Electronics Manufacturing Technical Articles

Electronics Manufacturing Technical Articles

Papers and articles related to SMT, PCB & EMS industry.


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1144 SMT / PCB Assembly Related Technical Articles

Why we need to proceed temperature humidity test?

Oct 29, 2019 | climatest symor

For every 10 ℃ increase in temperature, the reaction rate is twice to three times. This means that for every 10 ℃ increase in temperature, the life span of the product will be halved, and when the temperature rises by 20 ℃, the life span of the product will be reduced to 1/4. High temperature will lead to aging, oxidation, evaporation, physical deformation and so on. Low temperature will lead to embrittlement, ice formation, viscosity and solidification degree, loss of mechanical strength, physical shrinkage and so on. When the product is shipped, stored and operated in the environment, it will be endangered. In addition, each product has regulatory and certification requirements, and it is important to evaluate reliability and durability before it is put on the market. In general, according to the IEC60068 test standard, it requires the volume of the laboratory to be at least five times the total volume of the sample under test. Haida constant temperature and humidity box can help you meet this demand. So with the fast developmement of manufacturing industry,test becomes a necessity to see wether the product is able to meet regulated standards in R&D satge,Climatest Symor specializes in handling temperature and humidity,we supply environmental test chamber to China State-owned Research Institutes and laboratories,and obtain excellent reputation from international cllients,our company put much efforts on chamber R&D ,striving to supply best-quality climate simulation equipment and after-sale service. For details,pls visit our official website www.climatechambers.com...

Publisher: Symor Instrument Equipment Co.,Ltd

Symor Instrument Equipment Co.,Ltd

Climatest Symor® is the leading environmental simulation testing equipment manufacturer in China established in 2001, located at Dayang Industrial Park,Hefei,China.

Hefei, China

Manufacturer of Test Equipment

Thermal Profiles - Why Getting Them Right is Important

Oct 24, 2019 | Fred Dimock

Presentation given by Fred Dimock during a seminar at the American Competitiveness Institute, ACI. •Recipe vs. Profile •Material Properties •Why profiles are shaped like they are. •Obtaining profiles •TC Accuracy •Profilers •Test vehicles •Process Window – Eutectic vs. Lead Free •Heat transfer •Oven Control...

Publisher: BTU International

BTU International

Global supplier of advanced thermal processing equipment and processes to the electronics assembly market.

North Billerica, Massachusetts, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment

Printed Circuit Board Assembly & Choosing a Vendor

Oct 24, 2019 | Nian Zhen

Making your novel electronic item design ready for mass fabrication and <a href="https://www.optimatech.net/">printed circuit board assembly</a> consists of a lot of steps as well as risks. I will provide a few recommendations about how to neglect pricey errors and how to reduce the time to promote your novel item designs. You can hire printed circuit board assembly services for this. As soon as you have accomplished your product as well as printed circuit board design, you wish to get started developing prototypes prior to you commit to big fabrication volume. A lot of design software packages, for instance, PCB layout design software, as well as an industrial design software program, possess simulation potentials incorporated. Carrying out a simulation facilitates curtailing numerous design mistakes prior to the first prototype is developed. In case you are developing an intrusive item, you might desire to think about a modular design wherein all of the chief functionalities are situated in individual modules. All through your testing, you could then swap modules that don’t cater to the design limits. Spinning individual modules would be swifter and more cost-effective in comparison to spinning a complete design. Counting on the design intricacy, you can mull over manually mounting printed circuit board elements to bank dollars. Nonetheless, for medium to big intricacy this procedure likely to be very time taking, typically in case you wish to create numerous prototypes. Hence it makes sense thinking about a contract manufacturer for the assembly. Whilst running miniature quantity fabrication runs, the fabrication setup expenditure will usually control the by and large prototype constructs expenditure. Whilst seeking a subcontractor, it is finest to choose a vendor that focuses on prototype builds to reduce the cost. Prototype printed circuit board fabricators characteristically join the circuit boards of a number of clients which efficiently shares the setup expenditure in the midst of some customers. The disadvantage is that you would characteristically only be able to want among numerous standard printed circuit board material thicknesses as well as sizes. Apart from choosing a supplier with low setup expenditure, choosing a firm that would moreover be capable to manage your whole fabrication runs curtails mistakes because switching fabricators have the chance of errors owing to a specific supplier interpreting fabrication design data in a different way. This manner your design is already translated into the particular machine data that implies little or no setup expenditure for your final fabrication. A few <a href="https://www.optimatech.net/pcb.aspx">PCB</a> manufacturers also provide printed circuit board design services that are awesome plus if you do not possess experience with the design. Moreover, these vendors would be capable to help you in case there are issues with your design folders and be capable to detect issues prior to the fabrication. ...

Publisher: Optima Technology Associates, Inc.

Optima Technology Associates, Inc.

Printed Circuit Board constitutes an essential part of any electronic device and Optimatech.net offers every step of your electronic assembly needs looking forward to work with you.call:717 932 5877

PA, Pennsylvania, USA

Assembly

Investigation of PCB Failure after SMT Manufacturing Process

Oct 21, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

An ACI Technologies customer inquired regarding printed circuit board(PCB) failures that were becoming increasingly prevalent after the SMT (surface mount technology) manufacturing process. The failures were detected by electrical testing, but were undetermined as to the location and specific devices causing the failures. The failures were suspected to be caused predominately in the BGA (ball grid array) devices located on specific sites on this 16 layer construction. Information that was provided on the nature of the failures (i.e., opens or shorts) included high resistance shorts that were occurring in those specified areas. The surface finish was a eutectic HASL (hot air solder leveling) and the solder paste used was a water soluble Sn/Pb(tin/lead)....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Essentials about Printed Circuit Board Assembly

