Electronics Manufacturing Technical Articles

Electronics Manufacturing Technical Articles

Papers and articles related to SMT, PCB & EMS industry.


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1504 SMT / PCB Assembly Related Technical Articles

Siemens Piece 0319827S02 SMT Spare Parts Smt Placement Equipment

Oct 31, 2022 | Germany

Quality: 100% Tested Precision: High Precision Color: Sliver Transport Package: Wooden Case Specification: HS50 Certification: ISO, CE...

Publisher: Shenzhen Zhongrun Hi-Tech Technology Co., Ltd.

Shenzhen Zhongrun Hi-Tech Technology Co., Ltd.

Our company was established in 2013, specializing in providing SMT accessories. We are a fully electronic contract wholesaler, providing complete services, including BOM, material procurement, quality assurance,

Baoan District, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China, China

Consultant / Service Provider

Siemens Asm Pickup Window 12x16 Smt Spare Parts 00322753S04 00328503

Oct 31, 2022 | Germany

Model/Specification: 12*16MM Common Name: Press Cover/GUIDE Suitable Fo: Siemens Feeder Parts Material: Ceramic Wight: 55g Quality: 100% Tested High Light: 12x16 Smt Spare Parts, 00328503, 00322753S04...

Publisher: Shenzhen Zhongrun Hi-Tech Technology Co., Ltd.

Shenzhen Zhongrun Hi-Tech Technology Co., Ltd.

Our company was established in 2013, specializing in providing SMT accessories. We are a fully electronic contract wholesaler, providing complete services, including BOM, material procurement, quality assurance,

Baoan District, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China, China

Consultant / Service Provider

46191201 Cutter Housing Assy Universal Axial Distribution Head Mechanism

Oct 31, 2022 | CHINA

Model Name: CUTTER HOUSING ASSY Patch Speed: 10000 (grains/hour) Applicable Model: Plug-in Machine Accessories Category: Industrial Equipment Weight: About 500g Automatic Manual: Automatic...

Publisher: Shenzhen Zhongrun Hi-Tech Technology Co., Ltd.

Shenzhen Zhongrun Hi-Tech Technology Co., Ltd.

Our company was established in 2013, specializing in providing SMT accessories. We are a fully electronic contract wholesaler, providing complete services, including BOM, material procurement, quality assurance,

Baoan District, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China, China

Consultant / Service Provider

MMMA3ACN2A SMT Spare Parts AC Servo Motor SM411Z-Axis Motor Brand New

Oct 31, 2022 | japan

Minimum Order Quantity: 1/pcs Price: Negotiable,EXW Price Packaging Details: High quality carton packaging Delivery Time: 1-2 work days Payment Terms: L/C, D/A, D/P, T/T, Western Union, MoneyGram Supply Ability: 1000pcs monthly, delivery time 1-2 days...

Publisher: Shenzhen Zhongrun Hi-Tech Technology Co., Ltd.

Shenzhen Zhongrun Hi-Tech Technology Co., Ltd.

Our company was established in 2013, specializing in providing SMT accessories. We are a fully electronic contract wholesaler, providing complete services, including BOM, material procurement, quality assurance,

Baoan District, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China, China

Consultant / Service Provider

Samsung Pneumatic SMT Spare Parts SM24mm Cylinder J67011042A

Oct 31, 2022 | Korea

Minimum Order Quantity: 1/pcs Price: Negotiable,EXW Price Packaging Details: High quality carton packaging Delivery Time: 1-2 work days Payment Terms: L/C, D/A, D/P, T/T, Western Union, MoneyGram Supply Ability: 1000pcs monthly, delivery time 1-2 days...

Publisher: Shenzhen Zhongrun Hi-Tech Technology Co., Ltd.

Shenzhen Zhongrun Hi-Tech Technology Co., Ltd.

Our company was established in 2013, specializing in providing SMT accessories. We are a fully electronic contract wholesaler, providing complete services, including BOM, material procurement, quality assurance,

Baoan District, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China, China

Consultant / Service Provider

104132101501 SMT Spare Parts AI Automatic Plug In Machine Accessories

Oct 31, 2022 | japan

Brand Name panasonic Model 104132101501 Origin JAPAN Minimum order quantity 1PCS Price negotiable...

Publisher: Shenzhen Zhongrun Hi-Tech Technology Co., Ltd.

Shenzhen Zhongrun Hi-Tech Technology Co., Ltd.

Our company was established in 2013, specializing in providing SMT accessories. We are a fully electronic contract wholesaler, providing complete services, including BOM, material procurement, quality assurance,

Baoan District, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China, China

Consultant / Service Provider

Original Panasonic SMT Spare Parts 104691107604 NSC CHUCK 10469S0007

Oct 31, 2022 | japan

Material: Iron Model Name: NSC CHUCK Top Quality: 180g Automatic / Manual: Automatic Specification: Original New,copy New Shipping Method: FedEx, DHL, Etc....

Publisher: Shenzhen Zhongrun Hi-Tech Technology Co., Ltd.

Shenzhen Zhongrun Hi-Tech Technology Co., Ltd.

Our company was established in 2013, specializing in providing SMT accessories. We are a fully electronic contract wholesaler, providing complete services, including BOM, material procurement, quality assurance,

Baoan District, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China, China

Consultant / Service Provider

ASSESSMENT OF ACCRUED THERMO-MECHANICAL DAMAGE IN LEADFREE PARTS DURING FIELD-EXPOSURE TO MULTIPLE ENVIRONMENTS

Oct 11, 2022 | Pradeep Lall, Ph.D., Rahul Vaidya and Vikrant More and Kai Goebel, Ph.D.

