properly cleaned after manufacturing, flux may continue to reduce metals and may eventually corrode the assembly. When the assembly is powered, the metal ions may precipitate along electromagnetic field lines and form dendritic shorts. In addition, the presence of residue can alter the insulation properties of a board, affect the adhesion of the conformal coating, or interfere with the moving parts of the assembly. In radio frequency (RF) applications, flux may change the RF properties on the surface of the printed circuit board (PCB) such as the dielectric strength, surface resistance, and Q-resonance....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Cleaning

May 23, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

Solvent and co-solvent cleaning involves the use of engineered solvents in a vapor phase system. The solvents classically used were Class 1 Ozone Depleting Substances, but new types of solvents have been developed that are less environmentally harmful. In some cases, isopropyl alcohol is used with a co-solvent. In these types of cleaning systems, a cloud of boiling vapor solvent is maintained between a boil sump and a cooling coil. When the items to be cleaned are immersed in the vapor cloud, the solvent condenses on the assemblies and acts to dissolve the residues. These processes usually involve a final rinse step outside of the vapor cloud to ensure that all dissolved residues are washed off the assemblies (Figure 1)....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Wedge Bonding Tool Selection

May 23, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

Increasing I/O numbers, device complexity, and product miniaturization requires high precision bonding tools, and sophisticated equipment. Careful consideration should be given to wedge geometry while selecting the tool for a fine pitch wire bonding application. Wire bonding is a process that creates an electrical connection between a die and a substrate or lead typically using gold or aluminum wire. Wedge bonding is a specific type of wire bonding that uses a wedge shaped tool to create the welds. The design of the wedge tool has changed very little over the past decade. The wire is fed at an angle through the back of the wedge. This angle is typically 30 to 60 degrees and is application dependent. Some applications require a higher feed angle due to package clearance issues. Some deep access applications require a 90 degree feed angle. In this configuration, the wire is fed through a hole in the shank of the wedge tool. Wire feed is shown in Figure 1....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Experimentation for Success

May 23, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

The technical tips have offered valuable details and techniques into various aspects of electronics manufacturing. This has been validated by the reader responses concurring with our assessments, offering additional insight, or in some rare cases, stating divergent points of view on any particular matter. In a bit of a strategic departure from the normal range of electronic manufacturing topics, ACI Technologies,Inc. would like our readers to consider the importance of being well prepared in the arena of designed experiments in order to properly qualify a manufacturing process. This particular topic has relevance because of the associated scope of work ACI Technologies encounters in numerous projects from material R&D to manufacturing process optimization, which require appropriate experimental designs to ascertain the significant data....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

BTC and SMT Rework Challenges

May 22, 2019 | Joerg Nolte

Rising customer demands in the field of PCB repair are a daily occurrence as the rapid electronic industry follows new trends in a blink of an eye. New strategies and technologies are required to fulfill those demands. Out of the long list of today's customer demands for efficient BTC and SMT PCB repair some subjects show up on a daily basis and are agreed to be relevant for the coming years:</p> <ul> <li>BTC types with new effects -> voidless treatment</li> <li>Smaller components -> miniaturization (01005 capability)</li> <li>Large board handling -> dynamic preheating for large board repair</li> <li>Repeatable processes -> flux and paste application (Dip and Print), residual solder removal (scavenging), dispensing, multiple component handling, and traceability</li> <li>Operator support -> higher automation, software guidance</li> </ul>...

Publisher: kurtz ersa Corporation

kurtz ersa Corporation

Manufacturer of Selective Soldering Systems, Ersascope BGA Inspection Systems, BGA Rework Systems, Soldering Irons, Wave Solder and Reflow Equipment.

Wertheim, Germany

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Soldering, Selective Soldering

Flip Chip Attach Techniques

May 21, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

Last month we presented Flip Chip Rework.As promised, this month we follow up with attachment techniques. Flip chip assembly is a key technology for advanced packaging of microelectronic circuits. It allows attachment of a bare chip to a packaging substrate in a face-down configuration, with electrical connections between the chip and substrate via conducting “bumps.” Flip chip technology was first invented by IBM for mainframe computer application in the early 1960s. Semiconductor devices are mounted face down and electrically and mechanically connected to a substrate (Figure 1). IBM called this manufacturing process a C4 process (controlled collapse chip connection)....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Flip Chip Rework