Oct 18, 2019 | Nian Zhen

It usually does not make any logic to invest in costly fabrication equipment in case you just desire to spin some prototypes and rather outsource your Printed Circuit Board assembly as well as prototype fabrication to a trustworthy vendor. I would provide a few tips as to what to consider when seeking a contract manufacturer. The two most common procedures associated with <a href="https://www.optimatech.net">Printed Circuit Board Assembly</a> are through-hole technology and surface mount technology. Talking about the difference between through-hole technology and surface mount technology. Through-hole elements have metal leads, & these metal leads are supplied through-plated holes inside the circuit board. On the other hand, SMT elements might or might not have leads, nevertheless most significantly, they are developed to be soldered onto the surface of the circuit boards straight on the same side as the element body. A lot of contract manufacturers would provide a quick quote mechanism over their site for the fabrication of circuit boards as well as assembly of prototypes. This would bank your time when comparing various vendors. Ensure that the quote system facilitates you to fill your details, for instance, board material, thickness, copper thickness, milling, etc. in order that you can avail of a precise quote devoid of any surprises afterward. And this is quite necessary. Typically the cost per board would decline as quality upgrades. This is owing to the fairly high setup price of circuit board fabrication over and above component assembly. A few vendors would employ a system where they unite boards from various consumers. This manner the setup price would be circulated among numerous clients. When you fabricate an item, you clearly don’t desire to have to fabricate a big quantity of boards straight away whilst you improve your design. One restriction with small quantity prototypes though is that the option of materials &amp; material thicknesses would be constrained. In case you are employing a particular material then opportunities are there will not be any other clients employing the same material. Additionally, lead time plays a major role in indecisive prices. A longer lead time facilitates the fabricator more liberty in slotting your fabrication. This is basically reflected in cheaper prices that would view in the quote section. Clearly, if you are in a hurry and desire to be moved to the summit of the pile you would require splurging more dollars. Ensure that your contract fabricator would support the file sort for producing which you offer. The most general format for printed circuit board fabrication is the Gerber format nonetheless a few vendors would moreover embrace board files from general printed circuit board software products. A few suppliers also provide in house printed circuit design. Even in case, you create your board yourself, choosing a vendor with design services might prove resourceful in case there is an issue with your files. In this scenario, your vendor could make swift changes that would neglect pricey delays. If you are looking for an <a href="https://www.optimatech.net/pcb-ems.aspx">Electronic Manufacturing Services</a> (EMS Assembly) provider, then the web is the best to search. ...

Publisher: Optima Technology Associates, Inc.

Optima Technology Associates, Inc.

Printed Circuit Board constitutes an essential part of any electronic device and Optimatech.net offers every step of your electronic assembly needs looking forward to work with you.call:717 932 5877

PA, Pennsylvania, USA

Assembly

Autonomous Driving - New systems to optimally apply potting media

Oct 17, 2019 | Scheugenpflug

There has been an increase in sealing and encapsulation applications mainly in the field of autonomous driving. Safety and assistance systems already make driving safer and more comfortable today. With increasing progress even more electronic systems will be added. The smooth functioning of computers, sensors, cameras, etc. - and thus our safety as road users - also depends on optimally applied potting media. These can be applied economically, quickly and with high quality in individual applications and are now mastered. With the changing mobility concepts, however, the prerequisites in manufacturing are changing. The requirements are often not fixed at the outset, but only develop during the course of the project. The aim here is to generate a flexible standard that enables attractive pricing and short delivery times. However, we are prepared for these developments: with our modular system consisting of scalable system modules. From this, individual processes can be taken and combined according to requirements. Our new LiquiPrep systems have recently become part of this modular system. They represent a further development of the proven A310 product family and enable reliable processing and conveying of self-levelling media. In addition to a significantly more intuitive operation, the LiquiPrep systems also offer higher performance thanks to a new, patented membrane pump and an optimized agitator. Image: Optimally applied sealants and casting materials form the basis for high quality and smooth functioning of the components. ...

Publisher: Scheugenpflug Inc.

Scheugenpflug Inc.

Specializes in automated metering & dispensing solutions, supplier of resin metering systems, global expert in production and process automation, vacuum dispensing production systems, and systems for dispensing of abrasive media.

Kennesaw, Georgia, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Adhesives / Dispensing, Assembly, Component Preparation

Effect Of Voids On Thermo-Mechanical Reliability of Solder Joints

Oct 16, 2019 | Morgana Ribas, Ph.D., Siuli Sarkar, Ph.D., Carl Bilgrien, Ph.D., Tom Hunsinger - Alpha Assembly Solutions, MacDermid Performance Solutions

Despite being a continuous subject of discussion, the existence of voids and their effect on solder joint reliability has always been controversial. In this work we revisit previous works on the various types of voids, their origins and their effect on thermo-mechanical properties of solder joints. We focus on macro voids, intermetallics micro voids, and shrinkage voids, which result from solder paste and alloy characteristics. We compare results from the literature to our own experimental data, and use fatigue-crack initiation and propagation theory to support our findings. Through a series of examples, we show that size and location of macro voids are not the primary factor affecting solder joint mechanical and thermal fatigue life. Indeed, we observe that when these voids area conforms to the IPC-A-610 (D or F) or IPC-7095A standards, macro voids do not have any significant effect on thermal cycling or drop shock performance....

Publisher: Alpha Assembly Solutions

Alpha Assembly Solutions

Alpha Assembly Solutions is a world leader in the development, manufacturing, and sales of innovative materials used in the assembly electronics, industrial joining and Photo Voltaic market places.

South Plainfield, New Jersey, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material

Advanced Packaging Technology

Oct 16, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

A major goal of the development of advanced packaging technology is to reduce the size, weight, and power consumption of electronics components using state-of-the-art commercial technologies. One of the novel concepts involves the use of all three spatial dimensions when designing and producing new systems. In the past, electronic structures tended to be two dimensional in nature. Generally speaking, individually packaged integrated circuit (IC) dies were interconnected on printed circuit boards. Techniques such as die and package stacking naturally contribute to a reduction of the spatial footprint of any given electronic system design. ...

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Fill the Void IV: Elimination of Inter-Via Voiding

Oct 10, 2019 | Tony Lentz - FCT Assembly, Greg Smith - BlueRing Stencils

Voids are a plague to our electronics and must be eliminated! Over the last few years we have studied voiding in solder joints and published three technical papers on methods to "Fill the Void." This paper is part four of this series. The focus of this work is to mitigate voids for via in pad circuit board designs.</p><p> Via holes in Quad Flat No-Lead (QFN) thermal pads create voiding issues. Gasses can come out of via holes and rise into the solder joint creating voids. Solder can also flow down into the via holes creating gaps in the solder joint. One method of preventing this is via plugging. Via holes can be plugged, capped, or left open. These via plugging options were compared and contrasted to each other with respect to voiding. Another method of minimizing voiding is through solder paste stencil design. Solder paste can be printed around the via holes with gas escape routes. This prevents gasses from via holes from being trapped in the solder joint. Several stencil designs were tested and voiding performance compared and contrasted.</p><p> In many cases voiding will be reduced only if a combination of mitigation strategies are used. Recommendations for combinations of via hole plugging and stencil design are given. The aim of this paper is to help the reader to "Fill the Void."...