Electronic assemblies deployed in harsh environments may be subjected to multiple thermal environments during the use-life of the equipment. Often the equipment may not have any macro-indicators of damage such as cracks or delamination. Quantiication of thermal environments during use-life is often not feasible because of the data-capture and storage requirements, and the overhead on core-system functionality. There is need for tools and techniques to quantify damage in deployed systems in absence of macro-indicators of damage without knowledge of prior stress history. The presented PHM framework is targeted towards high reliability applications such as avionic and space systems. In this paper, Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu alloy packages have been subjected to multiple thermal cycling environments including -55 to 125C and 0 to 100C. Assemblies investigated include area-array packages soldered on FR4 printed circuit cards. The methodology involves the use of condition monitoring devices, for gathering data on damage pre-cursors at periodic intervals. Damage-state interrogation technique has been developed based on the Levenberg-Marquardt Algorithm in conjunction with the microstructural damage evolution proxies. The presented technique is applicable to electronic assemblies which have been deployed on one thermal environment, then withdrawn from service and targeted for redeployment in a different thermal environment. Test cases have been presented to demonstrate the viability of the technique for assessment of prior damage, operational readiness and residual life for assemblies exposed to multiple thermo-mechanical environments. Prognosticated prior damage and the residual life show good correlation with experimental data, demonstrating the validity of the presented technique for multiple thermo-mechanical environments....

Publisher: Auburn University

Auburn University

Auburn University is a comprehensive land-grant institution with primary missions including instruction, research, and extension/outreach.

Auburn, Alabama, USA

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

MECHANICAL FAILURES IN PB-FREE PROCESSING: EVALUATING THE EFFECT OF PAD CRATER DEFECTS ON PROCESS STRAIN LIMITS FOR BGA DEVICES

Oct 11, 2022 | John McMahon and Brian Gray

The increased temperatures associated with Pb-free processes have produced significant challenges for PWB laminates. Newly developed laminates have different curing processes, are commonly filled with ceramic particles or micro-clays and can have higher Tg values. These changes which are aimed at improving the materials resistance to thermal excursions and maintaining electrical integrity through primary attach and rework operations have also had the effect of producing harder resin systems with lower fracture toughness....

Publisher: Celestica Corporation

Celestica Corporation

A multinational electronics manufacturing services (EMS) company.

Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Manufacturer, Standards Setting / Certification, Training Provider

LEAD-FREE FLUX TECHNOLOGY AND INFLUENCE ON CLEANING

Oct 11, 2022 | Ning-Cheng Lee, Ph.D.

Lead-free flux technology for electronic industry is mainly driven by high soldering temperature, high alloy surface tension, miniaturization, air soldering due to low cost consideration, and environmental concern. Accordingly, the flux features desired included high thermal stability, high resistance against burn-off, high oxidation resistance, high oxygen barrier capability, low surface tension, high fluxing capacity, slow wetting, low moisture pickup, high hot viscosity, and halogen-free. For each of the features listed above, corresponding desired chemical structures can be deduced, and the impact of those structures on flux residue cleanability can be speculated. Overall, lead-free flux technology results in a greater difficulty in cleaning. Cleaner with a better matching solvency for the residue as well as a higher cleaning temperature or agitation are needed. Alkaline and polar cleaner are often needed to deal with the larger quantity of fluxing products. Reactive cleaner is also desired to address the side reaction products such as crosslinked residue....

Publisher: Indium Corporation

Indium Corporation

Solder pastes, solder preforms, solder spheres, soldering fluxes, electrically-conductive adhesives. All alloys: tin-lead, lead-free, indium alloys, and more.

Utica, New York, USA

Manufacturer

Counterfeit Materials Prevention

Oct 04, 2022 | Lockheed Martin Corporation

Counterfeiting is growing in exponential proportions with respect to the types of: • Products being counterfeited • Industries affected • Potential consequences caused by counterfeits If this threat is not adequately addressed, counterfeit items have the potential to seriously compromise the safety and operational effectiveness of our products. The objective of this training is to raise awareness of: • The risks and impacts of counterfeit parts infiltrating the supply chain. • Best practices to eliminate or mitigate those risks • Lockheed Martin counterfeit prevention requirements for suppliers...

Publisher: Lockheed Martin Corporation

Lockheed Martin Corporation

Lockheed Martin is a global security and aerospace company that employs about 112,000 people worldwide and is principally engaged in the research, design, development and manufacturing of advanced technology systems.

Bethesda, Maryland, USA

Other

Methods Used In The Detection Of Counterfeit Electronic Components

Oct 04, 2022 | Harold "Woody" Hewett

In this paper I will discuss the different methods and equipment used to detect counterfeit electronic parts, specifically integrated circuits as well as demonstrate some of the "red flags" that help to identify a part as being suspected counterfeit. We will begin with the initial receipt of the parts and the examination of the outer packaging, the basic visual inspection of the parts, the visual inspection and documentation at high magnification, permanency marking, blacktop test, scrape test, XRF (RoHS), decapsulation, X-ray, basic electrical testing, C-SAM, full function testing and limited function testing....

Publisher: Electro-Comp Tape and Reel Services, LLC

Electro-Comp Tape and Reel Services, LLC

Specializing in SMD, AX, & RAD component tape & reel packaging, Lead forming, baking and hot solder dipping.

Clearwater, Florida, USA

Consultant / Service Provider, Manufacturer

Dispensing Thermally Conductive Materials

Sep 29, 2022 | Scheugenpflug

Electronic vehicles, devices and components must not overheat, otherwise they may fail to operate correctly. Thermal management is a major technical challenge as components are getting smaller, power densities are increasing and demands on robustness and reliability are becoming more stringent. To prevent power losses or defects resulting from overheating, liquid thermal interface materials (TIMs) are being increasingly used to dissipate their heat. This White Paper discusses the aspects that need to be taken into account when dispensing these mostly highly viscous, highly abrasive materials and why in many cases they are better alternatives to pads, tapes and foils....

Publisher: Scheugenpflug Inc.

Scheugenpflug Inc.

Specializes in automated metering & dispensing solutions, supplier of resin metering systems, global expert in production and process automation, vacuum dispensing production systems, and systems for dispensing of abrasive media.