May 21, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

Flip chip components have been gaining popularity in the electronics industry since their introduction in the 1960s. Advances in attach methods and adhesives, as well as the drive for smaller and faster electronic devices made the technology take off. The basic premise of the flip chip is that the chip (semiconductor device) is mounted flipped from the traditional position. The traditional method of mounting a die is to mount it on a lead frame with the circuit and bond pads face up. The bond pads then receive a bond wire which then connects to the proper lead on the lead frame. Flip chips are mounted face down onto a substrate using small bumps on the bond pads to make direct electrical connection to their respective pads on the substrate. Stay tuned for more information on attachment techniques next month. This article will focus on how to rework flip chips....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Conformal Coating Inspection

May 21, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

In the field of electronics manufacturing, the end use of the product will always dictate the processes, procedures, and methods, not only for building the product, but also for testing, cleaning, and protecting the assembly in order to assure the level of quality required for proper operation. The need to protect an electronic assembly from its end use environment may stem from anyone of a number of hazardous (or potentially hazardous) conditions. Choosing the type of protective material is dependent upon matching that material’s characteristics with the conditions to be overcome. Naturally, the use of a protective (conformal) coating will require some method of verification to ensure the desired level and type of protection is achieved....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Thermal Profiling for Reflow

May 21, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

Reflow temperature profiling is the most important aspect of proper control of the solder reflow process. It may appear to some to be a magical art practiced by a select experienced few, who are able to divine the proper settings for a reflow oven by reading graphs as if they were tea leaves. This does not have to be true. This article outlines a systematic method by which engineers and technicians can implement a successful reflow process from scratch....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Die Attach Dispensing Methods

May 21, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

Die attach material selection and process implementation play crucial roles in any microelectronic assembly. The chosen attach methods ultimately affect die stress, functionality, thermal management, and reliability of the assembly. Die attach applications are designed to optimize mechanical attachment of the die to the substrate, to create a thermal path from the die to the substrate, and to create an electrical path for a ground plane connection. Some of the more commonly used die attach materials in the microelectronics industry today are epoxies,polyimides, thermoplastics, silicones, solders, and special low outgassing, low stress, anisotropic adhesives. ...

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Dust removal in temperature and humidity Test Chamber (2/2)

May 21, 2019 | Climatest Symor

Continue to talk about the dust removal from temperature humidity test chamber. Cleaning and maintenance: 1) Pls remove internal impurities inisde chamber before operation. 2) The power distribution room should be cleaned at least once a year, and the dust can be removed by vacuum cleaner. 3) The exterior chamber must also be cleaned more than once a year, which can be wiped with soapy water. Inspection and maintenance of humidifier: The water storage in humidifier should be replaced once a month to ensure clean water quality, humidifying water tray should be cleaned once a month to ensure smooth flow of water. The inspection of over-temperature protector:during the test: If the temperature is over 20 ℃ ~ 30 ℃ than the maximum value setted,the power supply of the heater will stop, the "OVERHEAT" overt-emperature warning light will automatically turn on but the fan is still in operation, if the equipment runs without operator around,the operator should check the over-temperature protector in advance to ensure wether it has been setted properly before start [wet ball over-temperature protector set to 120 ℃]....

Publisher: Symor Instrument Equipment Co.,Ltd

Symor Instrument Equipment Co.,Ltd

Climatest Symor® is the leading environmental simulation testing equipment manufacturer in China established in 2001, located at Dayang Industrial Park,Hefei,China.

Hefei, China

Manufacturer of Test Equipment

What is humidity control dry cabinet?

May 17, 2019 | Climatest Symor

Dry cabinet is especially designed with fully automatic humidity control to prevent moisture related defects. This cabinet is the optimal storage expert for SMT/BGA/PCB/IC electronic components.Our newly developed design greatly increases dehumidifying system which runs faster and more reliable compare to those traditional dry cabinets. it decreases the defective rate at production line....

Publisher: Symor Instrument Equipment Co.,Ltd

Symor Instrument Equipment Co.,Ltd

Climatest Symor® is the leading environmental simulation testing equipment manufacturer in China established in 2001, located at Dayang Industrial Park,Hefei,China.