Publisher: FCT ASSEMBLY, INC.

FCT ASSEMBLY, INC.

With numerous facilities in the United States, we are one of the electronics industry's leading manufacturers of lead-free solder products, superior quality stencils, and precision cut parts.

Greeley, Colorado, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Soldering

Power Interfaces

Oct 07, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

Power interfaces are required when external power sources like solar panels, fuel cells, or batteries are used to generate power for electrical devices. There are two major power interfaces commonly used, direct current to direct current (DC/DC) converters and direct current to alternating current (DC/AC) inverters. While both interfaces are designed to convert from variable DC inputs, they output to different power standards and power levels that are used in different applications....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Effects of Temperature Uniformity on Package Warpage

Oct 03, 2019 | Neil Hubble, Charly Olson

Knowing how package warpage changes over temperature is a critical variable in order to assemble reliable surface mount attached technology. Component and component or component and board surfaces must stay relatively flat with one another or surface mount defects, such as head-in-pillow, open joints, bridged joints, stretched joints, etc. may occur. Initial package flatness can be affected by numerous aspects of the component manufacturing and design. However, change in shape over temperature is primarily driven by CTE mismatch between the different materials in the package. Thus material CTE is a critical factor in package design. When analyzing or modeling package warpage, one may assume that the package receives heat evenly on all sides, when in production this may not be the case. Thus, in order to understand how temperature uniformity can affect the warpage of a package, a case study of package warpage versus different heating spreads is performed.<p><p>Packages used in the case study have larger form factors, so that the effect of non-uniformity can be more readily quantified within each package. Small and thin packages are less prone to issues with package temperature variation, due to the ability for the heat to conduct through the package material and make up for uneven sources of heat. Multiple packages and multiple package form factors are measured for warpage via a shadow moiré technique while being heated and cooled through reflow profiles matching real world production conditions. Heating of the package is adjusted to compare an evenly heated package to one that is heated unevenly and has poor temperature uniformity between package surfaces. The warpage is measured dynamically as the package is heated and cooled. Conclusions are drawn as to how the role of uneven temperature spread affects the package warpage....

Publisher: Akrometrix

Akrometrix

Leading provider of full-field metrology solutions for substrates and packages in the OEM/CEM/SATS/PCB segments of the microelectronics industry.

Atlanta, Georgia, USA

OEM, Service Provider

Cleanliness/Corrosion Mitigation

Sep 27, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

One of the most critical factors in preventing corrosion from occurring in electronics is maintaining the state of cleanliness. This is not an easy feat to achieve. Corrosion is defined as the deterioration of a material or its properties due to a reaction of that material with its chemical environment. [1] So, to prevent corrosion from occurring, either the material or the chemical environment must be adjusted. Adjusting the material usually means application of a protective coating or replacing a more reactive material with a less reactive material. Adjusting the chemical environment usually means removing ionic species through cleaning, and removing moisture, usually with a conformal coating or hermetic package. Ionic species and moisture are problematic because they form an electrolyte which is able to conduct ions and electricity. Any metal that comes into contact with the electrolyte can begin to corrode....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

What is the main function of hot air dry oven?

Sep 25, 2019 | climatest symor

What is the main function of hot air dry oven? Drying ovens are devices used to remove moisture and other solvents from the items placed inside them through a forced convection process, collecting it elsewhere so that the object becomes dehydrated. A drying oven causes objects to dry out through evaporation. Drying ovens use convection heating,also called air forced, in which the object is heated through air currents. Water from the object escapes into the air, raising the humidity level and causing the semi-solid membranes inside the oven to absorb the water. The end result is that the oven removes water from the object being dried, leaving it dehydrated. Drying ovens contain a system for forcing convection currents to develop, usually either a fan or turbine, which aids in the heating and drying process by ensuring that the hot air circulates,many ovens are equipped with an adjustable ventilation system that allows the user to ensure that the system has an adequate air supply. For details,pls visit our website: https://climatechambers.com/articles&latestnews/what-is-the-main-function-of-hot-air-dry-oven.html...

Publisher: Symor Instrument Equipment Co.,Ltd

Symor Instrument Equipment Co.,Ltd

Climatest Symor® is the leading environmental simulation testing equipment manufacturer in China established in 2001, located at Dayang Industrial Park,Hefei,China.

Hefei, China

Manufacturer of Test Equipment

Thermal Capabilities of Solder Masks and Other Coating Materials - How High Can We Go?

Sep 24, 2019 | Sven Kramer

This paper focuses on three different coating material groups which were formulated to operate under high thermal stress and are applied at printed circuit board manufacturing level. While used for principally different applications, these coatings have in common that they can be key to a successful thermal management concept especially in e-mobility and lighting applications. The coatings consist of:</p><p> Specialty (green transparent) liquid photoimageable solder masks (LPiSM) compatible with long-term thermal storage/stress in excess of 150°C. Combined with the appropriate high-temperature base material, and along with a suitable copper pre-treatment, these solder resists are capable of fulfilling higher thermal demands. In this context, long-term storage tests as well as temperature cycling tests were conducted. Moreover, the effect of various Cu pre-treatment methods on the adhesion of the solder masks was examined following 150, 175 and 200°C ageing processes. For this purpose, test panels were conditioned for 2000 hours at the respective temperatures and were submitted to a cross-cut test every 500 h. Within this test set-up, it was found that a multi-level chemical pre-treatment gives significantly better adhesion results, in particular at 175°C and 200°C, compared with a pre-treatment by brush or pumice brush. Also, breakdown voltage as well as tracking resistance were investigated. For an application in LED technology, the light reflectivity and white colour stability of the printed circuit board are of major importance, especially when high-power LEDs are used which can generate larger amounts of heat. For this reason, a very high coverage power and an intense white colour with high reflectivity values are essential for white solder masks. These "ultra-white" and largely non-yellowing LPiSM need to be able to withstand specific thermal loads, especially in combination with high-power LED lighting applications.</p><p> The topic of thermal performance of coatings for electronics will also be discussed in view of printed heatsink paste (HSP) and thermal interface paste (TIP) coatings which are used for a growing number of applications. They are processed at the printed circuit board manufacturing level for thermal-coupling and heat-spreading purposes in various thermal management-sensitive fields, especially in the automotive and LED lighting industries. Besides giving an overview of the principle functionality, it will be discussed what makes these ceramic-filled epoxy- or silicone-based materials special compared to using "thermal greases" and "thermal pads" for heat dissipation purposes....