Kennesaw, Georgia, USA

Manufacturer

Avoidance of Ceramic-Substrate-Based LED Chip Cracking Induced by PCB Bending or Flexing

Sep 25, 2022 | Cree Lighting

Printed circuit board (PCB) bending and/or flexing is an unavoidable phenomenon that is known to exist and is easily encountered during electronic board assembly processes. PCB bending and/or flexing is the fundamental source of tensile stress induced on the electronic components on the board assembly. For more brittle components, like ceramic-based electronic components, micro-cracks can be induced, which can eventually lead to a fatal failure of the components. For this reason, many standards organizations throughout the world specify the methods under which electronic board assemblies must be tested to ensure their robustness, sometimes as a pre-condition to more rigorous environmental tests such as thermal cycling or thermal shock....

Publisher: Cree Lighting

Cree Lighting

Cree Lighting is a market-leading innovator of Indoor, Outdoor, and Consumer Bulb LED lighting.

Racine, Wisconsin, USA

Other

Cracking Problems in Low-Voltage Chip Ceramic Capacitors

Sep 25, 2022 | Alexander Teverovsky

Cracking remains the major reason of failures in multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) used in space electronics. Due to a tight quality control of space-grade components, the probability that as manufactured capacitors have cracks is relatively low, and cracking is often occurs during assembly, handling and the following testing of the systems. Majority of capacitors with cracks are revealed during the integration and testing period, but although extremely rarely, defective parts remain undetected and result in failures during the mission. Manual soldering and rework that are often used during low volume production of circuit boards for space aggravate this situation. Although failures of MLCCs are often attributed to the post-manufacturing stresses, in many cases they are due to a combination of certain deviations in the manufacturing processes that result in hidden defects in the parts and excessive stresses during assembly and use. This report gives an overview of design, manufacturing and testing processes of MLCCs focusing on elements related to cracking problems. The existing and new screening and qualification procedures and techniques are briefly described and assessed by their effectiveness in revealing cracks. The capability of different test methods to simulate stresses resulting in cracking, mechanisms of failures in capacitors with cracks, and possible methods of selecting capacitors the most robust to manual soldering stresses are discussed....

Publisher: NASA Office Of Safety And Mission Assurance

NASA Office Of Safety And Mission Assurance

The Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (OSMA) assures the safety and enhances the success of all NASA activities through the development, implementation and oversight of agencywide safety, reliability, maintainability and ...

Washington, District of Columbia, USA

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Analysis of Interfacial Cracking in Flip Chip Packages With Viscoplastic Solder Deformation

Sep 25, 2022 | M. J. Heffes, H. F. Nied

This paper examines the modeling of viscoplastic solder behavior in the vicinity of interfacial cracking for flip chip semiconductor packages. Of particular interest is the relationship between viscoplastic deformation in the solder bumps and any possible interface cracking between the epoxy underfill layer and the silicon die. A 3-D finite element code, developed specifically for the study of interfacial fracture problems, was modified to study how viscoplastic solder material properties would affect fracture parameters such as strain energy release rate and phase angle for nearby interfacial cracks. Simplified twolayer periodic symmetry models were developed to investigate these interactions. Comparison of flip chip results using different solder material models showed that viscoplastic models yielded lower stress and fracture parameters than time independent elastic-plastic simulations. It was also found that adding second level attachment greatly increases the magnitude of the solder strain and fracture parameters. As expected, the viscoplastic and temperature dependent elastic-plastic results exhibited greater similarity to each other than results based solely on linear elastic properties. !DOI: 10.1115/1.1649242"

...

Publisher: Lehigh University

Lehigh University

Located in Pennsylvania's beautiful Lehigh Valley, Lehigh is one of the nation's most distinguished private research universities. Through academic rigor, an entrepreneurial mindset and collaborative opportunities we challenge our

Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, USA

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

ElectronicWaste, an Environmental Problem Exported to Developing Countries: The GOOD, the BAD and the UGLY

Sep 21, 2022 | Samuel Abalansa, Badr El Mahrad, John Icely and Alice Newton

Electronic waste (e-waste) is a rapidly developing environmental problem particularly for the most developed countries. There are technological solutions for processing it, but these are costly, and the cheaper option for most developed countries has been to export most of the waste to less developed countries. There are various laws and policies for regulating the processing of e-waste at different governance scales such as the international Basel Convention, the regional Bamoko Convention, and various national laws. However, many of the regulations are not fully implemented and there is substantial financial pressure to maintain the jobs created for processing e-waste. Mexico, Brazil, Ghana Nigeria, India, and China have been selected for a more detailed study of the transboundary movements of e-waste. This includes a systematic review of existing literature, the application of the Driver, Pressure, State, Impact, Response (DPSIR) framework for analysing complex problems associated with social ecological systems, and the application of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for evaluating the environmental impact of electronic devices from their manufacture through to their final disposal. Japan, Italy, Switzerland, and Norway have been selected for the LCA to show how e-waste is diverted to developing countries, as there is not sufficient data available for the assessment from the selected developing countries. GOOD, BAD and UGLY outcomes have been identified from this study: the GOOD is the creation of jobs and the use of e-waste as a source of raw materials; the BAD is the exacerbation of the already poor environmental conditions in developing countries; the UGLY is the negative impact on the health of workers processing e-waste due to a wide range of toxic components in this waste. There are a number of management options that are available to reduce the impact of the BAD and the UGLY, such as adopting the concept of a circular economy, urban mining, reducing loopholes and improving existing policies and regulations, as well as reducing the disparity in income between the top and bottom of the management hierarchy for e-waste disposal. The overarching message is a request for developed countries to help developing countries in the fight against e-waste, rather than exporting their environmental problems to these poorer regions....

Publisher: Murray Foundation

Murray Foundation

The Murray Foundation's purpose is, for the public benefit, to advance education, to encourage and support dissemination of research and technical information in the area of environmental processes.