Hefei, China

Manufacturer of Test Equipment

How to fill water into the temperature humidity test chamber? (2/2)

May 16, 2019 | Climatest Symor

limatest Symor wants to tell you that humidity is not only the most important thing in the chamber, but also the temperature In order to facilitate customers to add water, our temperature and humidity test chamber is to place the water tank at back of the equipment.Just open the baffle to see the water tank and the water level meter next to the tank,then add enough water to the tank. However, in addition to manual water addition, our temperature and humidity test chamber has equipment that can automatically add water. Only by connecting the water pipe at the water filling port can it be automatically replenished when there is a shortage of water, which is suitable for high humidity test for a long time....

Publisher: Symor Instrument Equipment Co.,Ltd

Symor Instrument Equipment Co.,Ltd

Climatest Symor® is the leading environmental simulation testing equipment manufacturer in China established in 2001, located at Dayang Industrial Park,Hefei,China.

Hefei, China

Manufacturer of Test Equipment

Transient Solder Separation of BGA Solder Joint During Second Reflow Cycle

May 15, 2019 | Steven Perng, Weidong Xie

As the demand for higher routing density and transfer speed increases, Via-In-Pad Plated Over (VIPPO) has become more common on high-end telecommunications products. The interactions of VIPPO with other features used on a PCB such as the traditional dog-bone pad design could induce solder joints to separate during the second and thereafter reflows. The failure has been successfully reproduced, and the typical failure signature of a joint separation has been summarized.</p><p>To better understand the solder separation mechanism, this study focuses on designing a test vehicle to address the following three perspectives: PCB material properties, specifically the Z-direction or out-of-plane Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE); PCB thickness and back drill depth; and quantification of the driving force magnitude beyond which the separation is due to occur....

Publisher: Cisco Systems, Inc.

Cisco Systems, Inc.

Cisco designs, manufactures, and sells Internet protocol (IP)-based networking and other products related to the communications and IT industry and provide services associated with these products.

San Jose, CA, USA

Manufacturer's Rep

three knives led strips cutting machine

May 13, 2019 | Peter Chen

For the customers of LED lamp industry, LED board splitter is indispensable. Our machine is cheap, light weight and cutting speed is 500 mm per second. email:s1@hk-yush.com...

Publisher: YUSH Electronic Technology Co.,Ltd

YUSH Electronic Technology Co.,Ltd

YUSH Electronic Technology Co.,Ltd was founded in 2004,is located in the world manufacturing city Jiangsu,Guprofessional pcb separator/pcb depanelizer electronic equipment machinery. The company has

Suzhou, China

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment

How to choose the plug of anti static IC tube and its material

May 09, 2019 | James tong

When the anti static ic tube is produced, it is empty at both ends. Therefore, before and after the electronic components are loaded into the plastic tube, the IC hoses need to be blocked at both ends. Generally, there are plastic nails and rubber stoppers....

Publisher: Shenzhen Sewate Technology Co.,Ltd

Shenzhen Sewate Technology Co.,Ltd

Sewate professionally produce ESD protective packaging systems such as ic shipping tubes, plastic anti static ic tubes,, carrier tape, cover tape and reel, ESD trays for electronic components.

Shenzhen, China

Antistatic, Component Packaging, Tape and Reel Services

Cold Ball Pull Test Efficiency for the PCB Pad Cratering Validation with the Ultra Low Loss Dielectric Material

May 08, 2019 | Jeffrey ChangBing Lee, Cheng-Chih Chen, Alice Lin, Dem Lee - iST- Integrated Service Technology, Inc., Gary Long, Consultant, Masahiro Tsuriya - INEMI, JAPAN

Cold ball pull testing is used to validate the resistance of PCB pad cratering for the different ultra-low loss dielectrics materials (Dk=3~4.2 and Df <= 0.005 @ 1GHz) in the study. The materials were fabricated in multiple PCB shops using a common test board design utilizing a coupon to result in a 16 mil nominal pad size for the pulls. After fabrication, a 20 mil SAC305 ball is SMT attached to the 16 mil nominal pads for pulling. Each material had 3 coupons with 50 pull locations on each to generate 150 data points for statistical analysis. The peak pull force differences of the material builds can be compared to differentiate the results. As a result, the different ultra-low loss dielectric material’s performance to withstand PCB pad cratering can be compared comprehensively with the cold ball pull test....

Publisher: iNEMI (International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative)

iNEMI (International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative)

iNEMI is an industry-led consortium focused on identifying and closing technology gaps, which includes the development and integration of the electronics industry supply infrastructure.

Herndon, Virginia, USA

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