Publisher: Lackwerke Peters GmbH + Co KG

Lackwerke Peters GmbH + Co KG

Lackwerke Peters has progressively evolved into one of, if not the market leader for coating materials for assembled pcbs / flat packs in Europe, which includes renowned companies from aviation and aerospace technolog

Kempen, Germany

Manufacturer of Assembly Material

Non-Destructive Test Methods

Sep 23, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

Failure analysis (FA), by its very nature, is needed only when things goawry. Before any testing is performed on the sample, a decision mustbe made as to whether or not the sample is allowed to be destroyedin the process of testing. Non-destructive testing can allow for re-use of the assembly since the functionality is not altered, but there still remains the possibility that inadvertent damage can occur through the course of the analysis. If non-destructive testing is preferred, then the following types of analysis can be performed. The testing can be divided into four categories: visual, X-ray (X-ray imaging and X-ray fluorescence), cleanliness (resistivity of solvent extract, ion chromatography, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), and mechanical (non-destructive wire bond pull)....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

How Detrimental Production Concerns Related to Solder Mask Residues Can Be Countered by Simple Operational Adaptations

Sep 19, 2019 | Rick Nichols, Sandra Heinemann, Gustavo Ramos, Dr. Lars Nothdurft, Hubertus Mertens

The symbiotic relationship between solder masks and selective finishes is not new. The soldermask application is one of the key considerations to ensure a successful application of a selective finish. The selective finish is the final chemical step of the PCB manufacturing process, this is when the panels are at their most valuable and are unfortunately not re-workable. Imperfections are not tolerated, even if they are wholly cosmetic. Quality issues often manifest themselves in the form of a 'ping pong' conversation between the fabricators, the soldermask suppliers and the selective finish suppliers. Without tangible evidence these discussions are difficult to resolve and the selective finish process is usually regarded as responsible.</p> <p>This paper will focus on the chemical characteristics and use them to predict or identify potential issues before they occur rather than specifically name 'critical' soldermasks. It is also the intention of this paper to address the potential of a soldermask to react to common yield hiking practices like UV bumping and oven curing. It is hoped that this awareness will help fabricators to ensure maximum yields by asking the right questions. 'Critical’ soldermasks impact all selective finishes. In this paper, practical experience using immersion tin will be used to highlight the relationship between 'critical' soldermasks and some of the issues seen in the field. The paper will include a novel approach to identify re-deposited volatiles after the reflow....

Publisher: Atotech

Atotech

One of the world's leading suppliers of integrated production systems, chemistry, equipment, know-how and service for electroplating, semiconductor and printed circuit board manufacturing.

Berlin, Germany

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Manufacturer of Components, Components / Substrates

Advantages of PET carrier tape

Sep 17, 2019 | James tong

1.PET carrier tape. It has outstanding mechanical function, and the impact strength is 3~5 times that of other films, and the folding resistance is good....

Publisher: Sewate Technology Co.,Ltd

Sewate Technology Co.,Ltd

Sewate professionally produce ESD protective packaging systems such as ic shipping tubes, plastic anti static ic tubes,, carrier tape, cover tape and reel for electronic component

Shenzhen, China

Antistatic, Component Packaging, Tape and Reel Services

Virtual Manufacturing

Sep 16, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

“What is Virtual Manufacturing?” The simplest answer is a manufacturing simulation using a computer. The more complete answer is that virtual manufacturing is the process of designing a model of a real system and conducting experiments with this model for the purpose of understanding the behavior of the system. In today’s complex manufacturing environment, processes must be completely understood before implementation in order to “get it right the first time.” To achieve this goal, the use of a virtual environment is essential for simulating individual manufacturing processes and the total manufacturing system. By driving compatibility between the product design and the assembly plant process, these virtual tools enable the early optimization of cost, quality, and time to help achieve integrated products, process and resource design, and affordability....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Investigation of Cutting Quality and Mitigation Methods for Laser Depaneling of Printed Circuit Boards

Sep 11, 2019 | Ahne Oosterhof, Eastwood Consulting, Javier Gonzalez, LPKF Laser & Electronics AG

There are numerous techniques to singulate printed circuit boards after assembly including break-out, routing, wheel cutting and now laser cutting. Lasers have several desirable advantages such as very narrow kerf widths as well as virtually no dust, no mechanical stress, visual pattern recognition and fast set-up changes. The very narrow kerf width resulting from laser ablation and the very tight tolerance of the cutting path placement allows for more usable space on the panel. However, the energy used in the laser cutting process can also create unwanted products on the cut walls as a result of the direct laser ablation. The question raised often is: What are these products, and how far can the creation of such products be mitigated through variation of the laser cutting process, laser parameters and material handling? This paper discusses the type and quantity of the products found on sidewalls of laser depaneled circuit boards and it quantifies the results through measurements of breakdown voltage, as well as electrical impedance. Further this paper discusses mitigation strategies to prevent or limit the amount of change in surface quality as a result of the laser cutting process. Depending on the final application of the circuit board it may prompt a need for proper specification of the expected results in terms of cut surface quality. This in turn will impact the placement of runs and components during layout. It will assist designers and engineers in defining these parameters sufficiently in order to have a predictable quality of the circuit boards after depaneling....

Publisher: LPKF Laser & Electronics

LPKF Laser & Electronics

With its broad product range LPKF is one of the world market leaders in the "in-house rapid PCB prototyping" and "StencilLaser" services

Tualatin, Oregon, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Drilling / Routing

Full Material Declarations: Removing Barriers to Environmental Data Reporting

Sep 04, 2019 | Roger L. Franz

Since the European Directives, RoHS (Restriction of Hazardous Substances) and REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals), entered into force in 2006-7, the number of regulated substances continues to grow. REACH adds new substances roughly twice a year, and more substances will be added to RoHS in 2019. While these open-ended regulations represent an ongoing burden for supply chain reporting, some ability to remain ahead of new substance restrictions can be achieved through full material declarations (FMD) specifically the IPC-1752A Class D Standard (the "Standard"), which was developed by the IPC - Association Connecting Electronic Industries. What is important to the supply chain is access to user-friendly, easily accessible or free, fully supported tools that allow suppliers to create and modify XML (Extensible Markup Language) files as specified in the Standard. Some tools will provide enhancements that validate required data entry and provide real-time interactive messages to facilitate the resolution of errors. In addition, validation and auto-population of substance CAS (Chemical Abstract Service) numbers, and Class D weight rollup validation ensure greater success in the acceptance of the declarations in customer systems that automate data gathering and reporting. A good tool should support importing existing IPC-1752A files for editing; this capability reduces the effort to update older declarations and greatly benefits suppliers of a family of products with similar composition. One of the problems with FMDs is the use of "wildcard" non-CAS numbers based on a declarable substance list (DSL). While the substances in different company's lists tend to have some overlap, no two DSL’s are the same. We provide an understanding of the commonality and differences between representative DSLs, and the ability to configure how much of a non-DSL substance percent is allowed. Case studies are discussed to show how supplier compliance data, can be automatically loaded into the customer's enterprise compliance system. Finally, we briefly discuss future enhancements and other developments like Once an Article, Always an Article (O5A) that will continue to require IPC standards and supporting tools to evolve....