Liverpool, Lancashire, United Kingdom

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Handling of Highly-Moisture Sensitive Components - An Analysis of Low-Humidity Containment and Baking Schedules

Sep 12, 2022 | R. L. Shook and J. P. Goodelle

Unique component handling issues can arise when an assembly factory uses highly-moisture sensitive surface mount devices (SMDs). This work describes how the distribution of moisture within the molded plastic body of a SMD is an important variable for survivability. JEDEC/IPC [1] moisture level rated packages classified as Levels 4-5a are shown to require additional handling constraints beyond the typical out-of-bag exposure time tracking. Nitrogen or desiccated cabinet containment is shown as a safe and effective means for long-term storage provided the effects of prior out-of-bag exposure conditions are taken into account. Moisture diffusion analyses coupled with experimental verification studies show that time in storage is as important a variable as floor-life exposure for highly-moisture sensitive devices. Improvements in floor-life survivability can be obtained by a handling procedure that includes cyclic storage in low humidity containment. SMDs that have exceeded their floor-life limits are analyzed for proper baking schedules. Optimized baking schedules can be adopted depending on a knowledge of the exposure conditions and the moisture sensitivity level of the device....

Publisher: Alcatel-Lucent

Alcatel-Lucent

Often referred to as "The Idea Factory" or "The Crown Jewel," Nokia Bell Labs has an unparalleled history of innovation output. Researchers at Nokia Bell Labs have been behind or involved in nearly every critical technological mil

New Providence, New Jersey, USA

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Innovative process for sealing contours protects sensitive components

Sep 08, 2022 | Scheugenpflug

Liquid seals in the automotive industry have to meet high functional quality standards and have to be applied in the shortest possible time in view of the high volume of workpieces. This market environment gives rise to innovations that guarantee maximum speed and quality from initial design to final results....

Publisher: Scheugenpflug Inc.

Scheugenpflug Inc.

Specializes in automated metering & dispensing solutions, supplier of resin metering systems, global expert in production and process automation, vacuum dispensing production systems, and systems for dispensing of abrasive media.

Kennesaw, Georgia, USA

Manufacturer

Stencil Cleaning Handbook

Aug 17, 2022 | Mike Konrad

Back in the "good old days," stencil cleaning was effortless and effective. CFC-based solvents were sprayed or wiped onto a stencil with apertures hundreds of times larger than modern-day components. The stencil cleaning process was not considered a value-added procedure; instead it was the cleaning of a production tool. How times have changed. The late-1980s ushered in the end of most of the popular solvents, and the machines that consumed them. Assemblers turned to alternative cleaning agents, including IPAs and other solvents....

Publisher: Aqueous Technologies Corporation

Aqueous Technologies Corporation

Manufacturer of automated defluxing/cleaning equipment, cleanliness testing equipment, and stencil cleaning equipment.

Corona,

Manufacturer

Techniques for Selective Soldering High Thermal Mass and Fine-Pitch Components

Aug 08, 2022 | Reid Henry

Selective soldering has evolved to become a standard production process within the electronics assembly industry, and now accommodates a wide variety of through-hole component formats in numerous applications. Most through-hole components can be easily soldered with the selective soldering process without difficulty however some types of challenging components require additional attention to ensure that optimum quality is maintained. Several high thermal mass components can place demands on the selective soldering process, while the use of specialized solder fixtures, or solder pallets, often places additional thermal demand on the preheating process. Fine-pitch through-hole components and connectors place a different set of demands on the selective soldering process and typically require special attention to lead projection and traverse speed to minimize bridging between adjacent pins. Dual in-line memory module (DIMM) connectors, compact peripheral component interface (cPCI) connectors, coax connectors and other high thermal mass components as well as fine-pitch microconnectors, can present challenges when soldered into backplanes or multilayer printed circuit board assemblies. Adding to this challenge, compact peripheral component interface connectors can present additional solderability issues because of their beryllium copper base metal pins. Key Terms: Selective soldering, drop-jet fluxing, sustained preheating, flux migration, adjacent clearance, lead-to-hole aspect ratio, lead projection, thermal reliefs, gold embrittlement, solderability testing....

Publisher: Hentec Industries, Inc. (RPS Automation)

Hentec Industries, Inc. (RPS Automation)

Hentec Industries, Inc. designs and manufacturers high quality precision machines for use in selective soldering, lead tinning, and solderability testing applications.

Newman Lake, Washington, USA

Consultant / Service Provider, Manufacturer

How to optimize dispensing processes

Aug 02, 2022 | Scheugenpflug

Effective and reliable dispensing is based primarily on process technology that has been perfectly set up for the specific project. Anyone tasked with planning dispensing systems and responsible for the processes should know the principles and key factors involved so that the dispensing processes can be successfully implemented in cooperation with system and material partners. This White Paper explains the relevant aspects of process technology and provides valuable practical tips....

Publisher: Scheugenpflug Inc.

Scheugenpflug Inc.

Specializes in automated metering & dispensing solutions, supplier of resin metering systems, global expert in production and process automation, vacuum dispensing production systems, and systems for dispensing of abrasive media.

Kennesaw, Georgia, USA

Manufacturer

Resource-efficient adhesion and potting technologies in electronics manufacturing

Aug 02, 2022 | Scheugenpflug

Saving resources in electronics manufacturing is not an end in itself. It is closely linked with reducing costs and gaining a competitive advantage. However, innovative adhesion and potting technologies in combination with highly functional adhesives and potting media make a significant contribution to the ideal union between economic performance and a reduced ecological footprint....

Publisher: Scheugenpflug Inc.

Scheugenpflug Inc.

Specializes in automated metering & dispensing solutions, supplier of resin metering systems, global expert in production and process automation, vacuum dispensing production systems, and systems for dispensing of abrasive media.

Kennesaw, Georgia, USA

Manufacturer

Fairstock hk limited: Authenticity Tests Electronic Components pdf

Jul 22, 2022 | Fairstock hk limited

Authenticity Tests Electronic Components...

Publisher: Fairstock hk limited

Fairstock hk limited

Fairstock hk limited is a leading certified stocking distributor and outsource procurement services provider specializing in the supply and material management of commercial and military level electronic components for OEMs.

Hong Kong,

Distributor, Manufacturer

How to choose printing squeegees and Pressure details affect printing solder paste result

Jul 11, 2022 | Fiona Zhang

The change of squeegee pressure has a significant impact on printing. Too small pressure will make the solder paste unable to effectively reach the bottom of the stencil opening and not be well deposited on the pad. Too much pressure will cause tin The paste is printed too thin and can even damage the stencil....