Publisher: TE Connectivity

TE Connectivity

A technology leader in the world's fastest growing markets, helping connect power, data and signal in everything from automotive and aerospace to broadband communications, consumer, energy and industrial applications.

Schaffhausen, Switzerland

Manufacturer of Components, IPC Standards Certification Center, Training Provider

Microscopy in Failure Analysis

Sep 03, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

Both optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are powerful tools for failure analysis in electronics and are used for low and high magnification examination. This article will provide detailed, step by step information for examining solder joints....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

What is the difference between the carrier tape and the cover tape?

Sep 03, 2019 | James tong

The cover tape and the carrier tape are two different products, and many people cannot distinguish the difference between the cover tape and the carrier tape....

Publisher: Sewate Technology Co.,Ltd

Sewate Technology Co.,Ltd

Sewate professionally produce ESD protective packaging systems such as ic shipping tubes, plastic anti static ic tubes,, carrier tape, cover tape and reel for electronic component

Shenzhen, China

Antistatic, Component Packaging, Tape and Reel Services

Graphene electronic fibres with touch-sensing and light emitting functionalities for smart textiles

Aug 29, 2019 | Elias Torres Alonso, Daniela P. Rodrigues, Mukond Khetani, Dong-Wook Shin, Adolfo De Sanctis, Hugo Joulie, Isabel de Schrijver, Anna Baldycheva, Helena Alves, Ana I. S. Neves, Saverio Russo, Monica F. Craciun

The true integration of electronics into textiles requires the fabrication of devices directly on the fibre itself using high-performance materials that allow seamless incorporation into fabrics. Woven electronics and opto-electronics, attained by intertwined fibres with complementary functions are the emerging and most ambitious technological and scientific frontier. Here we demonstrate graphene-enabled functional devices directly fabricated on textile fibres and attained by weaving graphene electronic fibres in a fabric. Capacitive touch-sensors and light-emitting devices were produced using a roll-to-roll-compatible patterning technique, opening new avenues for woven textile electronics. Finally, the demonstration of fabric-enabled pixels for displays and position sensitive functions is a gateway for novel electronic skin, wearable electronic and smart textile applications....

Publisher: University of Exeter, College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences

University of Exeter, College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences

The College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences comprises seven unique subject areas: Computer Science, Engineering, Geology, Mathematics, Mining and Minerals Engineering, Physics and Astronomy and Renewable Energy.

Exeter, United Kingdom

School

What are the factors that affect the appearance of IC shipping tubes?

Aug 24, 2019 | James tong

Many customers looking for IC shipping tubes value the appearance of the packing tube. They will feel that if the appearance of the IC tube does not look good, the quality will not be very good, so the first impression of the appearance of the Antistatic ic tube is very important. So what are the factors that affect the appearance of IC tubes?...

Publisher: Sewate Technology Co.,Ltd

Sewate Technology Co.,Ltd

Sewate professionally produce ESD protective packaging systems such as ic shipping tubes, plastic anti static ic tubes,, carrier tape, cover tape and reel for electronic component

Shenzhen, China

Antistatic, Component Packaging, Tape and Reel Services

What is usage of Electronic dry cabinet?

Aug 19, 2019 | climatest symor

Electronic dry cabinet for MSD storage Humidity is one of the key reasons for rejected products, many manufacturers are taking measures to control the humidity to increase production efficiency and save cost. In semiconductor and electronic industry, the key section of rejected products mostly happen during SMT heating process, Climatest Symor® auto dry cabinet is a superior solution to avoid the cracking. Warranty: two years with lifetime technical support...

Publisher: Symor Instrument Equipment Co.,Ltd

Symor Instrument Equipment Co.,Ltd

Climatest Symor® is the leading environmental simulation testing equipment manufacturer in China established in 2001, located at Dayang Industrial Park,Hefei,China.

Hefei, China

Manufacturer of Test Equipment

Automated Testing with Boundary Scan

Aug 19, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

Boundary scan is a method for testing interconnects on printed circuit boards (PCBs) or sub-blocks inside an integrated circuit. It has rapidly become the technology of choice for building reliable high technology electronic products with a high degree of testability. Due to the low-cost and integrated circuit (IC) level access capabilities of boundary scan, its use has expanded beyond traditional board test applications into product design and service....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Cracks: The Hidden Defect

Aug 15, 2019 | John Maxwell

Cracks in ceramic chip capacitors can be introduced at any process step during surface mount assembly. Thermal shock has become a "pat" answer for all of these cracks, but about 75 to 80% originate from other sources. These sources include pick and place machine centering jaws, vacuum pick up bit, board depanelization, unwarping boards after soldering, test fixtures, connector insulation, final assembly, as well as defective components. Each source has a unique signature in the type of crack that it develops so that each can be identified as the source of error....

Publisher: AVX Corporation

AVX Corporation

A leading international electronic supplier of components and connectors with worldwide manufacturing facilities, offering the world's broadest selection of passive electronic components.

Fountain Inn, South Carolina, USA

Cleaning Flux Residue under Leadless Components using Objective Evidence to Determine Cleaning Performance

Aug 14, 2019 | Mike Bixenman - KYZEN Corporation, Vladimir Sitko, Pavel Hub - PBT Works

Cleanliness is a product of design, including component density, standoff height and the cleaning equipment’s ability to deliver the cleaning agent to the source of residue. The presence of manufacturing process soil, such as flux residue, incompletely activated flux, incompletely cured solder masks, debris from handling and processing fixtures, and incomplete removal of cleaning fluids can hinder the functional lifetime of the product. Contaminates trapped under a component are more problematic to failure. Advanced test methods are needed to obtain "objective evidence" for removing flux residues under leadless components.</p><p>Cleaning process performance is a function of cleaning capacity and defined cleanliness. Cleaning performance can be influenced by the PCB design, cleaning material, cleaning machine, reflow conditions and a wide range of process parameters.</p><p>This research project is designed to study visual flux residues trapped under the bottom termination of leadless components. This paper will research a non-destructive visual method that can be used to study the cleanability of solder pastes, cleaning material effectiveness for the soil, cleaning machine effectiveness and process parameters needed to render a clean part....