Publisher: Shenzhen FS equipment CO.,LTD

Shenzhen FS equipment CO.,LTD

FS Equip Co.,Ltd is a trading company for SMT industrial in China,Own HK subsidiary,with more than 16 years experience and a professional team.FS mainly supply placement SMT&TH machines(axial-radial) and spare parts consumables.

Shenzhen, China

Manufacturer

INTELLI-Pro -- The Future of Automated Optical Inspection

Jun 27, 2022 | Mirtec Corporation

In today's Electronics Manufacturing Industry, standards for defect and quality control are stricter than ever due to advancements of electronic products and increasing safety and environmental regulations. Electronics Manufacturers are forced to maximize their production efficiency by implementing lean manufacturing initiatives and optimizing production processes. With this in mind, manufacturers are relying upon Automated Optical Inspection (AOI) equipment to streamline the manufacturing process and provide real time root cause analysis of manufacturing defects. The objective is to increase profitability by improving production yields and reducing costly rework....

Publisher: MIRTEC Corp

MIRTEC Corp

MIRTEC has earned a solid reputation as one of the most Progressive and Dynamic Suppliers of Automated SMT Inspection Equipment to the Electronics Manufacturing Industry.

Oxford, Connecticut, USA

Manufacturer

A Review and Analysis of Automatic Optical Inspection and Quality Monitoring Methods in Electronics Industry

Jun 27, 2022 | Abd Al Rahman M. Abu Ebayyeh, Alireza Mousavi,

Electronics industry is one of the fastest evolving, innovative, and most competitive industries. In order to meet the high consumption demands on electronics components, quality standards of the products must be well-maintained. Automatic optical inspection (AOI) is one of the non-destructive techniques used in quality inspection of various products. This technique is considered robust and can replace human inspectors who are subjected to dull and fatigue in performing inspection tasks. A fully automated optical inspection system consists of hardware and software setups. Hardware setup include image sensor and illumination settings and is responsible to acquire the digital image, while the software part implements an inspection algorithm to extract the features of the acquired images and classify them into defected and non-defected based on the user requirements. A sorting mechanism can be used to separate the defective products from the good ones. This article provides a comprehensive review of the various AOI systems used in electronics, micro-electronics, and opto-electronics industries. In this review the defects of the commonly inspected electronic components, such as semiconductor wafers, flat panel displays, printed circuit boards and light emitting diodes, are first explained. Hardware setups used in acquiring images are then discussed in terms of the camera and lighting source selection and configuration. The inspection algorithms used for detecting the defects in the electronic components are discussed in terms of the preprocessing, feature extraction and classification tools used for this purpose. Recent articles that used deep learning algorithms are also reviewed. The article concludes by highlighting the current trends and possible future research directions....

Publisher: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)

IEEE is the world's largest professional association dedicated to advancing technological innovation and excellence for the benefit of humanity.

Piscataway, New Jersey, USA

Association / Non-Profit

FICS-PCB: A Multi-Modal Image Dataset for Automated Printed Circuit Board Visual Inspection

Jun 24, 2022 | Hangwei Lu, Dhwani Mehta, Olivia Paradis, Navid Asadizanjani, Mark Tehranipoor, and Damon L. Woodard

Over the years, computer vision and machine learning disciplines have considerably advanced the field of automated visual inspection for Printed Circuit Board (PCB-AVI) assurance. However, in practice, the capabilities and limitations of these advancements remain unknown because there are few publicly accessible datasets for PCB visual inspection and even fewer that contain images that simulate realistic application scenarios. To address this need, we propose a publicly available dataset, “FICS-PCB”1, to facilitate the development of robust methods for PCB-AVI. The proposed dataset includes challenging cases from three variable aspects: illumination, image scale, and image sensor. This dataset consists of 9,912 images of 31 PCB samples and contains 77,347 annotated components. This paper reviews the existing datasets and methodologies used for PCBAVI, discusses challenges, describes the proposed dataset, and presents baseline performances using feature engineering and deep learning methods for PCB component classification.

...

Publisher: University of Florida

University of Florida

The University of Florida is a public land-grant research university in Gainesville, Florida. It is a senior member of the State University System of Florida, traces its origins to 1853, and has operated continuously on its ...

Gainsville, Florida, USA

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

AIM Tech Tip Article: Pretty Slick

Jun 20, 2022 | Timothy O'Ne i l l

We've been doing a lot of print testing in our lab. In our first set of published results, "The Impact of Reduced Solder Alloy Powder Size on Solder Paste Print Performance1" from IPC/APEX 2016, we revealed a hierarchy of input variables to maximize solder paste transfer efficiency and minimize variation. In that study, we used a fully-optioned stencil as part of the equipment set. In order to tease out the data we were looking for, we could not lose critical information to the noise of stencil-induced variations....

Publisher: AIM Solder

AIM Solder

AIM is a leading global manufacturer of tin-lead and lead-free solder assembly materials for the electronics industry.

Montreal, Quebec, Canada

Manufacturer

Introduction to Automated Test Fixtures

May 02, 2022 | Circuit Check

Testing of electronic assemblies involves three elements: the device under test, test equipment, and fixturing to make the connections between them. The challenge for a test engineer building a sophisticated test system is that instrumentation may need to measure thousands of test points through the mechanical interconnect....

Publisher: Circuit Check, Inc.

Circuit Check, Inc.

Engineering and fabrication leader of in-circuit and functional test fixtures for boards,modules and assembled products. Turnkey test programming services for GR228x platform,focusing on the technology to increase testability,dec

Maple Grove, Minnesota, USA

Consultant / Service Provider, Manufacturer

Welding method of SMT chip resistors and capacitors

Apr 29, 2022 | Wendy

Tools: soldering iron, soldering iron stand, wet sponge, tweezers, rosin, solder, absorbent cotton, 95% alcohol, chip resistors, capacitors, circuit boards, 220V power supply..... http://www.leadersmt.com/gen2/1028113523/?mod=file&col_key=download...

Publisher: Leaderway Industrial Co.,Ltd

Leaderway Industrial Co.,Ltd

Our company deals in the following products: Brand: Fuji, Juki, Panasonic, Yamaha, Samsung, Siemens, Sony, Universal, etc. SMT Accessories:Nozzle, feeder, filter, belt, sensor, cylinder, valve, feeder parts, bearing, etc.

ShenZhen,GuangDong, China

Manufacturer

SMT MLCC&SMD resistance parameters and detailed explanation

Apr 28, 2022 | Wendy

I. Chip capacitors(MLCC) The full name of chip capacitors: multilayer (multilayer, laminated) chip ceramic capacitors, also known as chip capacitors, chip capacitance....

Publisher: Leaderway Industrial Co.,Ltd

Leaderway Industrial Co.,Ltd

Our company deals in the following products: Brand: Fuji, Juki, Panasonic, Yamaha, Samsung, Siemens, Sony, Universal, etc. SMT Accessories:Nozzle, feeder, filter, belt, sensor, cylinder, valve, feeder parts, bearing, etc.

ShenZhen,GuangDong, China

Manufacturer

SMT chip capacitor resistor storage and processing method

Apr 27, 2022 | Wendy

SMD capacitors and resistors have small sizes and many models. Some manufacturers buy a lot of products and do not use them up in time. The problem of storage is always a headache. So how should chip capacitors and resistors be stored? There are also precautions when using chip capacitors. Please see the following information and hope it will help you....

Publisher: Leaderway Industrial Co.,Ltd

Leaderway Industrial Co.,Ltd

Our company deals in the following products: Brand: Fuji, Juki, Panasonic, Yamaha, Samsung, Siemens, Sony, Universal, etc. SMT Accessories:Nozzle, feeder, filter, belt, sensor, cylinder, valve, feeder parts, bearing, etc.

ShenZhen,GuangDong, China

Manufacturer

The Effects of Temperature and Solute Diffusion on Volume Change in Sn-Bi Solder Alloys

Apr 26, 2022 | Qichao Hao, Xin F. Tan , Qinfen Gu, Keith Sweatman, Stuart D. Mcdonald, and Kazuhiro Nogita1

The different rates of thermal expansion of the many materials that make up an electronic assembly combined with temperature fluctuations are the driver of the thermal fatigue failure of solder joints. A characteristic of the Sn-Bi system, which provided the basis for many of the low process temperature solder alloys that the electronics industry is now adopting, is the very temperature-sensitive solubility of Bi and Sn in the other phase. In this study, in situ synchrotron powder x-ray diffraction was used to characterize the temperature dependence of the lattice parameters of the bSn and Bi phases in Sn-57wt%Bi and Sn-37wt%Bi. The effects of temperature and solute were separated by comparing with the data from pure bSn and pure Bi and verified using density functional theory calculations. Furthermore, the coefficients of thermal expansion of bSn and during heating were also derived to reveal the thermal expansion behavior.

...

Publisher: University of Queensland

University of Queensland

UQ ranks in the top 50 as measured by the Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers for World Universities. The University also ranks 46 in the QS World University Rankings, 42 in the US News Best Global Universities Rankings, ...

Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

SMT chip capacitor naming rules and methods

Apr 26, 2022 | Wendy

The naming of the chip capacitor: The parameters included in the name of the chip capacitor include the size of the chip capacitor, the material used for this chip capacitor, the required accuracy, the required voltage, the required capacity, the requirements of the terminal and packaging requirements. Generally, the parameters to be provided for ordering a chip capacitor should be the size, the required accuracy, the voltage requirement, the capacity value, and the required brand....

Publisher: Leaderway Industrial Co.,Ltd

Leaderway Industrial Co.,Ltd

Our company deals in the following products: Brand: Fuji, Juki, Panasonic, Yamaha, Samsung, Siemens, Sony, Universal, etc. SMT Accessories:Nozzle, feeder, filter, belt, sensor, cylinder, valve, feeder parts, bearing, etc.

ShenZhen,GuangDong, China

Manufacturer

Scalable Reliability for Consumer Electronics

Apr 19, 2022 | Mallory McGuinness

Learn how next-generation conformal coatings can add proven durability to consumer electronics without adding bulk or weight. Detailed data regarding specific battery applications including hearables, wearables, and smart home....

Publisher: HZO, Inc.

HZO, Inc.

HZO provides high-reliability Parylene conformal coatings with scalable, cost-efficient, proprietary processes. Meet specifications with RoHS, REACH, and Prop 65-compliant coatings at 50% thinness of other conformal coating types.

Morrisville, North Carolina, USA

Consultant / Service Provider

Protective Coatings for Non-Invasive Medical Devices for Real-World Reliability

Apr 19, 2022 | Mallory McGuinness

An increasing number of consumers rely on non-invasive, connected medical products exposed to variable environments to manage health conditions, and it is up to product design teams to design functional devices and make them reliable....

Publisher: HZO, Inc.

HZO, Inc.

HZO provides high-reliability Parylene conformal coatings with scalable, cost-efficient, proprietary processes. Meet specifications with RoHS, REACH, and Prop 65-compliant coatings at 50% thinness of other conformal coating types.

Morrisville, North Carolina, USA

Consultant / Service Provider

How to Resolve Smart Meter Reliability Issues with Parylene Conformal Coating

Apr 19, 2022 | Mallory McGuinness

Smart water meters provide promising capabilities, but lifetime cost factors can be a hurdle for their implementation. A single service call from a technician can exceed the total price of the smart water meter, making reliability over the entire product lifetime one of the highest design priorities. Parylene conformal coating is an ideal solution to reliability concerns, including corrosion. It also addresses issues such as sustainability and miniaturization, providing truly conformal protection that withstands the lifecycle of smart water meters....

Publisher: HZO, Inc.

HZO, Inc.

HZO provides high-reliability Parylene conformal coatings with scalable, cost-efficient, proprietary processes. Meet specifications with RoHS, REACH, and Prop 65-compliant coatings at 50% thinness of other conformal coating types.