Publisher: KYZEN Corporation

KYZEN Corporation

A leading supplier of precision cleaning chemistries to the worldwide electronics, metal finishing, medical, semiconductor, and optical industries.

Nashville, Tennessee, USA

Cleaning

How to deal with the carrier tape and the cover tape sealing crack

Aug 14, 2019 | James tong

There are five forms of carrier tape sealing cracking. In particular, it is more important to seal products such as IC components (IC tape carriers) and lighter and thinner LED components (LED tape carriers). ...

Publisher: Sewate Technology Co.,Ltd

Sewate Technology Co.,Ltd

Sewate professionally produce ESD protective packaging systems such as ic shipping tubes, plastic anti static ic tubes,, carrier tape, cover tape and reel for electronic component

Shenzhen, China

Antistatic, Component Packaging, Tape and Reel Services

How to select the best SCADA training

Aug 09, 2019 | Don Fitchett

Working with SCADA systems when not properly trained and qualified can be almost as dangerous as working with PLCs without proper PLC training. Some times it can be even more costly to a company. This article explains the best way to learn SCADA systems, also the most cost-effective way! Read to learn how to select the best, what to look for in a SCADA course....

Publisher: Business Industrial Network

Business Industrial Network

Offers training software and videos. Also, on-site training that qualify for CEUs to maintenance, engineering, and management professionals.

Las Vegas, Nevada, USA

Consultant, Publication or Online Resource, Service Provider, Software Manufacturer, Training Provider

Selective Soldering and the Modular Approach

Aug 08, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

High mix production is the mainstay of many electronics assembly plants. Lot sizes and board complexities vary and the boards are often mixed technology, comprising a blend of both surface mount and through-hole technology. Modularizing a production line enables a clear distinction between one type of assembly process and another. This article assumes a modern factory where a job can be routed to the selective soldering machine module, the hand assembly bench, or a combination of both. The decision rules of routing a circuit board through hand assembly versus automated selective soldering are discussed. Hand assembly soldering operations require no explanation....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Novel Approach to Void Reduction Using Microflux Coated Solder Preforms for QFN/BTC Packages that Generate Heat

Aug 07, 2019 | Anna Lifton, Paul Salerno, Jerry Sidone, Oskar Khasalev

The requirement to reconsider traditional soldering methods is becoming more relevant as the demand for bottom terminated components (QFN/BTC) increases. Thermal pads under said components are designed to enhance the thermal and electrical performance of the component and ultimately allow the component to run more efficiently. Additionally, low voiding is important in decreasing the current path of the circuit to maximize high speed and RF performances. The demand to develop smaller, more reliable, packages has seen voiding requirements decrease below 15 percent and in some instances, below 10 percent.</p><p>Earlier work has demonstrated the use of micro-fluxed solder preforms as a mechanism to reduce voiding. The current work builds upon these results to focus on developing an engineered approach to void reduction in leadless components (QFN) through increasing understanding of how processing parameters and a use of custom designed micro-fluxed preforms interact. Leveraging the use of a micro-fluxed solder preform in conjunction with low voiding solder paste, stencil design, and application knowhow are critical factors in determining voiding in QFN packages. The study presented seeks to understand the vectors that can contribute to voiding such as PCB pad finish, reflow profile, reflow atmosphere, via configuration, and ultimately solder design.</p><p>A collaboration between three companies consisting of solder materials supplier, a power semiconductor supplier, and an electronic assembly manufacturer worked together for an in-depth study into the effectiveness of solder preforms at reducing voiding under some of the most prevalent bottom terminated components packages. The effects of factors such as thermal pad size, finish on PCB, preform types, stencil design, reflow profile and atmosphere, have been evaluated using lead-free SAC305 low voiding solder paste and micro-fluxed preforms. Design and manufacturing rules developed from this work will be discussed....

Publisher: Alpha Assembly Solutions

Alpha Assembly Solutions

Alpha Assembly Solutions is a world leader in the development, manufacturing, and sales of innovative materials used in the assembly electronics, industrial joining and Photo Voltaic market places.

South Plainfield, New Jersey, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material

Attaching Fiber Optic Modules

Aug 01, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

Optical fibers transmit information in the form of pulses of light. The advantages of optical fibers over traditional copper wires include: higher throughput, greater signal distance and speed, smaller cable mass and diameter, greater pull tension limit, and resistance to electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio frequency interference(RFI). The disadvantages of fiber optics when compared to copper wires include: end-face defects, cleanliness, and the ease of attaching connectors to electronics assemblies (Figure 1)....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Design Parameters Influening Reliability of CCGA Assembly; a Sensitivity Analysis

Jul 30, 2019 | Amaneh Tasooji, Antonio Rinaldi - Arizona State University, Reza Ghaffarian - Jet Propulsion Laboratory

Area Array microelectronic packages with small pitch and large I/O counts are now widely used in microelectronics packaging. The impact of various package design and materials/process parameters on reliability has been studied through extensive literature review. Reliability of Ceramic Column Grid Array (CCGA) package assemblies has been evaluated using JPL thermal cycle test results (-50°/75°C, -55°/100°C, and -55°/125°C), as well as those reported by other investigators. A sensitivity analysis has been performed using the literature data to study the impact of design parameters and global/local stress conditions on assembly reliability. The applicability of various life-prediction models for CCGA design has been investigated by comparing model's predictions with the experimental thermal cycling data. Finite Element Method (FEM) analysis has been conducted to assess the state of the stress/strain in CCGA assembly under different thermal cycling, and to explain the different failure modes and locations observed in JPL test assemblies....

Publisher: Jet Propulsion Laboratory

Jet Propulsion Laboratory

The JPL is the lead U.S. center for robotic exploration of the solar system, and conducts major programs in space-based Earth sciences and astronomy.

Pasadena, California, USA

IPC Standards Certification Center, Training Provider

Conformal Coating Processes

Jul 29, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies can assist its users with process development and experimentation through the use of the conformal coating capabilities in the Demonstration Factory. Four types of coating processes are available at ACI Technologies: dip coating, manual spray coating, programmable spray coating, and manual brush application. (Manual brush application will not be discussed in this article.)...

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Carrier tape introduction and classification

Jul 27, 2019 | James tong

Carrier Tape refers to a strip product used in the field of electronic packaging, which has a specific thickness, and equidistantly distributes holes (also called pockets) for holding electronic components in the longitudinal direction thereof. Positioning hole for index positioning....

Publisher: Sewate Technology Co.,Ltd

Sewate Technology Co.,Ltd

Sewate professionally produce ESD protective packaging systems such as ic shipping tubes, plastic anti static ic tubes,, carrier tape, cover tape and reel for electronic component

Shenzhen, China

Antistatic, Component Packaging, Tape and Reel Services

Voiding Performance with Solder Pastes Containing Modified SAC Alloys for Automotive Applications in Bottom Terminated Component Assemblies

Jul 24, 2019 | Brook Sandy-Smith

Voiding is a key concern for components with thermal planes because interruptions in Z-axis continuity of the solder joint will hinder thermal transfer. When assembling components with solder paste, there is a high propensity for voiding due to the confined nature of the solder paste deposits under the component. Once reflowed, many factors contribute to the amount of voiding in a solder joint such as the reflow profile, designs of the component, board and stencil, and material factors. This study will focus on the solder paste alloy and flux combination as well as profile and board surface finishes....

Publisher: Indium Corporation

Indium Corporation

Solder pastes, solder preforms, solder spheres, soldering fluxes, electrically-conductive adhesives. All alloys: tin-lead, lead-free, indium alloys, and more.

Utica, New York, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Soldering

Common Process Defect Identification of QFN Packages

Jul 23, 2019 | David Bernard @ Dage Precision Industries, Bob Willis @ ASKbobwillis.com

The Quad Flat Pack No Leads (QFN) style of leadless packaging [also known as a Land Grid Array (LGA)] is rapidly increasing in us e for wireless, automotive, telecom and many other areas becaus e of its low cost, low stand-off height and excellent thermal and electri cal properties. With the implementation of any new package type, there is always a learning curve for its use in design and processing as well as for the Process and Quality Engineers who have to get to grips with the challenges that these packages bring. Therefore, this paper will provide examples of the common process defects that can be seen with QFNs /LGAs when using optical and x-ray inspection as part of manufacturing quality control. Results of trials conducted on four PCB finishes and using vapour phase and convection reflow will be discussed....

Publisher: Nordson DAGE

Nordson DAGE

The leading provider of award winning bond testing equipment and continues to invest significantly in research and development to remain at the cutting edge of bond tester technology.

Aylesbury. Buckinghamshire, United Kingdom

Inspection, Test Services

A Systematic Approach to RoHS Analysis

Jul 19, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

One of the most frequently asked questions of ACI Technologies (ACI) is how to qualify and verify that the electronic systems shipped by their respective companies are Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) compliant. The RoHS directive has been implemented since July of 2006, and the preoccupation with what constitutes a compliant product continues to confuse the electronic industry. ACI receives countless inquiries regarding how to qualify and verify that the electronic systems shipped by the irrespective companies are RoHS compliant. The approach to proving compliancy requires a sequential analytical process that utilizes a decision flow chart....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Via Fill and Through Hole Plating Process with Enhanced TH Microdistribution

Jul 17, 2019 | Maria Nikolova, Confesol Rodriguez, Kesheng Feng, Carmichael Gugliotti, William Bowerman, Jim Watkowski, Bob Wei

The increased demand for electronic devices in recent years has led to an extensive research in the field to meet the requirements of the industry. Electrolytic copper has been an important technology in the fabrication of PCBs and semiconductors. Aqueous sulfuric acid baths are explored for filling or building up with copper structures like blind micro vias (BMV), trenches, through holes (TH), and pillar bumps. As circuit miniaturization continues, developing a process that simultaneously fills vias and plates TH with various sizes and aspect ratios, while minimizing the surface copper thickness is critical. Filling BMV and plating TH at the same time, presents great difficulties for the PCB manufactures. The conventional copper plating processes that provide good via fill and leveling of the deposit tend to worsen the throwing power (TP) of the electroplating bath. TP is defined as the ratio of the deposit copper thickness in the center of the through hole to its thickness at the surface.</p> <p>In this paper an optimization of recently developed innovative, one step acid copper plating technology for filling vias with a minimal surface thickness and plating through holes is presented....

Publisher: MacDermid Inc.

MacDermid Inc.

MacDermid is a global provider of specialty chemicals for the most complex printed circuit board designs. We specialize in the areas of final finishes, through-hole metallization, and circuit formation.

Waterbury, Connecticut, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Antistatic

Design of Experimentation for Affordability

Jul 11, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

Affordability is not exactly the primary word which comes to mind when discussing the use of design of experiments (DOE) principles, but is generally accepted as a necessary part of the engineering activities required in the development of a product or process. However, a number of studies have indicated that the cost savings derived from a well deliberated experimental design can be substantial in the initial stages where the conditions or parameters of a process are determined. Some studies have shown a greater than 50% cost savings compared to the more conventional means of trial and error approaches to process development. At ACI Technologies (ACI), we have found the use of DOE techniques fundamental in eliminating extraneous costs otherwise spent on unnecessary testing....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Void Reduction in Bottom Terminated Components Using Vacuum Assisted Reflow

Jul 10, 2019 | M. Barnes, D.W. Lee, D. Heller - Heller Industries, M.Holtzer, T. Cucu - Alpha Assembly Solutions, J. Fudala, J. Renda - MacDermid Enthone Electronic Solutions

Pockets of gas, or voids, trapped in the solder interface between discrete power management devices and circuit assemblies are, unfortunately, excellent insulators, or barriers to thermal conductivity. This resistance to heat flow reduces the electrical efficiency of these devices, reducing battery life and expected functional life time of electronic assemblies. There is also a corresponding increase in current density (as the area for current conduction is reduced) that generates additional heat, further leading to performance degradation....

Publisher: Heller Industries Inc.

Heller Industries Inc.

Reflow ovens for automated SMT PCB assembly, specializing in lead free processing and nitrogen reflow. The best convection reflow ovens on the market.