Morrisville, North Carolina, USA

Consultant / Service Provider

iNEMI Webinar 07.07.2021 - PCB Cleaning

Apr 11, 2022 | Stefan Strixner

Agenda  Why Cleaning of electronic assemblies? - Standards - Reliability - Subsequent processes  Cleaning processes - Cleaning chemicals - Cleaning machines  Cleaning process monitoring - Bath monitoring - Result monitoring  Process cost...

Publisher: ZESTRON Americas

ZESTRON Americas

The globally leading provider of high precision cleaning products, services and training solutions in the electronics and semiconductor manufacturing industries.

Manassas, Virginia, USA

Consultant / Service Provider, Manufacturer, Training Provider

The Effect Of Vacuum Reflow Processing On Solder Joint Voiding And Thermal Fatigue Reliability

Apr 06, 2022 | Richard Coyle, Dave Hillman, Michael Barnes, David Heller, Charmaine Johnson, Richard Popowich, Richard Parker, Keith Howell, Joerg Trodler, Adam Murling

A test program was developed to evaluate the effectiveness of vacuum reflow processing on solder joint voiding and subsequent thermal cycling performance. Area array package test vehicles were assembled using conventional reflow processing and a solder paste that generated substantial void content in the solder joints. Half of the population of test vehicles then were re-processed (reflowed) using vacuum reflow. Transmission x-ray inspection showed a significant reduction in solder voiding after vacuum processing. The solder attachment reliability of the conventional and vacuum reflowed test vehicles was characterized and compared using two different accelerated thermal cycling profiles. The thermal cycling results are discussed in terms of the general impact of voiding on solder thermal fatigue reliability, results from the open literature, and the evolving industry standards for solder voiding. Recommendations are made for further work based on other void reduction methods and additional reliability studies.

...

Publisher: Nokia Bell Labs

Nokia Bell Labs

inspired by the past, energized by the future For nearly 100 years, we've been inventing the future of technology, from the early days of the Bell Telephone System to the latest 5G standards. We constantly improve, innovate and ..

Murray Hill, New Jersey, USA

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Coating Thickness Measurement of Thin Gold and Palladium Coatings on Printed Circuit Boards using X-Ray Fluorescence

Mar 21, 2022 | Michael Haller, Volker Robiger, Simone Dill

The purpose of this paper is to compare the performance of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) instruments with different detector systems (proportional counter, positive intrinsic negative and Si drift detectors) for measuring thin Au and Pd coatings on printed circuit boards and to investigate different ways of background treatment. It also aims to provide and certify suitable reference materials which are similar to samples used in production. Design/methodology/approach - XRF measurements were performed with different instruments and detector types. The quantification of the reference materials is based on XRF, gravimetric analysis and Rutherford backscattering (RBS). 

...

Publisher: Fischer Technology

Fischer Technology

Today, measurement and analysis instruments from FISCHER are used around the world in diverse sectors - wherever precision, reliability and easy operation are required. We find out how we can provide our customers with the best...

Windsor, Connecticut, USA

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Analysis of Circuit Boards and Electrical Connectors for RoHS/WEEE Regulated Elements Using XRF

Mar 21, 2022 | John E. Martin, Lea L. Anderson‐Smith, Gloria Adjei‐Bekoe

Manufacturers and suppliers of electronic and electrical products to member states within the EU must comply with RoHS (Restriction of Hazardous Substances) and WEEE (Waste from Electrical and Electronic Equipment) regulations. Six materials are restricted under these directives: lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), hexavalent chromium (Cr VI), polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE). Maximum allowable concentrations of these materials are 1000ppm, with the exception of cadmium, which is restricted to a maximum of 100ppm....

Publisher: SPEX SamplePrep

SPEX SamplePrep

For over 65 years SPEX® SamplePrep has been the leading sample preparation solutions provider to analytical scientists worldwide. Our range of high performance and easy to use mill, grinders, homogenizers, presses and fusion flux

Metuchen, New Jersey, USA

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Non-Destructive Characterization of Mechanically Processed Waste Printed Circuit Boards: X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis

Mar 21, 2022 | Akira Otsuki, Pedro Pereira Gonçalves, Christian Stieghorst and Zsolt Révay

This work aimed to characterize the deportment/concentration and liberation/association of the metals and light elements within mechanically processed waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) that hold the complex and heterogeneous structure and distribution of different material components. Waste PCBs passed through a series of mechanical processing (i.e., comminution and sieving) for metal recovery and were then characterized without further destroying the particles in order to capture their heterogeneity. The characterizations were performed in a laboratory and large-scale neutron facility.

...

Publisher: Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Géologie

Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Géologie

The National School of Geology is the French Grande Ecole of reference in geosciences. Public school under the Ministry of Higher Education, Research and Innovation, it trains in 3 years engineers-geologists, experts in ...

Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy,

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Smart Determination of Gold Content in PCBs ofWaste Mobile Phones by Coupling of XRF and AAS Techniques

Mar 21, 2022 | Nicolò Maria Ippolito, Gianmaria Belardi, Valentina Innocenzi, Franco Medici , Loris Pietrelli and Luigi Piga

Quantitative determination of most economic valuable metals in waste is the first fundamental operation of evaluating the feasibility of recycling processes. Field-portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometers (FPXRFs) represent a more practical, efficient, and economic tool in determining the elemental composition of samples with respect to conventional analytical techniques, such as atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP). In this paper, quick and smart determination of gold content in printed circuit boards (PCBs) of waste mobile phones was studied. The aim of the research was to combine the practicality of FPXRFs with the reliability of quantitative spectrometry analysis and evaluate the error between the two techniques....

Publisher: University of L'Aquila

University of L'Aquila

The University of L'Aquila is a public research university located in L'Aquila, central Italy. It was founded in 1964 and is organized in nine departments. The university presents a scientific-technological character ...