Florham Park, New Jersey, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Soldering, OEM

Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

Jul 05, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy exists as one of the most powerful techniques for chemical identification and the most practical for “first step” analysis. Analytical instrumentation such as GC-MS and LC-MS are commonly used for identifying organic compounds. However, these techniques are costly and often require extensive set up time, method development, and sample alteration. Reliance upon FTIR as a robust and versatile tool can be based on its attributes of simplicity, speed, sensitivity, and affordability....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Reduce Pollution of Process Gasses in an Air Reflow Oven

Jul 02, 2019 | Gerjan Diepstraten

The introduction of lead-free solders resulted in a selection of different chemistries for solder pastes. The higher melting points of lead-free alloys required thermal heat resistant rosin systems and activators that are active at elevated temperatures. As a result, more frequent maintenance of the filtration systems is required and machine downtime is increased.</p><p>Last year a different method of cleaning reflow ovens was introduced. Instead of cooling down the process gasses to condensate the residues, a catalyst was used to maintain the clean oven. Catalytic thermal oxidation of residues in the nitrogen atmosphere resulted in cleaner heating zones. The residues were transformed into carbon dioxide. This remaining small amount of char was collected in the catalyst. In air ovens the catalyst was not seen as a beneficial option because the air extracted out of the oven was immediately exhausted into the environment. When a catalyst is used in an air environment there is not only the carbon dioxide residues, but also water. When a catalyst is used in an air reflow oven the question is where the water is going to. Will it condensate in the process part of the oven or is the gas temperature high enough to keep it out of the process area? A major benefit of using a catalyst to clean the air before it is exhausted into the environment is that the air pollution is reduced dramatically. This will make environmental engineers happy and result in less pollution of our nature. Apart from this, the exhaust tubes remain clean which reduces the maintenance of air ovens.</p><p>This paper will give more detailed information of catalyst systems during development and performance in production lines....

Publisher: Vitronics Soltec

Vitronics Soltec

Global manufacturer of XPM Reflow Ovens, ZEVA Selective Soldering and Delta Wave Soldering Equipment.

Camdenton, Missouri, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Soldering, Selective Soldering

Computer Aided Design, Manufacturing, and Engineering

Jul 01, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

In the electronics industry of today, companies emphasize better quality, lower cost, and shorter lead time on their products in order to keep up with their competitors. ACI Technologies (ACI) has been utilizing Computer Aided Design (CAD), Computer Aided Manufacturing(CAM), and Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) in its development of advanced electronics systems. CAD utilizes computer systems to assist in the creation, modification, analysis, and optimization of a design [1]....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Advanced Cu Electroplating Process for Any Layer Via Fill Applications with Thin Surface Copper

Jun 26, 2019 | Saminda Dharmarathna, Christian Rietmann, William Bowerman, Kesheng Feng, Jim Watkowski

Copper-filled micro-vias are a key technology in high density interconnect (HDI) designs that have enabled increasing miniaturization and densification of printed circuit boards for the next generation of electronic products. Compared with standard plated through holes (PTHs) copper filled vias provide greater design flexibility, improved signal performance, and can potentially help reduce layer count, thus reducing cost. Considering these advantages, there are strong incentives to optimize the via filling process. This paper presents an innovative DC acid copper via fill formulation, for VCP (Vertical Continues Plating) applications which rapidly fills vias while minimizing surface plating....

Publisher: MacDermid Inc.

MacDermid Inc.

MacDermid is a global provider of specialty chemicals for the most complex printed circuit board designs. We specialize in the areas of final finishes, through-hole metallization, and circuit formation.

Waterbury, Connecticut, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Antistatic

Manufacturing Cost Reduction through Automation

Jun 24, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

Defense systems and its manufacturers are often blamed for not embracing new and innovative technologies to manufacture products compared to its commercial counterparts. Commercial product manufacturers are known to think “outside the box” in coming up with new products which are cheaper, have fewer parts, and easier to manufacture using automation. Automation leads to consistent quality products which are reliable and reproducible. Implementing some of these producibility design practices into defense systems will greatly reduce the cost and insertion time for new products....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Investigation of Through-Hole Capacitor Parts Failures Following Vibration and Stress Testing

Jun 21, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

Recently, an ACI Technologies (ACI) customer called to discuss failures that they had observed with some through-hole capacitor parts. The components were experiencing failures following vibration and accelerated stress testing. Upon receipt of the samples, ACI performed three levels of inspection and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) testing to investigate the root cause of the failures. These analyses enabled ACI to verify the elements comprising the solder joints and make the following recommendations in order to prevent future occurrences. The first inspection was to investigate the capacitor leads using optical microscopy, and no anomalies were found that could indicate bad parts from the vendor or improper handling prior to assembly. However, vertical fill in the barrel of the plated through-holes was too close to the IPC-A-610 minimum specification of 75% to determine a pass/fail condition, and therefore required further investigation....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Tin Whiskers: Mitigation with Conformal Coatings | Part II

Jun 20, 2019 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

One of the two basic risks of employing the commercially accepted, Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) compliant, lead-free (Pb-free) electronics is the threat to the electronics reliability from the growth of tin whiskers. The other basic risk deals with Pb-free solder joint reliability....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

Dissolution in Service of the Copper Substrate of Solder Joints

Jun 20, 2019 | Nihon Superior Co., Ltd, Department of Materials, Imperial College London

It is well known that during service the layer of Cu6Sn5 intermetallic at the interface between the solder and a Cu substrate grows but the usual concern has been that if this layer gets too thick it will be the brittleness of this intermetallic that will compromise the reliability of the joint, particularly in impact loading. There is another level of concern when the Cu-rich Cu3Sn phase starts to develop at the Cu6Sn5/Cu interface and an imbalance in the diffusion of atomic species, Sn and Cu, across that interface results in the formation at the Cu3Sn/Cu interface of Kirkendall voids, which can also compromise reliability in impact loading. However, when, as is the case in some microelectronics, the copper substrate is thin in relation to the volume of solder in the joint an overriding concern is that all of the Cu will be consumed by reaction with Sn to form these intermetallics.<p><p>This paper reports an investigation into the kinetics of the growth of the interfacial intermetallic, and the consequent reduction in the thickness of the Cu substrate in solder joints made with three alloys, Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu, Sn-0.7Cu-0.05Ni and Sn-1.5Bi-0.7Cu-0.05Ni....

Publisher: Nihon Superior Co., Ltd.

Nihon Superior Co., Ltd.

Nihon has been a leader in soldering and brazing since 1966. Nihon manufactures SMT solder joining materials e.g. lead-free solder (SN100C:Sn-Cu-Ni-Ge etc): solder paste, solder spheres, flux cored solder wire, solder bar, etc.

Osaka, Japan

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Soldering

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SMT spare parts - Qinyi Electronics

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