L'Aquila,

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

XRF Technology In The Field - XRF Technology For Non-Scientists

Mar 21, 2022 | Thermo Fisher Scientific

X-ray fluorescence (XRF): a non-destructive analytical technique used to determine the chemical composition of materials XRF occurs when a fluorescent (or secondary) X-ray is emitted from a sample that is being excited by a primary X-ray source. Because this fluorescence is unique to the elemental composition of the sample, XRF is an excellent technology for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the material composition. XRF spectrometry has a broad range of applications in industry, which we will discuss later in this ebook....

Publisher: Thermo Fisher Scientific

Thermo Fisher Scientific

Thermo Fisher Scientific is an American provisioner of scientific instrumentation, reagents and consumables, and software and services to healthcare, life science, and other laboratories in academia, government, and industry.

Sunnyvale, California, USA

Other

Understanding Creep Corrosion Field Fails

Mar 16, 2022 | Phil Isaacs, Jing Zhang & Terry Munson

Dendrites, Electrochemical Migration (ECM) and parasitic leakage, are usually caused by process related contamination. For example, excess flux, poor handling, extraneous solder, fibers, to name a few. One does not normally relate these fails with environmental causes. However, creep corrosion is a mechanism by which electronic products fail in application, primarily related to sulfur pollution present in the air.1 The sulfur reacts with exposed silver, and to a lesser extent, exposed copper. This paper will explore various aspects of the creep corrosion chemical reaction...

Publisher: Foresite Inc.

Foresite Inc.

Foresite is a process consulting house and analytial laboratory dedicated to solving product reliability challenges for electronics manufacturers.

Kokomo, Indiana, USA

Consultant / Service Provider, Manufacturer

Creep Corrosion Of Electronic Assemblies In Harsh Environments

Mar 16, 2022 | Petri Savolainen and Randy Schueller

Creep corrosion occurs in electronics assemblies and it is reminiscent to electromigration but does not require electrical field to drive the reaction. Corrosive elements and moisture must be present for creep corrosion to occur. Sulfur is the most prominent element to cause creep corrosion in environments such as paper mills, rubber manufacturing, mining, cement manufacturing, waste water treatment etc., also including companies and locations nearby such industries. The main part of printed circuit board assembly (PCBA) to be affected is the PCB surface finish. Especially immersion silver is prone to creep corrosion, but it sometimes occurs in NiPd (lead frames), and to a lesser extent in ENIG and OSP surface finishes. As the use of immersion silver is increasing as PCB surface finish and electronics are more and more used in harsh environments, creep corrosion is a growing risk. In this paper we will present the driving forces and mechanisms as well as suitable tests and mitigation strategies against creep corrosion...

Publisher: DfR Solutions

DfR Solutions

DfR Solutions has world-renowned expertise in applying the science of Reliability Physics to electrical and electronics technologies, and is a leading provider of quality, reliability, and durability (QRD) research and consulting for the electronics industry.

College Park, Maryland, USA

Consultant / Service Provider

Creep Corrosion On Lead-Free Printed Circuit Boards In High Sulfur Environments

Mar 16, 2022 | Randy Schueller

The material and process changes required to eliminate lead from electronics as required by Restriction of Hazardous Substance (RoHS) legislation was likely to result in new quality and reliability issues. The industry had over 50 years experience with tin-lead solders. Changing to different solder alloys, fluxes, termination plating materials, PCB surface finishes and soldering temperatures in a span of 1-2 years was a high risk undertaking. Although many potential issues were uncovered and resolved, one new failure mechanism was not foreseen by the industry. Immersion silver (ImAg) was widely adopted to replace hot air solder level (HASL) as the surface finish on PCBs. ImAg was known to tarnish when exposed to sulfur, but it was a surprise to find that it suffers extensive creep corrosion when the sulfur and humidity levels are high enough. Failures can occur in as little as a few weeks in industries such as rubber manufacturing, water treatment, paper mills or fertilizer production, among others. This paper uncovers the root cause of the creep corrosion mechanism and shows how to eliminate it. Corrosive environments were measured and the results of field testing of various surface finishes in these environments is shared. Also presented are some more effective corrosion test methods currently under development....

Publisher: Dell Inc

Dell Inc

Dell is an American company that develops, sells, repairs, and supports computers and related products and services, and is owned by its parent company of Dell Technologies.

Round Rock, Texas, USA

Manufacturer

A Wearable Medical Sensor for Provisional Healthcare

Mar 09, 2022 | Amir Javadpour and HamidrezaMemarzadeh-Tehran

This paper presents the design and realization of a context-aware wireless health monitoring system for recording the heartbeat (HR) and respiration (RR) rate based on an indirect measurement approach. The system consists of a contact-less medical sensor as well as a communication infrastructure for handling the transmission and reception of the measured results. The contact-less sensor includes a highly sensitive tri-axial accelerometer, an accurate temperature and air pressure sensor that enable one to inspect patients' health condition by continuously monitoring of two critical signs related to the cardiorespiratory system....

Publisher: University of Tehran

University of Tehran

The University of Tehran is the oldest modern university located in Tehran, Iran. Based on its historical, socio-cultural, and political pedigree, as well as its research and teaching profile, UT has been nicknamed "The Mother Uni

Tehran, Iran

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Utilising Commercially Fabricated Printed Circuit Boards as an Electrochemical Biosensing Platform

Mar 09, 2022 | Uroš Zupancic, Joshua Rainbow , Pedro Estrela and Despina Moschou

Printed circuit boards (PCBs) offer a promising platform for the development of electronicsassisted biomedical diagnostic sensors and microsystems. The long-standing industrial basis offers distinctive advantages for cost-effective, reproducible, and easily integrated sample-in-answer-out diagnostic microsystems. Nonetheless, the commercial techniques used in the fabrication of PCBs produce various contaminants potentially degrading severely their stability and repeatability in electrochemical sensing applications. Herein, we analyse for the first time such critical technological considerations, allowing the exploitation of commercial PCB platforms as reliable electrochemical sensing platforms....

Publisher: University of Bath

University of Bath

The University of Bath is a public research university located in Bath, Somerset, United Kingdom. It received its royal charter in 1966, along with a number of other institutions following the Robbins Report.

Bath, United Kingdom

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

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